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👶 | "Even if you like it, marriage is different!" What made me decide to get married as a single mother ...


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"Even if you like it, marriage is different!" What made me decide to get married as a single mother ...

 
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* Abortion will be enforced only if the conditions stipulated by the Maternal Health Act are met.
 

Marriage is something that you can't proceed with just your thoughts, even if you like each other.If it's a single mother, then the child and part ... → Continue reading

 Baby calendar

The Baby Calendar provides daily information on topics related to pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, childrearing, infertility, and information useful for daily life that supports pregnant women, pregnant women, mothers raising children, and dads. I will. It is full of information taught by professionals in the fields of pregnancy, childbirth and childcare, such as registered dietitians and midwives.


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Maternal protection law

Maternal protection law(Botaihogoho, law number is Law No. 23 of 156),Sterilizationas well as the AbortionAboutAbortionThe purpose is to protect the life and health of the mother by setting exceptions tolaw(Article 1 of the same law).1948(Showa23 years)May 7ToAnnounceWas done.

By this lawCriminal law OfAbortionAlthough the provisions of Abortion are retained, the exception is that abortion is not guilty, and abortion has become an empty culture.Revised in 1996Before being "Eugenic protection lawIt was called the former Yusei Protection Law, and because sterilization surgery at that time was permitted by the approval of parents such as relatives, it was requested and permitted by relatives.SterilizationPeople who received[Annotation 1]Is in a proceeding[1][2]..Also, due to the problem of forced sterilization, "Law concerning payment of lump sum payment to those who have undergone eugenic surgery based on the former Eugenic Protection LawWas enacted.

By this lawMother protection law designated doctorIs specified.Also, in this lawPharmaceuticals and medical devices lawRegardless of the provisions ofpessaryWaitContraceptiveHave the privilege of being able to sellFertility control hands-on instructorThere are also provisions for.

History

Enactment of the Eugenic Protection Law

1907ToThe United States of America OfIndianaThe world's first abortion / abortion law based on eugenic ideas was enacted.from then,1923It was enacted in 32 states nationwide.CaliforniaIn some cases, syphilis patients and sex offenders were also targeted.[3]..Eugenics20st centuryHas gained a great deal of support worldwide for the protection of the people and for the sake of their offspring.In Japan at the beginning of the postwar period1948It was enforced in (23) under the name of the Yusei Protection Law.This law is prewar1940Similar to the National Eugenics Act (15)EugenicsIt is a law with a unique color.Meiji Penal CodeWhile criminal punishment was given to those who had an abortion or who assisted the abortion by stipulating "the crime of abortion" in Chapter 2 of Volume 29, the National Eugenics Law aims to "improve national qualities." In Japan, the act of abortion is religious, with the aim of controlling the birth of undesired offspring of parents and the companionship of the mother's womb, which is at risk of miscarriage, and preventing maternal death due to maternal death.tabooBecause it was not considered to be, it was positioned as an option for women to give birth.[4]..Depending on the situation, familyGuardianIs a law that made it possible to apply for surgery to the Central Eugenics Examination Board and the Local Eugenics Examination Board, and to treat abortion and radiation.[5]..The Japan Society of Yusei (founded in 1925) that existed at that time ...Toshikichi Okamoto, Etc.) report on the status of sterilization surgery in conjunction with the law, and also discuss the issue of population growth.[6][7][8].

However, under the Postwar Eugenics Protection Law, the loss and confusion of postwar security organizations, the problem of overpopulation due to demobilization, unwanted pregnancy problems including rape, and the awareness that abortion is a woman's right (Pro choice) Against the background, for innovative female lawmakersAbortionThere was an aspect that was a means to fully legalize. This is the first postwar election held on April 1946, 21 (Showa 4).22th House of Representatives general electionInnovative female parliamentarians who were elected as Japan's first female parliamentarians1th DietSubmitted a national eugenics bill.Japanese Socialist Party OfMasako Fukuda,Kato ShizueInnovative politicians such as, from the viewpoint of maternal protection and women's right to refuse pregnancy, can refuse childbirth when the fetus is considered to have a risk of miscarriage due to the burden on women due to fertility and the risk of maternal death. He called for the legalization of abortion options.They argued that the act of giving birth, which is at risk of dying, was a burden to women and that abortion was necessary and legalized.Kato and others witnessed the prolific and poverty problems in foreign shantytowns where children are raising many children in poverty, and in 1922 immediately after returning to Japan, they gave birth to a child in Japan with a husband who understood the social movement. He had started the adjustment movement.Shizue Ishimoto argued that women need a right to abortion for unwanted births and a way to prevent dangerous births to the mother's womb, such as promoting a birth control movement.[9][10][11].

Sterilization for disabled people desired by relatives

When becoming a sexual assault such as sexual assault, even those who repeat offenses are criticized by victims and public opinion for not being guilty because of loss of mind and lack of responsibility, and the eyes of relatives Relatives due to the burden on relatives to repeat pregnancy and perpetration at a distance, and the refusal to increase the burden on children born by relatives who have already taken care of them.handicappedToAbortionAnd hoped to enable sterilization[1].

In 1948, in the Diet because of the support of relatives' requestsUnanimous ruling and opposition partiesPassed by.According to Yukiko Saito, she takes care of people with disabilities.Only if relatives wish or tolerate surgerySurgery was performed.Therefore, if the relatives did not wish, the surgery was not performed, which is the background that the surgery was not performed for all persons with disabilities.It is not uncommon in the world for relatives who wish to have a sterilization operation for persons with disabilities or who have given permission to have an abortion. It is pointed out that the demands of relatives are prioritized in the demands of persons with disabilities and the demands of relatives who take care of them because every nation is expensive.[1].

1954January,Ministry of Health and WelfareHas issued a notice to prefectures requesting that the number of sterilization operations be less than planned and that the operations be carried out as planned toward the end of the fiscal year. In April 1957, he also issued a notice calling for the promotion of surgery, saying that he had "not reached his goal." In 4, there were 1955 cases, the highest number. By the 1362 law amendment, at least 1996 relatives had had surgery[12].

Discussion over the amendment

1949The amendment of the law (24) paved the way for abortion for economic reasons.1952In (Showa 27), the approval of the district eugenics protection examination committee was not required for abortion.

after that,High growthBy the economic organizationJapan Business Federation (Nikkeiren)From the perspective of securing an excellent labor force in the future, the suppression of abortion has come to be insisted.Also,Religious groupFromGrowing houseCatholic churchOrganized an alliance to amend and abolish the Eugenics Protection Law and appealed against abortion.on the other hand,Amniotic fluid diagnosisWith the development of, the fetal with disability can be detected early,Japan Medical AssociationOpposed to the claims of Seicho-no-Ie and others, he recommended legalizing abortion of the disabled fetal.Although these speculations were different, there were various revisions.On the contrary,National Blue Shiba no KaiDisability organizations such as, for the justification of abortion that brought eugenic reasons to the foreChupirenIn addition, women's groups such as Ya and others have begun to oppose the ban on abortion for financial reasons.

In 1962Social DemocratsThe Miyagi Prefectural Assembly at the time of the Japan Socialist Party, the predecessor ofMiyagiRequested strengthening of sterilization surgery.Therefore, the successor Social Democratic Party has issued a statement apologizing to the people concerned.[13]. 1970 eraから1980 eraThere was a fierce debate between the two parties.1972May 5,government(Third Sato Remodeling Cabinet) A partial amendment to the Eugenics Protection Law was submitted as a proposal.The amendment reflected the intentions of economic and religious groups, and had the following three contents.

  1. Abortion for financial reasons of the mother is prohibited, and only when there is a risk of "significantly harming the mental or physical health of the mother".
  2. Legalize fetal abortion, "it is recognized that there is a significant risk of having a disease or defect that causes severe mental or physical disability."
  3. Elderly birthFirst time in the work of the Eugenics Protection Counseling Center to avoidchildbirthAdd timing guidance.

The reasons for opposition were mainly 2 from disability groups and 1 and 3 from women's groups.The bill was once abandoned,1973It was resubmitted to and continued deliberation.1974, The government conceded to the backlash of persons with disabilities and submitted an amendment that removed the second clause,House of RepresentativesPassed throughHouse of CouncilorsWell thenAbandonedIt became.

A composition was created in which persons with disabilities who opposed the fetal clause and women who opposed the removal of the economic clause were in conflict, but women with disabilities who had both sides began to understand their positions and speak. I noticed a problem with the Yusei Protection Law. In the 80'sAbortionIn addition to the abolition of the Eugenics Protection Law, "Women decide whether to give birth / not to give birth" is "Selection of foetation"abortion TheWomen's rightsIs not included in the[14].

Abortion ban movements by religious groups for economic reasons continued thereafter.Professional lifeOf Catholics who supportMother Teresa The1981,1982He visited Japan twice and appealed against abortion.On the other hand, the Japan Maternal Protection Medical Association, the Japan Family Planning Federation, etc. insisted that abortion should not be prohibited, and the local assembly also opposed the revision of the Eugenic Protection LawpetitionWas adopted one after another.As a result, 1981 (Yoshiyuki Suzuki Cabinet) Considered submitting the amendment again,1983April (1st Nakasone Cabinet) HasLDPGovernment Affairs CommitteeThe subcommittee on the Eugenics Protection Law concluded that it was premature, and the submission to the Diet was abandoned.

Reorganization to the Maternal Health Act

1996Due to the revision of the law (8), the name of the law was changed to the current one, andhuman rightsWith the above problematic provisionsEugenicsIt was enacted based on the idea ofhandicappedThe text on forced sterilization was deleted, and the wording of "eugenic surgery" was changed to "sterilization surgery."

