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👩‍🎓 | Piano performance generated by "ear copy AI", Kyoto University succeeded at a level close to practical use


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Music score generation with "ear copy AI" for piano performance, Kyoto University succeeds at a level close to practical use

 
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In the future, it is expected to lead to research and development for practical use, application to musicology research and music education, and scientific understanding of intelligence that supports culture.
 

A research group led by Assistant Professor Eita Nakamura of Kyoto University has developed a technology to automatically generate musical scores from piano performance audio data ... → Continue reading

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Music education

Music education(Educational education,English: music education) IsMusicis connected withEducational activities・ A general term for contents. "MusicAbout itselfEducation"And" general educational activities through music ".There is "educational music" as a synonym, and the word is generallyDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularRefers to music education in.

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Music education can be classified as follows according to the place where it is conducted.

Music education at school

Music education at school is conducted in class and other areas (special activities, etc.).

JapaneseDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAtMusic OfLesson TheSimultaneous classMostly done in.Composition,Performance(Instrumental music-Vocal musicEtc.)PerformanceAs a result, people are allowed to experience chorus, ensemble, improvisation, etc.Also,Listening to MusicIs treated in class.Music-MusicologyRelated knowledge such as is also taken up in a timely manner along with expression and appreciation.

Kindergarten-NurseryAnd so onRhythmicClasses that incorporate such thingsChildcareMay be done.

As a special activity, etc., as a school event in the schoolChorus competitionMany schools holdOff-campus learning,sports festivalAs a whole school eventChildren-studentOften everyone participates.Also,chorusAnd instrumental ensembleBrass bandSuch,Club activities-Extracurricular activitiesMusic education is also carried out.

Music education at home and in society

Musical instrumentAs shown in the ownership rate of[1],family EducationSpecialized education in music is also popular.For childrenピ ア ノ-Electronic organThere are many places where I take private lessons.

Also, I finished school educationadultAgainst the music classCulture centerSuch,Lifelong learningThere are many places for music education as[2].

Professional education in music

In addition, of musicProfessional educationEducational institutions that doMusic high school, MusicVocational school-Various schools,University-graduate School OfFaculty of Music-SubjectThere are many.Professional about music講義-exerciseIn addition,Practical skill OfIndividualized instructionIs often done.

History

World music education

Traditional Japanese music

School music education after the Meiji era

Established in 1872 (Meiji 5)School systemSo, at the elementary schoolSing"(Shoka), a subject called" Kanraku "was set up in junior high school.This is the beginning of music education in Japanese school education.However, it was said that "for the time being, it will be cultivated", and the content was described in 1878 (Meiji 11).Shuji IzawaTanegarou MegadaBegan to be consolidated after submitting a written statement regarding music.In this, there is an opinion that the music at that time should be denied as a drag on the social division system (including popular music) and that new national music should be promoted.[3].. 1879 (Meiji 12), by the governmentMusic interrogationWas opened, the import of Western music was promoted, and teaching materials were prepared."Shoka" as a subject became compulsory in 1907, when elementary school became compulsory education for six years.

In 1941 (Showa 16)National School OrdinanceWas promulgated, and "Singing Song" was changed to "Entertainment musicThe name was changed.After World War II, in 1947 (Showa 22)Course of StudyThe subject name was officially changed to "music", and the content is centered on singing, instrumental music, creation, and appreciation as it is today.Regarding vocalization and singing, since the course of study was first announced, guidance was given by "moving singing method" and "voice vocalization" based on the research results at the time of the draft. In the course of study announced in 1998, the notation was revised to teach "natural and reasonable voice" in elementary school and "vocalization according to the song type" in junior high school.

Professional education in music

Theory and practice

Music isPerformanceBecause it is a kind of, we also deal with how to develop expression in music education.Therefore, I am studying how to reconsider the expression itself and how to utilize it in teaching.Typical research fields are as follows.

Music education research from philosophy

Music aestheticsAlso includes the approach from.John Dewey,Susanne KatherinaEtc. may be studied[4].

Music Education Research from Psychology

DevelopmentalMusic psychology[5]In addition,Emotion(Emotion) ・sentimentSignificance of (Sentiment)[6]Research is being conducted to consider and promote the talent of music and music.Also,Psychoacoustics-BiologyBased on身体-Hearing-Perception OfdevelopmentResearch oncreate[7]Includes research on the process and its development[8].

Music education research from history

Research that summarizes ideas that lead to practice from the transition of music education systems in each country.

Music education research from sociology

It is studied when thinking about sharing the joy of learning music.Ferdinand TenniesAdvocated byGemine Shaft and Gezel ShaftMay also be touched[9].

Simultaneous guidance and individual guidance

Specific practice

As for music education at school,Fushizukuri music educationand so on.Besides this, in a broad senseCreation-CompositionResearch on education is progressing in practice[10].

