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💳 | Mr. Hiroyuki explains what to do while students "I thought I was deceived ..."


Hiroyuki explains what to do while students "I think I was deceived ..."

If you write the contents roughly
"Even if you have a training camp license, it takes more than a month somewhere, and even if you want to go to a driving school normally, if you go only on Saturdays and Sundays, as a result, I went, but I could not get it. I'll listen to a lot of stories, "explains that it is better to get it while a student has time.

Mr. Hiroyuki who responded to the interview.He says it is necessary to look from a "distant perspective" to see life options ... → Continue reading


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Driving school

Driving school(Jidoshakyoshujo) isDriver's licenseFor those who are trying to getAutomobileTheoperationNeeded to doknowledgeとskillTheLessonsToFacility.

Japanese driving school

In Japan, prefecturesPublic Safety Commission Road Traffic LawDesignated based on Article XNUMXDesignated driving school,andNotification driving schoolRefers to.PrefecturesByVarious schoolsDriving school certified by[1]It is,school educationSimilar toEducationI doEducational institutionsIs (School education lawArticle 134).

Road Traffic LawAlthough it is called "driving school" in the above, the name (Name) Is "~ Driving School" "~ Driving School" "~ DriversSchool"~ Driving School" "~ Motor School" "~ DrivingCollege”And so on.一般に「自動車学校」「教習所」と呼ばれることが多いが、地域によっては「車校」「自練」など独特の略称が用いられる例もあるGenerally, it is often called "driving school" or "driving school", but in some areas, unique abbreviations such as "driving school" and "self-discipline" are used.[2].Ltd.,Limited companyThere are many driving schools operated by, but some of them市町村Installed bypublicDriving school,School corporation,Road Safety AssociationThere is also a driving school operated by.cityThere is also a driving school specializing in motorcycle training.

Ordinary carSkill training on licenses, department training,Skill testIs the main business, but depending on the driving schoolLarge car,Medium-sized car,Semi-medium-sized car,Large motorcycle,Ordinary motorcycle,Large special vehicle,Tow vehicleWe also carry out lessons and certifications such as.Also,Public Safety CommissionWe are conducting training for the elderly, training for those who have revoked a driver's license, training for obtaining a driver's license, and training for novice drivers.Paper driverThere are also driving schools that provide driver's license holder certification education to license holders such as the elderly, professional drivers, etc.

forkliftDriving etc.Skill training,Special educationThere are some places where we hold regular or irregular courses, but these courses arePrefectural Labor Bureau Director Registered Training InstitutionIt is different from the work of the driving school.

Many driving schools have a curriculum of about 60 hours for ordinary cars, and you will learn these in a period of weeks to months.[3]..For this reason, current students take the method of going to a driving school from home, but some driving schools (as a plan for remote residents who do not have a designated driving school nearby, or to meet the need to obtain a license in a short period of time. For)Dormitory,Hotel,Japanese inn such ashotelTo teach while staying atTraining camp licenseと 呼 ば れ るTraining campThere are also places where training is conducted.


Designated driving school

Refers to a driving school designated by the Public Safety Commission under Article XNUMX of the Road Traffic Act.Certified driving schoolAlso called, but not a legal term.

Completion test (provisional license skill test), provisional license subject test are conducted in the driving school, graduation test (main license skill test) is conducted on the streets around it, only this license subject testDriver's license examination siteTo carry out at.卒業検定に合格した卒業者にはFor graduates who have passed the graduation testGraduation certificateIs issued and if you bring it to the Driver's License Examination Center within one yearProficiency test(Practical test) is exempted.It can be very difficult to pass a proficiency test at the Driver's License Examination Center, and 95% of those who newly obtain an ordinary driver's license are graduates of a designated driving school. As of the end of 2005, there are about 1450 schools nationwide, with 188 million graduates annually.The number of graduates of ordinary licenses, which is the core of their work, is 136 million, and it has decreased to less than two-thirds of the peak in 18, partly due to the decrease in the 1990-year-old population.The number of driving schools that are going out of business is increasing, and 3 schools have closed in the last 2 years.The designated driving school has a certification deadline and a training deadline, and the training deadline is limited to 10 months for large special type 80 and towing type 3 and limited release examination, and 9 months for others, so skill training and departments during this period All lessons must be completed (repayment of tuition fees if expired).In addition, the deadline for the test is that all models must pass the graduation test within 3 months from the date of completing all the lessons.

On the official websites of prefectural police nationwide, the "accident rate of designated driving school graduates in the relevant prefecture" is published for each driving school (under the jurisdiction of each police station under the jurisdiction), and the driving school with a high accident rate of graduates is officially recognized. It may be canceled.

Notification driving school

A driving school that has submitted a notification to the Public Safety Commission.There are about 130 schools nationwide, but their statistical data are not yet available.

Compared to designated schools that carry out certifications and provisional license tests by themselves, those are not permitted at undesignated registered schools, and current students themselves go to the driver's license examination site to take the provisional license skill test. The big difference is that you have to take the license subject test and this license proficiency test.However, there are few rules regarding the training of departments and skills, and the degree of freedom is high.The curriculum and minimum training time to obtain a license are not obligatory, and the training fee can be kept low accordingly, so when a person who is confident in driving skills such as a license revoked person takes the test May be advantageous in terms of price and time.The same applies to courses that require driving experience, such as large licenses and towing licenses.