In addition, both the Eugenic Protection Law and the Maternal Health LawLegislatorHas been enacted and revised by.However, the competent government office in administrative practiceMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare(Children and Family Affairs Bureau Maternal and Child Health Division).

Efforts to Relieve Victims and Social Response

February 2018, 30 (Heisei 2),Japanese Socialist PartyThe successor partySocial DemocratsParty leaderTadayoshi YoshidaIs of the Japan Socialist PartyMiyagi Prefectural AssemblyCongressman apologized for promoting eugenic surgery[15].

December 2019, 31 (Heisei 4), "Law concerning payment of lump sum payment to those who have undergone eugenic surgery based on the former Eugenic Protection LawWas unanimously established and enforced by the House of Councilors.Provided "apology" and lump-sum payment to victims (examined within five years after the law came into effect)[16].Prime MinisterShinzo AbeBut"Japanese GovernmentEven so, from the standpoint of enforcing the former Yusei Protection Law, I sincerely regret and sincerely apologize, "said the Prime Minister's statement.[17].

As of April 2019, 4, regarding lump-sum payment to each prefectureReception / consultation counterIs installed[18].

2019 years(Reiwa5st year) May,Sendai District Court"The old eugenics protection law is unconstitutional", butState redressDoes not admit[2].

June 2019, 6, one of the plaintiffsSTVIn response, the reporter did not give him an opportunity to receive explanations or assistance from the defense team, and he was forced to apply for a lump sum payment based on the Relief Act against his will.honorAs hurtBPOAppeal to[19].

In June 2020 (Reiwa 2nd year), both houses of the DietHealth and Labor CommitteeHas decided to start investigating the legislative history of the former Yusei Protection Law and the damage situation.[20].

Constitution

  • Chapter 1-General Rules (Articles 1 to 2)
    • SterilizationandAbortionIt is stated that the purpose is to protect the life and health of the mother by establishing matters related to the matter.
    • The former Eugenics Protection Act stated that the purpose was to prevent the birth of bad offspring from a eugenic point of view and to protect the life and health of the mother.
  • Chapter 2-Sterilization (Old law, eugenic surgery. Articles 3-13)
    • Under the old law, the person or spouse's hereditary psychopath, hereditary physical illness orLeprosy disease, I was able to perform eugenic surgery (sterilization) because of hereditary psychosis of the relatives.In addition, if a doctor determines that it is necessary for the public interest to prevent the inheritance of a specific hereditary mental or physical illness, it will be examined by the prefectural eugenics protection examination committee (of the person or spouse). Eugenic surgery was to be performed (regardless of intention).
    • In the current lawSterilizationIs not examined and it is clearly stated that it can be done with the consent of the person and spouse, and the legal text has been deleted from Articles 4 to 13.
  • Chapter 3-Motherhood Protection (Articles 14-15)
    • In Article 14, the designated doctor obtains the consent of the person and spouse for any of the following:[21],AbortionIt is stipulated that can be done.
  1. Those whose continued pregnancy or delivery may significantly impair maternal health for physical or financial reasons
  2. By assault or intimidation or while unable to resist or rejectAdulteryBeen妊娠What you did
  • Chapter 4-Deleted (Under the old law, the Prefectural Eugenics Protection Examination Committee)
  • Chapter 5-Deleted (Under the old law, Eugenic Protection Counseling Center)
  • Chapter 6-Notification, Prohibition, etc. (Articles 25-28)
  • Chapter 7-Penalties (Articles 29-34)
  • Supplementary provisions

licence · Qualification

Notational mismatch

There was a discrepancy in the notation during the old law (Eugenics Protection Law).

  • HereditaryOdd(Article 3, Paragraph 1, Item 1, Article 14, Paragraph 1, Item 1 and Item 2) ⇔ Hereditarydeformity(Article 3, Paragraph 1, Item 2)
  • Disease (Article 3, Paragraph 1, Item 3) ⇔LeiDisease (Article 14, Paragraph 1, Item 3)

footnote

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Since sterilization surgery was performed only when a guardian such as a relative requested or licensed the surgery, all of them are uniform.handicappedIt is a background that has not been done in.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Maternal Protection Law and Us, Yukiko Saito, 2002, p55-56
  2. ^ a b ""Old Yusei Protection Law is unconstitutional" Sendai District Court does not accept compensation”(Japanese). Hebei Shimpo Online NewsKahoku Shimposha Co., Ltd. (Tuesday, May 2019, 05). 2019/6/4Browse. "Two women in their XNUMXs and XNUMXs in Miyagi Prefecture, who were forced to undergo sterilization under the former Yusei Protection Law (XNUMX-XNUMX), demanded a total of XNUMX million yen in damages from the government in Sendai. On the XNUMXth, the district court dismissed the plaintiff's request, saying that "the way of relief is primarily left to the discretion of the legislature," after acknowledging the unconstitutionality of the old law.The ruling is the first in a series of proceedings filed in seven district courts nationwide. ”
  3. ^ "The complexity of eugenics" "Kansai Medical University Forensic Course" Kansai Medical University, August 2013, 4. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of November 2015, 7.https://web.archive.org/web/20150715005249/http://www3.kmu.ac.jp/legalmed/ethics/theme2.html. 
  4. ^ Maternal Protection Law and Us, Yukiko Saito, 2002, p23]
  5. ^ "National eugenics』. "Kanpo", 1940,
  6. ^ "Eugenic Surgery Ten Months, Japan Eugenics Society "Eugenics", 1942.
  7. ^ Japan Yuseikai "Eugenics],194112 month.
  8. ^ Fumio Abe "Social Issues and Education: Eugenic Movement, "Iwanami Lecture Educational Science", 1933.
  9. ^ Nagahata Michiko "Women who threw flowers: the love and life of those five" 文藝 春秋, 124. 
  10. ^ "Shidzue Kato | National Diet Library Portrait of modern Japanese”(Japanese). www.ndl.go.jp. 2019/5/28Browse.
  11. ^ Third Edition, Mention in the World Encyclopedia, Digital Edition Japanese Name Encyclopedia + Plus, Encyclopedia Mypedia, Edo / Tokyo Biographical Dictionary, Daijirin. “What is Shidzue Kato?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/7/11Browse.
  12. ^ Kyoto Shimbun May 2018, 8 morning edition p9
  13. ^ "Social Democratic Party apologizes for forced infertility problem = former social prefectural assembly demands strengthening". Nifty NewsJiji Press (NIFTY). (February 2018, 2). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2018, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180223050912/https://news.nifty.com/article/domestic/government/12145-2018022200762/?utm_source=webpush&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=webpush_new1article 
  14. ^ Asahi Shimbun morning edition October 2019, 10, prenatal diagnosis Intertwined history Azumi Tsuge(Professor, Meiji Gakuin University) Contribution
  15. ^ "About compulsory sterilization based on the old eugenics protection law". Social Democrats (February 2018, 2). As of February 22, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/4/24Browse.
  16. ^ "Former Yusei Protection Law Relief Law enacted". Japan Broadcasting Corporation (February 2019, 4). As of February 24, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/4/24Browse.
  17. ^ "A discourse by the Prime Minister following the enactment of a law concerning the payment of lump sum payments to persons who have undergone eugenic surgery based on the former Eugenic Protection Law.”. Prime Minister's Office (April 2019, 4). As of April 22, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/4/24Browse.
  18. ^ "Compulsory Infertility Relief Law List of prefectural reception / consultation counters”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/4/25Browse.
  19. ^ Plaintiffs in the former Yusei Protection Law proceedings filed for BPO STV coverageHokkaido Shimbun March 2019, 6
  20. ^ "Forced infertility, Diet to investigate". Kyodo News(July 2020, 6). https://jp.reuters.com/article/idJP2020060901002730 2020/6/10Browse. 
  21. ^ There are three exceptions to an abortion without the consent of the spouse: (1) death, (2) unknown, and (3) inability to express intention. In 3, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare said that consent was not required for unmarried people without a spouse.Doctors, on the other hand, often ask for consent, because they guarantee payments, avoid being sued after the fact, and have no way of knowing if a woman's situation is an exception to the law."(Fukabori) abortion, no consent of the other party was required, but" hospital is necessary ", abandoned due to surgery not possible: Asahi Shimbun Digital"(July 2021, 7). https://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S14959663.html 

Related item

外部 リンク

Abortion

Abortion(Jinkou Ninshin Chuzetsu,British: induced abortion) Grows in the motherFetusIntentionally using artificial means妊娠Refers to abortion.AbortionIs one of theCriminal lawThen criminal abortion[1] ).It is also called "falling down" in slang.In medical termsAusCall[2]..In this section, abortion is referred to as abortion.

Abortion method

Early abortion (up to less than 12 weeks gestation)

Germany[3],France,イタリアIn some countries, any abortion deadline, except for legal or medical reasons, is limited to the time equivalent to this initial abortion.

Abortion with drugs

whoIn "Safeabortion" revised in 2012 byMifepristone (mifepristone, RU-486) ​​andMisoprostol A method using (misoprostol) for oral medication to cause artificial abortion is described.[4](Abortion with drugs).Mifepristone inhibits the action of progesterone in the endometrium and uterine muscles necessary for maintaining pregnancy, and misoprostol has the action of uterine contraction and cervical ripening. The combined use of the two drugs increases the success rate of abortion, making it the standard therapy for abortion with drugs.[4].

MethotrexateHas a similar effect[5]..In the world, it has mifepristone and similar effects[5]Drugs such as methotrexate are also used.Both have a risk of miscarriage and bleeding, but the frequency of occurrence is similar to that of spontaneous abortion.

As of June 2021, the drug method is not approved in Japan[4]..Mifepristone is an unapproved drug[4], Misoprostol is approved only for usage "gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer seen with long-term administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug"[6].