Also, as a specialized education,Suzuki method,Berklee methodAnd so on.

Task

Issues related to teacher training

in JapanTeacher licenseWhen you getEducation Staff License Act Enforcement RegulationsBased on Article XNUMX, it is necessary to take more than the specified number of credits in courses that include the following contents.

  • Solfege
  • Vocal music(Including chorus and traditional Japanese singing.)
  • Instrumental music(Including ensemble and accompaniment and Japanese musical instruments.)
  • Conducting method
  • Music theory,Composition method(Including arrangement method) andMusic history(Including traditional Japanese music and music of various ethnic groups)
  • Music education(Educational education,British: Pedagogy of Music): In a narrow sense, it refers to the research field of "music education" that targets human behavior.In a broad sense, research to improve music education, that is, the system and history surrounding music education, the environment, the content, teaching materials, and methods of music education, the action by the subject (teacher) of the act, and the object of the act (children) ) Refers to the entire research field that pursues the recognition process.

MusicNot limited to this, the number of teachers who specialize in practical subjects is small, and even if they are hired, they are often treated as instructors due to the number of classes they are in charge of.Even if you study music professionally at university, employment is often unstable.

Elimination of physicality

Education in modern Western Europe is "Mind-body dualismThere was a tendency to downplay the body based on.In particular, music education has evolved by emphasizing the uniqueness and independence of music and separating elements that were thought to be unrelated to music, such as physical elements.Music education in Japan todayEmotional educationIs considered part of.

In this kind of disrespectful music education, "moving your body freely to the music"rhythmI don't have the basics to express my feelings with my body[11].Sonobe SaburoOpposes the concept of "emotion" to "emotion" and repeatedly criticizes emotional music education.Sonobe pointed out the two aspects of "emotion", which is "naturally possessed by humans" and "biological ability", and "emotion", which is developed by culture on that foundation. He insists that more instinctive emotions should be emphasized in music education during the period.

Music educator

Japan

Tomojiro Ikeuchi,Shuji Izawa,Akira Ifukube,Teiichi Okano,Katsuo,Nobuyoshi Kamiya,Shinichi Suzuki,Takehito Shimazu,Yasuko Tasumi,Koji Nagai,Kazu Norisugi,Yoshio Hasegawa,Hiroshi Yamamoto

Outside Japan

Adolf Jensen,Albert Leman,Alexander von Zemlinsky,Emile Jaques-Dalcroze,Karl Orff,Kodaly Zoltan,Cipriano de Rore,Charles Halle,Marie Schaefer

footnote

  1. ^ 1999National consumption surveyAccording to two or more generalsHouseholdThe ownership rate of music-related assets in Japan is 25.2% for pianos, 21.9% for electronic keyboard instruments, 77.9% for CD / MD radio cassettes, and 49.4% for stereo sets.For more information,Statistics Bureau Homepage Glossarychecking ...
  2. ^ Hirofumi Kimura "Various Places for Music Learning" Yasuharu Takahagi and Tsuneo Nakajima, "Lifelong Learning of Music", Chapter 82, pp91-2000, Tamagawa University Press, XNUMX
  3. ^ Toshiko Kobayashi "Learn from the history of music education" (Ritsuko Kojima & Atsuko Sawada 1998, p. 234)
  4. ^ Ritsuko Kojima "Principle of Expression and Educational Significance" (Ritsuko Kojima & Atsuko Sawada 1998, pp. 1-17)
  5. ^ For example,Géza Révez, Research, etc. (Takekazu Soda 1975, pp. 67-99)
  6. ^ Takekazu Soda 1975, pp. 61-62.
  7. ^ Some researchers use the concept of "generation."Japan School Music Education Practical Society ed., "21st Century Music Curriculum Based on Generation", Tokyo Shoseki, 2006,Ritsuko Kojima, Yoko Matsuo, Sachiko Saito, Yoko Takahashi, Nobuaki Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato "Theory and Practice of Music Education Centered on the Generation of Music (Curriculum Development of the Music Department in the 21st Century-Part 3 New Curriculum Framework-)" "School Music Education Research: Bulletin of the Japan School Music Education Study Group" Volume 8, Japan School Music Education Practice Society, March 2004, 3, pp. 30-1, NOT 110006937910. See also.
  8. ^ Takekazu Soda 1975, pp. 57-67.
  9. ^ Fumishige Yamamoto 2006, pp. 96-106.
  10. ^ Maki Ishimura "Starting with Sound-Creative Music Therapy and Expression-" (Ritsuko Kojima & Atsuko Sawada 1998, pp. 21-36), Michiko Shimoide "Starting with Words" (Ritsuko Kojima & Atsuko Sawada 1998, pp. 37-55), etc.
  11. ^ Akihiro Takahashi "Music and Physicality" "Contemporary and Music", Tokyo Shoseki, 1991, ISBN 4487752604.pp. 175-186.