Curettage and suction

In countries where mifepristone is not licensed, such as Japan, Poland and Ireland, curettage or suction procedures are selected.There is a high risk of complications such as uterine perforation and bleeding, and it is significantly inferior to "drug abortion" in terms of safety.Prior to the development of mifepristone, suction and scratching were the first choice even in early pregnancy, but in countries where mifepristone is licensed, they are not the first choice due to risk issues.In addition, the endometrium becomes thin, the endometrium becomes thin, the uterus becomes punctured, and after surgery.Usherman syndromeIt is also a drawback that it may cause infertility.

  • D & C method (dilatation and curettage) -In English, it means "extension and curettage", and in German it is called Auskratzung.Curettage with placental forceps and curette.
  • D & E method (dilatation and evacuation) -A method of sucking and removing the contents of the uterus using an aspirator, which means "dilatation and evacuation" in English.
  • EVA (electric vacuum aspiration) -uses an electric aspirator
  • MVA (manual vacuum aspiration) -Uses a manual aspirator

As of June 2019, D & C is the mainstream in Japan, but D & E has many advantages over D & C in the following points.[4] :

  • Short duration of abortion surgery, low bleeding and low pain.
  • D & E has already become common in the United States and other countries in the 1980s.
  • D & C is not recommended by WHO or UK guidelines.
  • Even in Japan, D & C has a higher frequency of incomplete miscarriage and uterine perforation requiring reoperation than D & E.
  • Intravenous anesthesia is used because of severe pain during surgery.In addition, women who have no experience of vaginal delivery have difficulty opening the uterine ostium during the operation, and it is necessary to open the uterine ostium before the operation, but it is painful although there are individual differences.

Even in the Japanese Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, D & C is not recommended by the WHO and UK guidelines for safe abortion, and women with a history of D & C are generally more likely to have a premature birth. The International Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) understands that women who have had three or more D & Cs have a high rate of uterine adenomyosis, as the endometrium may be thin during the course of abortion treatment. The Safe Abortion Committee has announced that it strongly recommends D & E.[7].

LaminariaSince it takes time to dilate the tube, it is usually detained for one day.After dilating the cervical canal with laminaria or the like, the fetus is physically removed directly with obstetrics and gynecology instruments (placental forceps, curettes, aspirators, etc.).Painful and usually requires intravenous sedative administration

WHO(World Health Organization) recommends that "curettage is an outdated surgical abortion method and should be switched to vacuum aspiration or medical abortion."[8].

Mid-term abortion (after 12 weeks gestation-until 21st week)

At this time, the fetus will be a certain size, sochildbirthAbortion cannot be done unless it approaches the form.for that reasonLaminariaAnd metro lintel etc.CervixThere is a method of artificially inducing labor with a prostaglandin preparation (vaginal agent, intravenous drip) while dilating.In addition, a method called D & E, which uses instruments for mid-term abortion, is often used overseas, and WHO recommends that it should be prioritized over labor induction methods.In Japan after the 12th week of pregnancyNotification of stillbirthPregnant women are required to file a stillbirth report.

Late abortion (after 22 weeks gestation-)

Abortion at the request of the pregnant woman is not legally permitted, and even if medical reasons require prompt fetal removal to save the mother's life.Premature birthAfter the time when the newborn baby can survive outside the mother's bodyCaesarean sectionPriority should be given to methods that can rescue the fetus.However, when that is not possible, or when it is judged that the fetus is unlikely to survive even if other methods are applied, emergency measures such as cutting the fetus's body or crushing the skull and removing it from the birth canal are taken. Is also expected to occur.Fetal reduction, regenerative surgery, partial abortion (partial-birth abortion), D & X (dilation and extractionIt is called by a name such as "expansion and withdrawal").In an era when medical standards were once low, limbs were caught during delivery.Reciprocal childThese remedies were sometimes taken when the head of the fetus was too large to pass through the pelvis and the mother was exhausted and endangered.

Abortion fetus

Processing method

Most aborted fetuses less than 12 weeksMedical waste (infectious waste)Stillborn for more than 12 weeksGraveyards and Burial LawPrescribed in "cadaver", Cremated and buried. In 2004 (Heisei 16), the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Yokohama CityGeneral wasteThe Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare conducted a questionnaire to each local government regarding the handling of aborted fetuses of less than 12 weeks, which had ambiguous legal processing rules, in response to the search for abortion fetuses. Even if it is less than 12 weeksSanctity of lifeIt is necessary to handle it properly as related to the above, and refer to the case of the local government collecting it in the incinerator separately from the crematorium and other wastes. "[9].

Use of aborted fetal tissue for advanced medicine

In China and the United States, fetal tissue removed by abortion is used for research such as treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.[10][11]..In the United States, legislation has been put in place for that purpose, and in some intractable diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, clinical trials have been conducted on the human body and visual acuity has recovered.However, the group has been criticized when the US medical non-profit organization "Planned Parenthood (PPFA)" has been accused of being involved in organ trading for "$ XNUMX to $ XNUMX per organ". It is reported that it was done[12].

Animal research is being conducted at some universities in Japan[11]..On the other hand, some groups oppose such acts as "leading to the sale of fetuses".In some states in the United States, a referendum was held on the use of abortion fetal tissue.[11], Promoted and banned.State budgets are invested in research in California, where biomakers gather[11]..Germany explicitly bans such research[11].

In Japan, a "special committee on the ideal way of clinical research using human stem cells" has been set up and discussions are underway.[11], 3 years-even if we hold more than 20 meetingsOdawara ratingAs of 2005, only Japan has not reached the conclusion of "approval or ban" in developed countries.[11]..Therefore, even at the Osaka Medical Center, which was the only researcher in Japan.[11], I stopped providing cultures of cells collected from aborted fetuses[11], Further lagging behind developed countries[11].

Since there are almost no laws and regulations in China, its use for spinal cord injury and ALS has already been successful as a business.[11], Patients are flooding from all over the world.Opinions are divided on the effectiveness of treatments being implemented in China[11].

Institutions and attempts to avoid abortion

Special adoption

Many people who have an abortion are pregnant but cannot get social back-up and lose the confidence to raise a child, leading to an abortion.As a system to protect the life, interests and welfare of children when it is not realistic to raise children due to various circumstances such as the situation of women and the circumstances of pregnancy.Special adoptionThere is a system.This system is common overseas, for exampleAmericaThen, the number of implementations exceeds 12 annually[13],AppleFoundedSteve JobsAnd movie directorsMichael bayMany celebrities from adopted children[14].

in JapanMiyagiIshinomakiDoctorNoboru KikutaHowever, the legal framework for adoption was established in the wake of encouraging women who wished to have an abortion to give birth and arranging for a couple without children, and the law was enacted in 1987 (Showa 62).[Annotation 1]Currently, there are many adoption support groups, and many adoptions are carried out regardless of the circumstances or the presence or absence of disabilities.The cost is free, and you can cancel the adoption if you change your mind for a certain period of time after giving birth.[15]..Some support groups provide partial support for childbirth costs[Annotation 2]There are also organizations that provide housing for women who have no place to live.

In Japan, support groups and child guidance centers often play a central role in mediation, and only some medical associations and obstetricians and gynecologists mediate at medical institutions, but in September 2013 ToAnshin Mother and Child Obstetrics and Gynecology Liaison CouncilThe presence of medical institutions as the bearers of special adoption is increasing.The council is a network in which a total of 14 obstetrics and gynecology hospitals and doctors from 20 prefectures participate and work together to engage in special adoption.[16]..In Japan, the awareness of the special adoption system is still low, so in order to raise awareness,Nippon FoundationHas established April 4th as "Adoption Day" and holds an annual awareness-raising event to deepen the understanding and deepening of adoption, as well as making policy recommendations for the enactment of the "Adoption Promotion Law". Is going[17].

For movements to eliminate other abortions and newborn killingsCradle of storkInstallation of (commonly known as baby post) can be mentioned.This is a facility for anonymously picking up newborn babies who cannot be raised due to various reasons and conducting special adoption. In Japan, it is located in Kumamoto City, Kumamoto Prefecture.Medical CorporationOperated by SeiryukaiJikei HospitalIs in operation.For this installation, a similar facility in Germany, Baby Clappe, was referred to.[18].. December 2006, 18,Jikei HospitalSubmits an installation application to Kumamoto City. After receiving permission from Kumamoto City on April 2007, 19, the operation will start on May 4, 8, and at the same time, Jikei Hospital will discuss unexpected pregnancy and the future of the baby. The window "SOS Baby and Mother Pregnancy Counseling" has started operation.

According to a lecture by Taiji Hasuda, the director and doctor of Jikei Hospital held in 2014, the same period from 26 (Heisei 2007) to November 19 (Heisei 2013). Among the cases where the hospital consulted and the users of the cradle, there were about 25 cases where they were adopted or decided to raise their own, and a total of 11 babies were saved from abortion. Was broken[18].

Foster parent system

A system for temporarily raising children up to the age of 18 (until their lives become stable)Foster parent systemThere are many ordinances on the foster parent systemPrefectures,MunicipalitiesHas been enacted and can be used if desired.

The foster parent system includes foster parents who take children up to the age of 18 and raise them at home until they can return to their homes, and children who have to leave the home for a certain period of time due to reasons such as their parents' illness. Short-term foster parents who take care of them for a few years, foster parents who wish to adopt a foster child in the future, and relatives whose children are within the third degree of kinship (grandparents, uncles, aunts, etc.) In some cases, foster parent allowances will be provided to relatives who are not obliged to support, such as uncle and aunt.)[19]..As a similar system, there is a short stay where the local government takes care of children for a short period of time.

Abortion / abortion in each country

As a country that currently makes abortion illegal for any reasonEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ホンジュラス,マルタ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euCan be mentioned. Also,キ リ ス ト 教,IslamOrBuddhismIn many countries with a large number of followersPregnant womanAbortion is allowed only if it causes significant damage to one's life or health[20].

Asia

Japan

Statistics on abortion in Japan
Ratio of abortion to birth in Japan[21][23]
YearsAbortion
Number of abortions
Number of birthsAbortion
Abortion rate (%)
19551,170,1431,730,69240.3
19601,063,2561,606,04139.8
1965843,2481,823,69731.6
1970732,0331,934,23927.5
1975671,5971,901,44026.1
1980598,0841,576,88927.5
1985550,1271,431,57727.8
1990456,7971,221,58527.2
1995343,0241,187,06422.4
2000341,1461,190,54722.3
2005289,1271,062,53021.4
2010212,6941,071,30516.6
2015176,3881,005,72114.9
2016168,015977,24214.7
2017164,621946,14614.8
2018161,741918,40015.0
2019156,430865,23915.3

JapanThen,Heian periodof"Old and new stories』Already has a description about abortion[24], The most popularEdo PeriodIs[25].

Prior to the institutionalization of abortion, abortion was carried out by the private sector.There were several instructions to ban abortion, but it never stopped, and even some people raised the sign and made abortion a business.[26],Meiji government The1868(4th year of Keio, 12st year of the Meiji era) On December 24th, a decree was promulgated to prohibit the sale of midwives and abortion due to reasons such as wealthy soldiers.[27].1880With the old criminal law (Meiji 13)1907In the current criminal law of (Meiji 40), "AbortionWas enacted.However, it has been hidden since then.[28]In the late Taisho era, a clinic, a pharmaceutical company, and an inn were collusion in Osaka for performing a large-scale abortion operation.[29].

Second World Warrear,RepatriatoramongKorean,USSRSoldier,Chinese peopleTo a Japanese woman who has been repeatedly raped (sexually assaulted) byAbortionSurgeryVenereal diseaseTreatment,Fukuoka OfFutsukaichi Recreation CenterMade in[30]. at that timeAbortionIs illegalAbortion), But 500 abortion surgeries were performed until the facility was closed.[30].Eugenic protection lawWith the enforcement of, designated doctors nationwide have become able to perform abortion surgery.1947Futsukaichi Rest Home closed around autumn[30].

In 1948, the Eugenics Protection Act was enacted and abortion was legalized.According to Article 14 of the Eugenics Protection Law,

  1. The person or spouseMental illness-Mental retardation (intellectual disability)-Psychopathy, Hereditary disease or hereditaryMalformationIf you have
  2. 4 of the person or spouseRelativeWithinBloodIf the person involved has a mental illness / mental retardation / psychopathy, hereditary disorder or hereditary malformation
  3. Leprosy disease (the person or spouseLeprosy)

Abortion was also allowed.However, some of these items are based on overt misunderstandings and prejudices about the relationship between illness and heredity.handicappedIf so, it should be eliminated so that it will not be born in this world. " Was done (see below).

In 1996, the Eugenics Protection ActMaternal protection lawIt was revised as.As with the Eugenics Protection Law, designated doctors legally perform abortions.The Maternal Health Act defines abortion as "the artificial discharge of the fetus and its appendages to the outside of the mother's body at a time when the fetus cannot sustain life outside the mother's body." One is set as a legitimate reason for abortion.Those who violate are charged with abortion.

  1. Those whose continued pregnancy or delivery may significantly impair maternal health for physical or financial reasons
  2. Pregnant by adultery or intimidation or while unable to resist or reject

Article 2, Paragraph 2 of the Maternal Health Act stipulates that the standard for the time of abortion is "the time when the foetation cannot sustain life outside the mother's body", and is 22 weeks pregnant. Was less than.1976Previously usually less than 28 weeks, from 19761990Up to usually less than 24 weeks,1978The expression was changed to "before 23 weeks of gestation", and the standard period was shortened to less than 1990 weeks due to the improvement of medical standards regarding the viability of premature babies after 22.In addition, regarding the viability in each case, it was also indicated in the appendix and the same day notice from the Chief of the Mental Health Division of the Health and Medical Bureau that the doctor designated by the Maternal Health Act should objectively consider the judgment from a medical point of view. ..

The ratio of abortion to birth was about 1955% in 40.3, but decreased to about 2019% in 15.3.However, since 2017, the proportion of births has increased because the decrease in the number of births is larger than the decrease space for abortion.Generally speaking, abortion has a strong image of unmarried young people, but the percentage of pregnant women who carry out abortion is higher in their 10s than in their 40s. In 2019, it was about 15.3% overall, about 10% in the early 82.3s, about 10% in the late teens, about 61.7% in the early 20s, while about 35.6% in the early 40s and late 21.6s. About 40% have an abortion.On the contrary, the lowest was about 46.8% in the early 30s, followed by about 8.6% in the late 30s.[21][23]..However, in terms of absolute numbers, the majority are in their 20s and 30s due to the large number of pregnant women themselves, and in 2019, they accounted for about 82.3% of the total.

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the number of cases is1955Approximately 117 million cases1965Approximately 84 million cases1980Approximately 60 million cases1990Approximately 46 million cases1990 eraFrom the second half2001Is in the midst of an increase in the number of abortions under the age of 30 (especially under the age of 20).2000Is about 34.2002Since then, it has decreased2011Is about 202019Is about 16[21].

Under the current Japanese law (Maternal Health Act),Prenatal diagnosisAbortion due to being found to be a child with a disability is not recognized as a direct expression, but it is a de facto fetal disability after expanding the name of "economic reason". Abortion is taking place.

As a method of abortion, in addition to a method using an electric suction tube and a manual vacuum suction method, a curettage method is also used. Some obstetricians and gynecologists point out that safe abortion by global standards has not been achieved because oral abortion drugs, which are also designated as WHO essential medicines, are not approved in Japan.[31].

The maximum number of weeks that an abortion is possible is 22 weeks, and the consent form for the abortion requires the consent of the spouse.Even if you are unmarried, there are hospitals that seek the consent of your partner, and men are also responsible for signing the abortion agreement for the woman they are dating.However, this system has been criticized by lawyers because it leads to the current situation where surgery cannot be performed without asking the perpetrators of sexual assault for their consent.[32]..In Aichi Prefecture, a 21-year-old woman who gave birth in a park toilet after an abortion-possible week passed while seeking an abortion consent signature for the fetal father who could not be contacted killed her child without proper medical treatment and killed her body. In the case of abandoning a woman in a plastic bag, she was sentenced to 3 years in prison and 5 years suspended sentence.[33].

Furthermore, in June 2020, the "Crime Victim Support Lawyer Forum (VS Forum)" improved the operation of the current situation, saying that unmarried women who became pregnant due to sexual violence were refused abortion surgery by multiple medical institutions. Offer and accept thisJapan Medical Association The2021May 3ToMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Pregnant woman is her husbandDVDamaged etc.婚姻The relationship is virtually broken and about abortionspouseIf it is difficult to obtain the consent of the person, is it okay to understand that the consent of the person is sufficient? "In response to thisJapan Obstetrician and Gynecologist AssociationIt is,14th of the same monthNotify the prefectural obstetrician-gynecologists'association, and determine whether or not the marriage relationship has broken down. It is desirable to check with a third party. "The policy is to request that the reason for the decision be stated in the medical record.In addition to this trend, in February 2021, the NPO corporation "NPO" that supports DV victimsNational female shelter net”, A request was submitted to the government to abolish the spouse consent requirement of the Maternal Health Act.[34].

South Korea

  • Present situation

OnceSouth KoreaThen, there are many domestic believersキ リ ス ト 教EvangelicalImpact of[35]andConfucianismFrom a point of view (gender discrimination such as abortion for girls)1953It was conditionally banned until 2020 due to the abortion law.

2012May 8ToConstitutional courtBy pregnant womenRight to self-determinationThan the fetusRight to lifeWas given priority, and a constitutional decision on abortion was once issued.However, after the constitutional decision, a woman was charged with violating abortion-related provisions.Obstetrics and gynecologyThe doctor puts it in dangerWomen's rightsIn the wake of appealing to the Constitutional Court that it is limiting2019May 4Overturned the 2012 constitutional ruling, "A total ban on abortion is unconstitutional, and abortion in the early stages of pregnancy (around 22 weeks) should be tolerated." I handed down the decision.At the same time2020By the endCriminal lawIf it is not amended2021Declared to lose effect from January.Of the judges who participated in the referee, three who supported the unconstitutional statement stated that the unconstitutional decision would not cause major confusion because it is rare to be prosecuted for abortion, and until the 1th week of pregnancy. Unconditionally admitted abortion[36][37][38][39]..However, in this ruling, abortion charges remain constitutional and penalties are imposed on non-abortion doctors (Korean doctors, midwives, pharmacists or drug dealers (pharmaceutical distributors)) with the consent of pregnant women.[40].

Due to the influence of this rulingProsecutionIn June 2019, the prosecution established a standard for handling abortion cases, such as prosecution of suspects who had an abortion within 6 weeks of gestation (the prosecution admits the suspicion but does not give it to the court).If it is 12 to 12 weeks gestation, the policy is to suspend prosecution until a new law is prepared, and the punishment will be withheld until before the amendment.[41].

And in October 2020Legal departmentMinistry of Health and WelfareThe amendment draft prepared by was submitted.The content was that it was legalized until the 14th week, legalized from the 15th to the 24th week on the condition of health, social and economic reasons, and prohibited after the 24th week.[40]..However, the deadline set by the Constitutional Court at the end of 2020 was not met.It became ineffective and legalized at the end of 2020[42].