References / URL

  • Fumishige Yamamoto, "Thinking about Music Education in the Future: Prospects and Guidelines," Ongaku no Tomosha, 2006.ISBN 4276311845.
  • Takeyoshi Soda, "Music Education: The Keynote to the Establishment", Ongaku no Tomosha, 1975.ISBN 4276311047.
  • Ritsuko Kojima, Atsuko Sawada, "Education of Expression by Music: From Inheritance to Creation," Koyo Shobo, 1998.ISBN 4771009945.

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Research and Development

Research and Development(Kenkyu,English: Research and development,R & D) Is an activity to obtain a technological advantage by investigating a specific object, researching basic academic fields, searching for applied research according to the purpose, and testing technologies that will develop in the future. ..

in English20st centuryIt is a word that has been used since the beginning of, and there are many organizations, departments, and group names that use the abbreviation of R & D.

Overview

The concept of research was formed at the same time as the birth of science, and the relationship between research and development was recognized.Second World WarLater. (→#history

Research and development can be broadly divided into pure basic research to know the basic principles and properties, purpose basic research conducted for specific practical purposes, applied research to respond to specific requests, and to introduce new products. Divided into studies. (→#Classification

In recent years, industry, educational institutions, and public institutions have cooperatedIndustry-academia-government collaborationIs also being held. (→# Industry-academia-government collaboration

Many of the governmental organizations in Japan, which have research institutes, carry out research and development, play a pilot role in various industries, and collect and transmit information via the Internet.

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Research and development can be broadly divided into "pure basic research" for understanding basic principles and properties, "purpose basic research" conducted for specific practical purposes, "applied research" for answering specific requests, It is said that they will be divided into research to introduce new products.

There are also three types of "basic research," "applied research," and "development research."[1]In this case, "basic research" aims at accumulating technology as intellectual assets, and "applied research" aims at business promotion. "Development research" is defined as research that combines technologies developed in applied research.[1].

History

Since ancient times科学 OfknowledgeTo use as a toolAncient civilizationAlthough it has been recognized since the times, they were not systematic research and development.18st centuryToFrance OfRevolutionary governmentConfrontNational defenseEmbark on R&D as required abovecartridge,Flag signaltelegramHowever, this was not continued. this isModernFor up toEurope,AmericaMany inscientistIt is related to the fact that it was the mainstream for engineers to pursue their own research individually. HoweverGermany OfSiemens,Krupp,ZeissCompanygraduate SchoolAnd employ a large number of researchers for research and development,1870The National Institute of Science and Technology isWeights and measures OfstandardizationPrepared for Research and developmentWorld War IChanges a lot withGermanyFollowed by1915ToThe United KingdomAt Science and Industry Research Agency,1916ToAmericaThe National Research Council was established in.World War IAfter almost allDeveloped country Oflarge companyIs uniquegraduate SchoolAs a result of managing research and development by installingAutomobile,airplane,radioThe technology has developed epoch-making in such fields. AlsoSecond World WarLater, it will be seen that the distinction between the military field and the civil field, which had been the main one until then, becomes ambiguous.Cold WarDuring the period戦 争As a result of conducting research and development, thinking that it is an important matter that can influence the victory or defeat ofMilitary,aviation,Computer,SpaceIn the field of, the technical strength of American industry was greatly improved.

In the 1980sJapanAt the same time, the industry's industrial competitiveness has become conspicuous, and at the same time criticism that "basic research is free ride"JapanWas turned to[2].. Then in Japan1986Has experienced a reversal phenomenon in which R&D expenses exceed capital investment.[3][4]Also be treated. (However, when considering both domestic and overseas, the R&D cost/capital investment has not actually reversed and is approaching 1:1.[5]Also be treated. It is also considered that R&D expenses increased in Japan, many basic research institutes were established, and at the same time, self-sufficiency of research increased, inward thinking and closedness became stronger, and technical cooperation decreased.[6]The existence of "NIH syndrome" (Not Invented Here, the tendency not to consider things not found by us) has also been pointed out.[7].

By field

Company

R & D is especially important in the manufacturing industry[1]It is said that in modern times, companies can avoid price competition and set favorable prices by developing their own technologies and new products through R & D. R & D contributes to sales and profits, and it is said that R & D can give companies growth potential. "Source of growth potential" and "Engine of corporate growth"[8][9]May be described as.

Each company (especially the manufacturing industry) regards R & D as an important business that is directly linked to the future of the company, and invests in people and equipment with a view to the next few years (more than 10 years depending on the company / field). It is also called.Nowadays, with the development of the Internet, there is an appearance of searching for new research and development centered on Internet companies, and Yahoo !, Rakuten, etc. are establishing research institutes one after another.[10][11].