  • Abortion (abolished at the end of 2020)

Abortion law was invalidated in South Korea on January 2021, 1[43].

For abortion law that once existed, aborted women are less than a year oldImprisonmentOr 200 millionウ ォ ンThe following fines were imposed, and doctors who had an abortion with the consent of a pregnant woman were also sentenced to imprisonment with work for not more than 2 years.However, there were five exceptional cases of abortion under the Maternal and Child Health Law.The five were the following cases[36].

  1. The person or spouse is fixedEugenicsTarget orGeneticsTypicalMental disorderOrPhysical illnessIf you have
  2. The person or spouse is fixedEpidemicIf you have a disease
  3. rapeOr if you become pregnant due to quasi-rape
  4. LegalBetween relatives who cannot marry or between relativesIf you become pregnant with
  5. If continued pregnancy significantly impairs (or may) the health of the mother for medical reasons

Abortion is permitted if either is true and is within 24 weeks of gestation.

However, in reality, it is rare to be prosecuted for abortion, and the number of prosecutions in 2017 was eight.[44].

  • Number of abortions

韓国の中絶件数は、韓国保健社会研究院の推計より、15~44歳の女性の人口1,000人あたりの妊娠中絶件数は、2005年は29.8件(中絶件数:342,433件)、2010年は15.8件(中絶件数:168,738件)、2017年は4.8件(中絶件数:49,764件)であり、減少傾向である。また、2017年に関しては、性経験のある女性のうち10.3%、妊娠したことのある女性のうち19.9%が中絶を経験したことになる[45]..The number of abortions has decreased significantlyContraceptiveImprovement andコ ン ド ー ム,pillUsedcontraceptionIs increasing, the female population is declining,Birth controlIt is believed that the spread of understanding about[37][45]..However, it has been pointed out that the number is three times higher than the estimate by the Korea Institute of Health and Social Sciences because it is before the unconstitutional decision and abortion is illegal except for exceptions, and it is unlikely that the declaration is made honestly. Are[46].

Chugoku

ChugokuIn the past, abortion was virtually prohibited due to Confucian values,one child policyIt is officially recognized after the enforcement of.Along with this, there were many cases of abortion of fetuses that were found to be girls by sex tests during pregnancy, mainly in rural areas where boys wishing to succeed.Social problems with a biased population compositionIs happening.On the other hand, it is an underground churchHouse churchChristians are resisting the current abortion[47].

India

Abortion up to 20 weeks gestation is allowed in India[48]..After the 20th week of pregnancy, abortion is permitted only when the mother is at risk of life.[48]In cases such as sexual abuse of minors, abortion after 20 weeks may be permitted by judicial decision.[48].

Africa

モロッコ

モロッコIn, abortion is considered taboo and illegal, and aborted women are sentenced to up to two years in prison.The Dutch women's rights group has operated an "abortion ship" to abort Moroccan women abroad to circumvent the restrictions of Moroccan law.A ship that aims to abortion in a safe way and save women from the health risks of illegal abortion, but there was a big protest in Morocco[49]..There are 600-800 illegal abortions per year in Morocco, but only about 200 well-financed women are aborted in a medically appropriate way, which is inappropriate according to WHO statistics. Abortion is said to kill an average of 78 women each year[49].

Europe

ルーマニア

CommunismIn 1966Chow SheskThe administration aims to increase the populationProhibition of abortion and divorceHowever, it became an incentive to cause social problems called "Children of Ceausescu" and "Manhole Children".

England

It is legal and costs 2021 as of 50lbIs[50].

In the days when abortion was virtually banned in Ireland, it was common to travel to England to have an abortion.

アイルランド

Catholics make up the majorityアイルランドThen abortion1983The constitutional amendment stipulated that abortion was prohibited, and it was virtually prohibited by a law called the "Abortion Prohibition Law."However1992There was an incident in which a 14-year-old girl who had been raped tried to travel to England to have an abortion operation and was blocked from traveling.The Irish Supreme Court then overturned the travel ban.A referendum then recognized that women have the right to have an abortion surgery abroad and to receive information about abortion services abroad.[51].

after that,A 31-year-old pregnant woman from India, Sabita Harapanabal, died without receiving medically necessary abortion treatmentThe discussion proceeded in the wake of2013Has enacted a law that allows abortion if there is a risk of threatening maternal safety[52].

Still, not only was rape unacceptable, but between 1983 and 2018, approximately 35 pregnant Irish women traveled to England for abortion.[53], There were 2017 people in 3,019 alone[54].

But,2018May 5Prohibition of abortionConstitutional Amendment Article 8According to a referendum asking whether or not to abolish, it was decided to be abolished with the approval of about two-thirds.This allowed up to 3 weeks of gestation and abortion up to 2 weeks only if there was a risk of fetal malformations or a serious risk to the health or life of the pregnant woman.[51][53][55][56].

In addition,Northern IrelandIt is,2019May 10Abortion was lifted and criminal charges were suspended[57].

Germany

In Germany, Article 218 of the Penal Code basically prohibits abortion[58], The exemption item is stipulated in Article 218 a1 of the Penal Code[3].

It was enacted by the Federal Parliament in June 1992 under the German Abortion Act.[58]..According to the report, by the 12th week of pregnancy, pregnant women have their own abortion requirements, and abortion is not illegal if treated by an appropriate doctor.However, proof of counseling at a state-approved Pregnancy Conflict Counseling Center is required at least 3 days before the abortion procedure, and it is said that you are obliged to receive consultation on social assistance and advice.[58][59]..There are no restrictions on the reasons for abortion and no male consent is required[58]..The idea is that "if a pregnant woman decides to have an abortion, that decision should ultimately be respected as a conscious act of self-responsibility with due respect for the life of the fetus."[58].

There are twists and turns before reaching this state, and the activities of female activists have a great influence.In West Germany, those who underwent abortion surgery were sentenced to up to five years, and pregnant women who requested them were sentenced to up to one year of freedom or fines.Even pregnancy due to rape could not be aborted, and even planning an abortion was illegal[60].

Therefore, the only option was to have the abortion go to the United Kingdom or the Netherlands, where the abortion is legal, or to find a facility that has an illegal abortion in the country.[60]..These dark abortions are said to occur on the order of tens of thousands per year, and the term "Engelmacherin" was also used to refer to midwives who undertake abortion surgery.[60]..Pregnant women often died from improper abortion surgery[60]..However, in June 1971, the weekly magazine Stern published a photo of the faces of 6 women on the front page entitled "We have an abortion!" And appealed for the revision of Article 28 of the Criminal Code, which banned abortion.Among the 218 women who confessed that they had had an abortion, which was illegal at the time, and posted a photo of their face, among the 28 women who were international starsRomy Schneider, Actress, supermodel, etc. were also included.This performance was also performed in France two months ago andSimone de Beauvoir,Jeanne Moreau,Catherine Deneuve343 women, including celebrities such as, have declared in magazines that they "have had an abortion"[60]..Several people were searched for the performance, but no one was charged.[60]..In July of the same year, the German Ministry of Justice submitted signatures for 7 people calling for the liberalization of abortion.[60]..The mass media also generally leaned toward abortion, and the Social Democratic Party-Liberal Democratic Party coalition government (FDP) at that time partially revised Article 1974 of the Penal Code in 218, and the new Article 1976 came into effect on July 7, 21.[60]..The content at that time was "Until the 12th week of pregnancy if the reason is confirmed by an interview at a public institution.EugenicsAnd for reasons based on maternal protection or for victims of sex crimes, abortion up to 22 weeks gestation is not illegal. "[60].

However, in Germany, Article 218 of the Penal Code has been debated since then, and the Supreme Court of the Federal Constitution in May 1993 interpreted that "the Constitution encourages women to continue pregnancy until childbirth." Shows[58]..In addition, on May 1996, 5, the German Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the criminal law amendment clause, which was passed in the summer of 28 and allowed abortion in principle, was unconstitutional.[61]..This decision had a strong impact on the people, especially the residents of the former East Germany, who had been free to have an abortion.[61]Abortion can be done without risky scraping surgery, centered on female lawmakersMifepristoneIs said to have accelerated the approval of[61][62][63].

France

Abortion is legal in France[64], Women's rights[64].

On January 1975, 1, abortion was legalized.Giskar DestinOf the presidential administrationSimone WeilA bill to allow abortion, led by the Minister of Health, was passed and legalized the previous year with criticism.This is the first time in a major Catholic country.Part of the reason is that the actresses also supported the rise of the women's liberation movement.[65].

Catholic churches and anti-abortionists advocate for abortion[64].

Portugal

Portugal legalized abortion on January 1984, 1, only in the case of "sex crime victims," ​​"fetal malformations," and "mother danger."[66].

ポーランド

Poland was allowed an abortion under the socialist regime[67], A law banned in principle was enforced from 1993 after democratization[67]..90% of the people are said to be Catholic[68][69]..Only some cases are legal, such as rape victims, incest, maternal health risks, and congenital abnormalities of the fetus.[67][68]..As a result, 5 women undergo an illegal and dangerous abortion operation each year, or move abroad to have an abortion.[67][68].

As of 2015, Mifepristone, which is licensed in most European countries, is not licensed[70], Netherlands non-profitPro choiceSince 2015, the group has been skipping the "Abortion Drone", which uses drones to smuggle mifepristone and distribute it to women in Poland.[67][68][70].. In October 2016, the ruling party "Law and Justice" attempted to further strengthen the abortion ban bill and limit abortion only to cases where the mother is at risk.[69]..Anti-abortion activists collected 45 signatures, which was the source of the bill's amendment.[69], Opposition movements have occurred in various parts of the country, and the prime minister has also announced worrisome comments, and movements against tightening regulations have spread.[69]..On October 10, the same year, the strengthening bill was rejected by the House of Representatives with a majority of opposition.[69].

Americas

The United States of America

PuritanAbortion is taboo in America, where there are many1900UntilKentuckyAnti-abortion legislation was enforced in all states except (actually, it was illegal and the risk killed about 1 women annually).[71].. 1973,United States Supreme CourtRoe v. Wade ruled that the ban on abortion was unconstitutional, and the abortion ban law was immediately abolished.

Christianity on the other handReligious rightによる根強い抵抗があり、活動家が後期中絶を行う医師を射殺したり[72][73]Throw, set fire, or explode offensive odors into the hospitalterrorismFrequently[72], Most hospitals employ explosives specialists and are forced to open mail carefully.[72].

Listed the doctor's address, phone number, and car numberSlanderVilla is distributed[72]Intimidated by doctors' families and children[72]As a result, there are cases where the hospital is closed.As a result, the number of facilities conducting abortions is declining, making it difficult for women who wish to have an abortion to access an abortion-enabled environment.

2013May 3,North DakotaThen,(English editionThe governor signed and passed the Abortion Prohibition Law.This new lawrape,Close relativesIt is the most severe content in the United States because it does not allow abortion even if there is a risk of pregnancy due to pregnancy, maternal health, or even if there is a risk of losing the fetus due to fetal abnormalities.[74].

TexasIn 2013, the number of abortion-supporting facilities decreased from 41 to 19 due to the enactment of a state law that imposes very strict certification standards on abortion facilities and doctors.[75].2016In June, the US Supreme Court ruled that the state law was "unreasonable for women to exercise their constitutional rights."[75].

2019May 5,AlabamaHas passed the strictest abortion regulation law in the United States.The law does not allow abortions other than maternal protection, regardless of the week of pregnancy, and imposes a maximum of 10 years'imprisonment if a doctor attempts an abortion and a maximum of 99 years' imprisonment if an abortion is actually performed. Is able to do[76](However, women who have had an abortion are not liable for criminal charges.)The regulatory law sued the opposition as unconstitutional.Proponents of the law are looking to overturn the Roe v. Wade decision in a court battle in anticipation of the case.[77].. same yearMay 10, The United States Supreme Court has begun hearing over the legality of Louisiana's abortion control law,2020May 6Issued an unconstitutional judgment[78][79]..The key to this ruling was the conservativesJohn RobertsThe Secretary decided that it was unconstitutional because of the aforementioned 2016 unconstitutional decision in Texas.Conservatives complained about the ruling, saying that Conservative Secretary John Roberts issued a more liberal ruling.[79]..However, although Secretary John Roberts himself is a conservative, the ruling is evaluated as having a tendency to make careful judgments in each case, respect precedents, and avoid establishing new comprehensive norms. , Secretary John Roberts only followed the precedent with careful judgment[80].

Also, from 2018Ohio,Mississippi,Kentucky,Iowa,North Dakota,GeorgiaIn each state of the United States, strict regulatory laws (commonly known as the Heartbeat Law) prohibiting abortion were enacted one after another when the heartbeat of the fetus could be confirmed (around the 6th week of pregnancy).[76]..However, five states except Georgia have ruled invalid in the federal district court, and Georgia has been suspended by the federal district court.[81].

Behind the enactment of abortion control laws in several states after President Trump took officePlaying cardsWas newly appointed after taking office as president of the United StatesUnited States Supreme Court JusticeBecause both are conservatives, the Supreme Court's jury composition will be conservative, and there is a possibility that a judgment in favor of conservatives will be issued in the future.[82].

Also, the number of abortions in the United States isGuttmacher InstituteEstimates2017There were 86 abortions in Japan, with an abortion rate of 2320% per 15 women aged 44-1,000 years.This was the peak1990The abortion rate was less than half of the peak of 160 in 1981, as well as about half of the 29.3 million cases.And both values ​​are the lowest since the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision.In 2017, about 18% of pregnant women had an abortion (abortionWas excluded) [83][84]..The reason for the further decrease from the peak isIntrauterine device,イ ン プ ラ ン トImprovements andObama Care LawThis has made it easier for insurance companies to cover and contraception.Abortion pillIncreased use,Decrease in fertilityAnd so on[85].

カナダ

Until 1988, it was necessary to obtain the approval of the abortion surgery committee in case of abortion.[86]..However, in 1988, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled that the abortion-related bill was invalid as a violation of women's privacy.[86]..This has made it possible for pregnant women to have an abortion at their discretion.[86].. In the spring of 1989, in an attempt to stop the abortion of his ex-girlfriend, a man filed an abortion injunction, saying that "the fetus also has human rights."A court in Quebec admitted the complaint on the part of the man (father) and issued an abortion injunction, saying that "the fetus is a person and has human rights under Quebec law."[86]..However, the decision was overturned by the Canadian Supreme Court appealed by the woman (mother).[86].. On August 1989, 8, the Canadian Supreme Court dismissed the men's complaint and allowed women to have an abortion as their free will.[86][Annotation 3]..It was expected that this case would make women's right to abortion more assertive.[86].

Brazil

In Brazil, as of 2014, abortion is permitted only for rape victims within 8 weeks of pregnancy, life-threatening mothers, and anencephalic fetuses.[87]..Murder charges apply to abortion. Between 2000 and 2008, 130 women were charged with abortion crimes.Strong influence of Catholic church[88].. In 2013, 1523 legal abortions were performed, while 80 women underwent illegal abortion treatment and 19 needed additional treatment due to improper treatment. Is said to have become[89].. In 2013, the Federal Medical Council issued a statement that women should be allowed to choose abortion up to the 12th week of pregnancy, which is being deliberated by the Senator's Special Committee on Criminal Law Amendment, but doctors and politics. Opinions are divided even among the houses, and there are many dissenting opinions[89]..Meanwhile, they gathered single mothers to form illegal adoptions and trafficked children internationally.OrphanageIs also caught[90].

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

Many CatholicsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAbortion is strictly forbidden, and there is a severe penalty of 50 years in prison for violations.[91].. On May 2013, 5, both mother and child were sick (motherSystemic lupus erythematosus,ChildAnencephaly), Even if a child is born, a woman who has been diagnosed as having a high possibility of dying immediately after giving birth has asked the court for an abortion and special permission such as criminal immunity of the doctor who performed the abortion. The request was disapproved and abortion was not allowed.In this case, El Salvador's ministers also requested the court to allow abortion, but the court did not change its ban on abortion.[92]..This woman had a girl on June 2013, 6Caesarean sectionThe girl died a few hours later.The mother is healthy[93].

パラグアイ

Due to the large number of Catholics, abortion is not allowed unless the mother is at risk of life. In 2015, a 34-year-old girl weighing 10 kg was raped by her father-in-law and became pregnant, which caused controversy between the government that does not allow abortion and NGOs that appeal for the effects on the mother.[94], Abortion was not found.To avoid the effects of the domestic abortion controversy, the girl was held for a long time in a TV-free facility and gave birth by caesarean section in August 2015.[95].

エクアドル

In Ecuador, Catholic influences persist and abortion is strongly opposed.Currently, abortion is only permitted when there is a serious risk to the life of the mother or when a woman with a mental illness is raped.The law has been in effect since 1938 and offenders will be punished with imprisonment for up to two years. Demonstrations are taking place in September 2 in front of the parliament in Quito, the capital of Ecuador, against a bill to ease legislation to ease rape victims and incest.[96].

Abortion from a religious perspective

キ リ ス ト 教

キ リ ス ト 教Consistently abortion from the early church殺人And blame[97][98].Didache"Don't kill a child by abortion or murder," he said.Barnabas letter"Don't kill a child by abortion, and don't kill a child born"[99]Abortion is a murder[97].Clement of AlexandriaRecognized the child in the womb as a human[97].TertullianIt is,Luke Gospel1:41, verse 46,JeremiahFrom 1: 5, he said that the fetus should be proved to be human and that even an unformed fetus should be recognized as alive.[97]..Syrian theologianEphraimSentenced the death penalty for those who had committed abortion.314The Ankara Conference decided not to distinguish between formed and unformed fetuses.Basil of CaesareaSays that an aborted woman must be accused of murder, and the view of abortion that the fetal developmental stage is arbitrarily distinguished and the abortion is allowed according to the stage such as early pregnancy is the love of Christ. Contradicts and rejects the argument of distinguishing between formed and unformed fetuses[97]..However, historically, even in the Christian sphere, the canon law became stricter for abortion from the early modern period to the modern era, and abortion was also secretly carried out secularly.It is said that the motive was to hide immoral sexual intercourse, not to donate or inherit his property, to maintain sexual attraction, to protect the health of the mother, etc.[97]..In the Catholic Church, as a response of the Christian church to those who have had these abortionsExcommunicationbecome[100], In ProtestantismChurch disciplineSubject to.sectAs a movement of cooperation beyond2009January,Orthodox church,Catholic church,EvangelicalLeaderThe United States of AmericaManhattan DeclarationDemands that the sacredness of human life, the dignity of marriage, the freedom of conscience and religion be protected, and that believers be repelled by the oppressive forces.[101].