In companies, the R & D department is often called by names such as "laboratory," "research center," "development center," and "product development department."[1].

Since the duties of R&D are atypical, the organizational structure of R&D is a flexible “organic organizational structure”, that is, an organizational structure in which decentralization of authority is progressing without setting strict business rules. Is facing[12]It is said that bureaucratic organizations are not suitable.

It is said that the result of research and development in a company is usually recognized only when the product is put on the market and the money more than the invested money can be recovered.[13].

Therefore, in research and development in a company, requirements such as "product commercialization", "market acceptance", "product superior to other companies", etc. are required.[13]Also be treated. In other words, if these requirements are not met, we will not be able to commercialize or sell, and we will not be able to recover the investment.[13]It is.

At the R&D stage, the result does not exist as a tangible product and is often in an intangible state, so each company does not imitate other companies by registering patents for discoveries and ideas obtained through R&D. Sometimes protect[13].

朝鮮日報は2018年7月に日本企業247社による2018年の研究開発投資の総額が12兆4789億円となり、2017年に比べて4.5%増加したと報じた。その背景を「日本はアベノミクスによる円安で企業の収益が増加した」として韓国経済の低迷と比較している。更にアベノミクスで需要が高まった求人数に日本国内の労働者数が追いつかない人手不足のために人工知能(AI)やロボットを活用した自動化設備投資が増えたとして、「年間では1.1%成長は日本の潜在成長率(0.8%)を上回る」「成長に弾みがついた」と伝えている[14].

Administration

R&D in administration is conducted individually for each administrative department,Local industryThere are examples of subsidizing capital investment for new technological developments that companies and organizations that are operating are trying.

Of an independent administrative agencyNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) is highly likely to lead to industrializationBasic researchWe are seeking subsidizers to support the project, and NEDO has about 60 research and development items.NEDO open call for participants summary

Education

In the field of educationMinistry of educationIs supervised byR&D schoolWe have set up a new experimental education, changing lifestyles, efforts in cooperation with the actual conditions of the surrounding area, and analyzing and researching information obtained from the research and development school.Learning materials,Education methodIs under development.

Construction industry

In the construction fieldMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs supervised byArchitectural Institute,as well asCivil Engineering Research InstituteThe research institutes, including the ones, research, develop and develop matters that are difficult for private companies, and publicize and provide information on the accumulated results.

Joint R&D

To specifically support open innovation,Technical research associationThere is a system in place. The technical research union can enter the research and research expenses of the union as the research and research expenses of the members, and can utilize the R&D promotion tax system, so it is established as a particularly advantageous system for corporate finance. A drastic major amendment was made in the ordinary Diet session in 2009 for the first time in 48 years. In addition to being able to be established by two or more persons (three or more persons so far), a general meeting was no longer necessary, and the organization could be changed to a joint-stock company or a joint-stock company.

Industry-academia-government collaboration

Companies are about to marketKnow-howHowever, it is often financially difficult to continue investing in R&D over a long period of time.Educational institution(UniversityEtc.) can carry out research over a long period of time without considering profitability, but they often lack the know-how for marketization and commercialization. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, public institutions will start matching (matching) between companies and educational institutions.CooperationHas become popular.[12].

According to the "Fundamental Survey on University Ventures in 17" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the number of university-originated venture companies is 1503, and 7% of the companies that supply these venture products and services are companies.[15].. As for the breakdown of supply destinations, 57% are large companies and 16% are small and medium-sized venture companies.[16].

R&D as a occupation

In companies, occupations and positions named "R & D" or "R & D" may be set, and R & D is established as one profession.

However, in reality, the R&D department may be expected to have short-term profits, and thus the original meaning cannot always be retained.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d , "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration"Hidekazu system, February 2006.ISBN 978-4798013978 . p.202
  2. ^ Kiyonori Sakakibara and Masaharu Tsujimoto, June 2003 “Why the R&D Efficiency of Japanese Companies Decreases?” (Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research Institute Discussion Paper Series) p.6
  3. ^ Fumio Kodama, Paradigm of High-Tech Technology: System of Macro Technology Chuo-Koronsha, 1991, p.43
  4. ^ “Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?” p.2.
  5. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.4
  6. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.13
  7. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.16
  8. ^ Morbey, Reithner 1990, etc.
  9. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.6
  10. ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345869-2,00.htm
  11. ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345950,00.htm
  12. ^ a b "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.204
  13. ^ a b c d "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.207
  14. ^ "US and Japan to accelerate economic growth, South Korea to slow"".2018/8/1Browse.
  15. ^ "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.208
  16. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Survey Report on Growth Support for University-initiated Ventures"

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