Catholic church

Catholic churchOf the 1869Pius VIIBook of edicts Apostolicae Sedis Regards abortion as a murder without exception.This is the view that the fetus is a "human" being immediately after fertilization, and the Roman Catholic Church officially rejects other claims. In the 20th century, this view became the teaching of the Catholic Church, and the canon law stipulates the excommunication of abortion workers in the medical field.Furthermore, it was in 21 that the position of the church in the 1965st century was shown.Second Vatican CouncilHere, abortion is a sin in the sense of respecting life from its embryo (Gaudium et Spes), The grounds for prohibiting abortion have deepened not only to conceal the crime of adultery but also to respect life.Also in 1968Paul VIEncyclical "" (Human vitae) Similarly expressed respect for life and opposition to artificial birth control.In these subsequent abortion debates, the claim that the fetus was "human" at the time of the abortion was rejected and continued from the 1970s to the 21st century.Right to lifeThe position of anti-abortion against the background, that is, the fetus is <life> from the moment of conception (fertilization), so its right to survive cannot be violated. If the parent cannot be raised due to various reasons, adopt. As a result, the church has taken the position that children can survive without abortion, and in response to this, many todayProfessional lifeOrganizations are working to abolish abortion[102]. AndCatholicIt is a university of the systemSophia UniversityIn April 1991Professional lifeFrom the standpoint ofInternational Life Respect ConferenceWas implemented on April 1991, 4Declaration of human rights of the fetusWas declared[103]..Sexual intercourse unrelated to reproduction has always been condemned.However, there was once a debate within the Catholic Church about abortion in early pregnancy.[102]..It's the 5th centuryア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ ス, Medieval theologianThomas Aquinas,Council of VienneIt was a discussion that was[102]..However, these claims have been rejected in today's Roman Catholic Church. Seriously saw the deterioration of Roman morals in 1588Sixtus IVAbortion and contraception are equivalent to murderExcommunicationThe edict to be dealt with (Effraenatam) Is issued, but three years later in 3Gregory XIIIWas relaxed by.At this time, a memorandum stating that "for cases where murder and a fetus with a soul are not involved, no stricter punishment than canon law and civil law will be imposed" (Sedes Apostolica) Was issued, which was in effect until 1869. Even in the 17th century, there was a position to support the view that the fetus would become a human being after a period of conception, but the church took a strict attitude toward abortion as a cover-up for the crime of adultery.Innocentius XISays abortion is unacceptable even if a pregnant girl faces the murder of her parents who blame it[102].

Protestant

Protestant TheJean Calvin,Martin LutherSince then, abortion has been regarded as a murder crime, as in the early church. Allow abortion after the late 1960sPro choiceThere is also a (selective) position, and various athletic groups are organized to reflect that view.[104][105].Liberal theology,Feminist theologyIs supposed to take the position of professional choice[106]..On the other hand, conservative Protestants strongly oppose abortion, and their position isProfessional lifeCalled (respect for life), Japan is a professional life organizationPro-Life Japanand so on[107]..Also, in the latter half of the 20th centuryThe United States of AmericaThe debate over the legalization of abortion in Japan focused on evangelicals and fundamentalists.Conservative ChristianityPosition raises this issue as a major issue and insists on professional life (respect for life).[108].

Islam

Islam describes abortion as a haram (prohibition) except for the purpose of saving the mother.Also, in some denominations, the fetus does not enter the soul within 120 days of fertilization, so it is still morally evil, but if you take the position that it is not a haram (prohibition) punished by religious law. It has been described[104][109].

Buddhism

AbortionBuddhistIs the most important commandment inNon-killingTraditional Buddhism opposes abortion to touch[110]..The basis for this is accepted by almost all Buddhist denominationsPedestalIn the scriptures of, all seven cases involving monks in abortion, without exception,Buddha TheSanghaThis is because there is a description that he has concluded that the monk should be expelled from.[110]..More specifically, the beginning of life is sexual activity, female physiology,輪 廻It is said that it is established when the souls of the souls match.From this text, it is considered life when fertilized and becomes an embryo, and it is not possible to destroy it.KillingThe general idea is[110].

Buddhist scholar OfAkira Hirakawa TheAll Japan Buddhist ChurchIn the bulletin of the Buddhist Ahimsa, he expressed the view that "the Buddhist immortality command clearly prohibits the killing of living things and abortion" and "a society in which no one likes abortion, so that does not happen. The conditions should be set. "[111].

WaterBuddhist temples in Japan, where children who died at an early ageSainokawaraEven though he suffers from prison graduatesJizo BosatsuIs based on a medieval legend that is rescued by pouring charity on behalf of parents[112][113].

Hinduism

In the main Hindu scriptures, there is a direct description of abortion.Abortion is a major crime in killing parents and monks, and the woman who performed the abortion loses caste, making it clear that abortion is a serious violation of Hindu nonkilling.[114].

Judaism

JudaismAlthough has become a religion that values ​​the prosperity of children and offspring from the history of the hardships experienced by the people, it does not consider the fetus to be a perfect human being and therefore shows some understanding of abortion in early pregnancy. Take the opposite position after mid-pregnancy[115].The position of accepting abortion as a woman's option is mainly the position of reformist Jews such as the United States.[Source required].

Zoroastrianism

ScriptureAvestaChapter 9 15-XNUMX of "" prohibits abortion and the family from having an abortion.A pregnant woman tells the other man that she is pregnant, and then the man tells the woman that she should have an abortion (a person who has a medicinal effect that causes miscarriage), and the woman asks the "old woman" to complete the abortion. Suppose you did.In this case, it is said that the woman, the man, and the person who performed the treatment were all equally guilty.The male side must take care until the child is born, even if the pregnant partner is unmarried[116].

Growing house

JapaneseNew agesystemNew religionIsGrowing houseConsiders abortion as a crime and has promoted a movement to enact the "Abortion Prohibition Law".

Shinto

Japanese religionShintoHas no guru / scriptureNatural religionAnd like thisCommandmentBecause there is no abortion.

In the god-style Mizuko kuyo, the Buddhist term ""Memorial serviceIs called Mizuchi Reisai, avoiding the use of[117],Japanese mythInHircoIs the deity. (According to the theory that Hirko himself was a disabled child)[118][119].

Controversy over abortion

Medical bioethical issues

from now onPrenatal diagnosisIt is argued that abortion of a fetus with a congenital anomaly may be the "choice of life" when it is generalized (Persons with disabilities #Japanreference).It is also increasing as a side effect of fertility treatment.Multiple pregnancyIn ", which artificially aborts only some fetusesSelective reductionHow to think about it is also the subject of debate.

When rape damage or contraceptive damage occursEmergency contraceptives(Morning after pill)IUD (Intrauterine Device)Emergency contraception may be performed by post-insertion of.They arePosition to consider the birth of life with the establishment of a fertilized eggPeople accuse them of being a type of abortion[120]..However, the manufacturer claims that the main mechanism of action is suppression of ovulation, and that the fertilized egg inhibitory effect is a secondary effect.

Abortion and mental health

Investigation to deny the impact

As a result of a large multicenter clinical study, depression caused by an unexpected pregnancy, etc.mental healthIt has been found that there is no difference in the effects on childbirth and abortion, and the effect of abortion on mental health has been denied.[121][122][123]..Whether abortion is a psychological burden depends on the woman's original background (living environment, social support, thoughts on abortion).[124][125][126].. 1990, American Psychological Association (American Psychological AssociationAPA) found that abortion rarely had severe psychological consequences, and said it was a stress-like effect that is common in everyday life.[127]..The American Psychological Association conducted an additional study in 2008 and announced that abortion due to the first unexpected pregnancy had no adverse effects on mental health.[121][122]..These high-quality studies have consistently denied a causal link between abortion and mental health, while poor-quality studies have a causal link. I also know that there is a tendency[128].. December 2011, United Kingdom National Mental Health Joint Center (National Collaborating Center for Mental Health) Also, from the available evidence and systematic papers, abortion did not increase the risk of mental-health problems.[123][129]..Despite these amounts of medical knowledgeProfessional lifeHuman rights defenders continue to insist on a causal link between abortion and mental health[130]..This often debated issue is no longer a medical issue, but a matter of ideological political controversy.[131][132]..Some professional life activists advocate the concept of "post-abortion syndrome" (PAS), saying that some people suffer from mental health after an abortion.[133]I did public relations activities[131][134][135], It is only used in the professional life group, and the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association do not recognize its existence as an actual syndrome, and it is not adopted as a disease name in ICD-10 etc.Some doctorsPro choiceActivists say "post-abortion syndrome" is a tactic of pro-life supporters for political purposes[130][136][137][138].. 1987, AmericanRonald ReaganAppointed as Director of Public Health,Elizabeth Coup(Pediatric surgeonProtestantEvangelicalWas an abortionist)[139]Has released a report on the risks of abortion to mental health.This announcement was planned by a person who was assisting Reagan.Law vs. WadeThe purpose was to promote a professional life movement against abortion because of the foundation of[140]..Coup was reluctant, but eventually released more than 250 reports in Congress due to Reagan's anti-abortion policy.These papers were called "coup reports," but before and after parliamentary testimony, coup himself stated that the research report was too poor to withstand statistical examination, and various other issues. Was the content including[141]..Coup admitted that there are real women who develop mental health disorders after abortion, but failed to prove that abortion increases the risk of mental health disorders.Abortion can be a major problem for individual individuals, but from a public health statistical point of view, the risk is very small, Coup said.[131][124][140][142]..A parliamentary committee accused Coup of failing to provide evidence that the abortion was harmful to mental health, and Reagan's attempt was unsuccessful.In his letter to Reagan, Coup claims that the report given was incomplete to prove the impact of abortion on mental health.According to the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the most common feelings women have after an abortion are "liberation (70%)" and "satisfaction (36%)."[143].

Survey pointing out the impact

On the other hand, there are many research results in the world that point out the effects on mental health.The United States of AmericaフィンランドAccording to a survey in Japan, aborted women have mental problems and the suicide rate increases after the abortion.[144]..The main psychological reaction isSense of guilt,shame,Anxiety, Helplessness, deep sorrowBlame of conscience, Uncontrollable crying, anger, bitterness, resentment, distrust and betrayal, decreased self-esteem, avoiding things related to babies and small children, abortion experienceFlashback, Nightmares, irregular sleep, depression, sexual dysfunction, poor eating habits, self-harm, broken relationships, thinking about suicide, or a tendency to commit suicide[145]..Especially in the case of teenagers, the impact is large, self-blame,Depression, Social escape,Social withdrawalYou may run into actions such as.Eight weeks after surgery for aborted women, many expressed guilt, with 8%Mental illness36%insomnia31% regret having an abortion and 11% have been prescribed a psychotropic drug by their doctor[146]..A survey of two Canadian states found that 2% of women who had an abortionPsychiatrist3% of women went to[147]..In addition, a sudden mental crisis may occur due to the abortion day or the expected delivery date that has not been reached every year.[148]..In addition, there are cases of abortion due to the threat of parting if not fallen and wanting to retain the opposite sex, but in this case, there are studies that many abortions eventually break the relationship.[149]..Men also have psychological consequences, including disruption of relationships, sexual dysfunction, self-loathing, dangerous behavior, timeless sadness, and helplessness.Sense of guilt, Depressed, prone to anger and violence, etc.[150].

Trafficking with women wishing to have an abortion

In India, for women who come to the hospital hoping for an abortion[151], There was an incident in which hospital staff persuaded the baby to give birth and sold the baby to the black market for trafficking.[151]..It was treated as stillbirth on the documents[151]..Even in Japan, an organization calling itself the "Internet Baby Post" is arranging a special adoption for women who are considering abortion, with the content that "if they give birth, they will support up to 200 million yen."[152]..In some cases, about 120 million yen was actually paid.[152], The company plans to sell 50 billion yen a year with the usage fee of the smartphone app used for matching and the adoption fee of 15 yen at the time of adoption.[152], It has been pointed out that it is human trafficking, and we have received repeated guidance from local governments.

Emergency contraceptive commercialization problem in Japan

Oral abortion drugs are also approved in all developed and many developing countries. Since around 2000, it has become widespread worldwide and has been approved in more than 65 countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, Australia, Thailand, Taiwan and India.WHO Essential Drug Model ListIs specified in[153]..It was approved in the People's Republic of China in 1988, Tunisia in 2001, and Armenia in 2007.

Oral abortion drugs that enable less painful abortion without surgery are available in JapanMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareNot approved for marketing[154].

Japan avoids pregnancyEmergency contraceptive (after pill)"Norrevo tablets" are not prescribed without a doctor's diagnosis and are expensive at about 15000 yen, so "all women at risk of unintended pregnancy have the right to access emergency contraceptives (after pills). It goes against the World Health Organization's recommendation that there is.[155]..In 2019, the generic drug `` Levonorgestrel Tablets'' was applied and it became possible to prescribe it for about 9000 yen.[156].

From April to July 2020,New coronavirusDuring school holidays nationwide, which was taken to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, junior high and high school students at home, who had no school or club activities, had the opportunity to have sexual activity and became pregnant or felt anxious about pregnancy.Cradle of storkThe highest number of consultations from junior and senior high school students has been received at the pregnancy consultation counter of the Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto[157].

In response to this situation, discussions on the commercialization of emergency oral contraceptives have increased, but Norio Maeda, Vice Chairman of the Japan Obstetricians and Gynecologists Association, said, "In Japan, we will properly educate young women, including sex education and contraception. There are too few places to be contraceptive. ”“ I'm worried that the easy idea of ​​“then I should use the next one” will flow, ”commented on NHK in July 2020, causing controversy.[158].

In contrast to this,ToyamaSo, the abortion rate for teens has been around 10 in 5 females for the last 6-1000 years.On the other hand, the national average is around 1 people, and in Fukuoka and Okinawa prefectures it is around 6 people. In the 10s, the sex of high school girls was commercialized, and the obstetrician-gynecologist and Toyama City, who had a sense of crisis about the rapid increase in abortion nationwide, cooperated and started a business trip class for sex education in 1990. The result is.Sex education is conducted with the awareness of learning crisis management.[159].

In the United States, the drug can be purchased from vending machines in colleges, while abortion is not a disease in Japan.Free medical careSince the market price is around 15 yen, doctors say that if the environment where emergency contraceptives are easily available becomes widespread, the number of abortions by obstetricians and gynecologists will decrease, resulting in a decrease in clinic income. Some have pointed out the possibility of concern[160]Abortion is a "punishment for sinners" and is also described as "good money by an obstetrician"[161].

On the other hand, some obstetricians and gynecologists say that hospitalization may be possible to prevent abnormal bleeding caused by the use of abortion drugs, and that the income of practitioners may not decrease and the burden on women themselves may increase.[162]..Women themselves decide whether to give birth or not, including the use of small intrauterine contraceptive systems, implants to be placed in the arms, and stickers to be attached to the skin, which are approved worldwide.Reproductive Health UndriedsThe right of "needs to be respected"[163].

The Canadian-based non-profit organization Women on Web prescribes contraceptives and abortion pills to Japanese women through online medical care, and emails are also available in Japanese.According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, when receiving a prescription through WoW, a doctor's medical certificate and instructions are required based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act (Pharmaceutical Machinery Act) for "individual import" under the system, but foreign doctors It is said that there is no problem because the prescription also corresponds to this instruction.However, it has also been reported that if a person other than a doctor designated by the Maternal Health Act, including the person himself, has an abortion, he or she may be guilty of abortion under the criminal law.Dr. Rebecca Gonparts, the representative of this group, has obliged the Japanese government, which has ratified the Social Rights Code (ICESCR), to secure WHO essential medicines including contraceptives, other contraceptive methods, emergency contraceptives and abortion medicines. Because of this, Japanese women have the right to use abortion drugs and have stated that they are safe and are used worldwide.The number of women who contacted WoW from Japan and the number of women who received support increased year by year, and from 2011 to 2020, there were a total of 4175 consultations and 2286 contraceptive / abortion drug shipments. Was[164].

In the case where the body of an infant was found in a septic tank in a residential complex in Tsuyama City, Okayama Prefecture, the Okayama Prefectural Police arrested a female technical trainee of Vietnamese nationality on April 4 on suspicion of abandoning the body and released it on hold, but in May He has been re-arrested on suspicion of being pregnant.It was a crime that I thought I would be able to return to Japan if I was pregnant because I was an apprentice.[165].

However, if she were in Vietnam, the cost of abortion would be less than 500 yen in the early stages of pregnancy and over 1 yen in the middle.It was free in poor areas and remote areas.Still in JapanAbortion, There is a problem of being accused of self-abortion if the pregnant woman herself goes[166].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Civil lawIt is stipulated in Volume 817, Chapter 2, Section 817, Subsection 11, Article XNUMX-XNUMX to Article XNUMX-XNUMX.
  2. ^ In Japan, 1 yen will be returned for each child born as a lump-sum birth allowance after childbirth, and even if you cannot prepare the money at the time of delivery, you can use the lump-sum birth allowance direct payment system or the hospitalization midwifery system of the local government. For example, the cost is paid directly to the hospital when giving birth.
  3. ^ The woman had an abortion before the Supreme Court ruled

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  59. ^ Institutionalization of secret childbirth in Germany: Based on the experience of anonymous childbirth and baby storks
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  99. ^ Barnabas letter
  100. ^ "Since the very early days, Canon Law has stipulated penalties for those who have committed abortion. This policy, which involves more or less severe punishment, has been confirmed at various points in history. The XNUMX edition of the Canon Code stipulates that abortion should be excommunicated. The revised canon law retains this tradition, saying, "If you are an attempter of abortion and have completed it, , Subject to incidental excommunication sanctions. "Excommunication extends to anyone who commits this crime, knowing that punishment will be imposed.And if it seems that the crime would not have been committed without the help, it extends to accomplices. PopeJohn Paul IIEncyclical"The Gospel of Life"Evangelium vitae"Chapter XNUMX: Don't Kill"
  101. ^ The Manhattan Declaration
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  110. ^ a b c Abortion in Buddhism Posted on January 13, 2013 by Ben Edwards
  111. ^ French Open 201
  112. ^ Buddha God Information Jizo Bodhisattva "Mizuko Yoyo Jizoson"Nichiren Sect Honkoji Temple
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  117. ^ A Shinto ceremony in Kyoto to worship Mizuko kuyoIzumo Taisha Shino Church
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  128. ^ Charles VE, Polis CB, Sridhara SK, Blum RW (2008). “Abortion and long-term mental health outcomes: a systematic review of the evidence”. Contraception 78 (6): 436-50. two:10.1016 / j.contraception.2008.07.005. PMID 19014789. 
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  132. ^ “Post-Abortion Politics”. (PBS). (January 2007, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20081020233750/http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/329/index.html 2008/11/18Browse. 
  133. ^ 1981 Professional life activistVincent RueFirst advocated
  134. ^ (June 2004). “Research and Destroy: How the religious right promotes its own'experts' to combat mainstream science”. . オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20080404034430/http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0410.mooney.html 
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  143. ^ There are so many women who are relieved to have an abortion ── Use of abortion drugs that can be bought online, risk of life imprisonment Newsweek Japanese version October 2016, 10 (Tuesday) 18:19 delivery Same day viewing
  144. ^ Women's suicide rate rises after abortion, new findings
  145. ^ For more information about studies documenting these symptoms, see the list of resources on the back page of this insert. You can also visit the web site of the Elliot Institute for Social Sciences Research at www.prolife.org/afterabortion/ for documents on post -abortion research.
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  148. ^ Reardon, Aborted Women-Silent No More, (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1987)
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