On the other hand, since the proficiency test for the provisional license / main license and the provisional license subject test cannot be conducted at the registered school, there is also the burden that the enrolled students themselves have to take the test at the driver's license examination center.The procedure basically has to be done by the students themselves.The proficiency test at the Driver's License Examination Center is more difficult than the proficiency test at a designated driving school (the legal difficulty is the same, but the road you are accustomed to for the first time is different in terms of mentality during the test. (Because there are many cases where the designated driving school is judged to be unsatisfactory at the last minute), there are cases where a novice driver is frustrated on the way and transfers to a designated school, which is a heavy financial burden.In addition, when entering a school, the registered school is recruited with the disadvantages that it is not designated by the Public Safety Commission, so there is a problem with the enrolled students who entered the school by mistake without knowing the actual situation.

Of the notified driving schools, those that can carry out specific training stipulated by the rules of the National Public Safety Commission.Specific notification driving schoolCalled.Those who have completed this are exempted from the training at the time of acquisition, which must be taken after obtaining the license.After passing the provisional license, if you take the training for 5 hours or more for 10 days or more, and then take this specific training, you will have the privilege of being issued the license on the same day after passing the road test.

Non-designated driving school

A driving school that has not been supervised or supervised by the Public Safety Commission.The main purpose is to practice driving.There is also a private driving school where you can learn on the street or on private land with only vehicles and instructors, and some people use it as a paper driver training.

Training curriculum of designated driving school

Here is the first kindOrdinary carMention a driver's license.

Rules that determine the training method

The time and method of training is "Rules regarding the details of training standards for designated driving schools, etc."(National Public Safety CommissionIt is stipulated in Rule No. XNUMX).この関連法令、及び各公安委員会の指導の元で、全国の指定自動車教習所は同一の基準でカリキュラムを組んでいるUnder the guidance of these related laws and public safety commissions, designated driving schools nationwide have curriculums based on the same standards.[4].

There are two types of lessons that trainees receive: learning traffic rules and safety knowledge using textbooks and videos (BD / DVD teaching materials provided in the driving school) in the classroom, and learning driving skills in actual vehicles.[5]..In addition, skill & subject training is divided into "first stage" to learn basic driving and knowledge and "second stage" to apply it.

The training time is set at 1 minutes per training period.If you do not have a driver's license, the minimum number of training hours required to obtain an ordinary driver's license is 50 skills training (34 for AT only) and 31 for subject training.If you have a motorcycle license, you will have 26 time periods for skill training (32 time periods for AT only) and 29 time periods for subject training.If you have a large special (unlimited) license, you will have 2 time periods for skill training (26 time periods for AT only) and 23 time periods for subject training.大型特殊(カタピラ限定)免許を持っている場合、技能教習5時限(AT限定34時限)、学科教習31時限であるIf you have a large special (catapira limited) license, skill training 5 time period (AT limited XNUMX time period), department training XNUMX time period[6].

The training tuition fee is mainly "basic fee (textbook price), various examination fees (completion test, graduation test, etc.), various license and certificate issuance fees (temporary license, test pass certificate, etc.), (during high-speed training) It is composed of "toll road ordinary car toll / additional training fee", and in the case of nighttime (after 18:XNUMX) training, "nighttime fee" is added to some driving schools.All of these training fees are "prepaid (prepayment) system", and the training starts after the reception desk confirms the prescribed tuition payment (in the case of skill training, the "training" for the specified standard time and additional training There is also a driving school where you can purchase a "ticket" at the counter and submit it to the instructor in charge together with the training instructor, and at the same time submit a "night surcharge ticket" at the time of night training. ).

Skill training (both the first stage and the second stage) requires reservations, and the maximum continuous attendance time is 3 periods. Unit (high-speed training, risk prediction discussion, first aid & cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, 2) Except for the wireless training conducted at the club driving school), it is stipulated as "up to XNUMX periods".[7][8].

Each trainee will be given a "training ledger" at the time of admission procedure (payment of training fees), and by submitting the training ledger at the time of taking each department / skill course and having the instructor in charge stamp the seal, he / she will take the course. Completed units and untaken units can be identified at a glance (by subject / skill item depending on whether or not there is a seal) (a unique management number is assigned to each student in the training ledger).[9][10].

Some driving schools give students a copy of the original book, called a "training notebook."

A driving school that has a "nomination (teacher) system" that allows instructors (instructors) who are compatible with you from admission to graduation to take charge of the skill training that you take (both the first and second stages). There is also (Completion testとGraduation testIs in charge of a training instructor who has a qualification as an examiner, so it may be a different training instructor from the skill training that he / she took.In addition, if the training instructor nominated by you is absent due to vacation, business trip, etc., another training instructor who has the same vehicle type training & certification as an examiner may take the place of the timed training)[11][12].

Regular holidays differ depending on the driving school, and some driving schools say that they are open every day except for GW (Golden Week), Obon, and the year-end and New Year holidays. There is also a driving school that says "only skill training"[13]..さらに積雪の多い地区では「12月〜翌年3月までの冬期間は自動二輪車教習を休止」する教習所が多いFurthermore, in areas with heavy snowfall, there are many driving schools that "suspend motorcycle training during the winter period from December to March of the following year."[14].

Most driving schools get a driver's license by going to school, and training for the elderlyOffender trainingA free shuttle bus that can be used by trainees who take the course operates within each driving school business area (commercial area), but flights that operate courses with few passengers require advance reservations, and on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays (Due to personnel / labor costs / number of vehicles) All or some systems may be suspended.[15]..In addition, each driving school shuttle bus driver is in charge of "skills & department training and certification instructors using the free time of each time period (skills, department training, certification reservations are not included)" and "shuttle bus dedicated There are two cases of "assigning the driver separately from the instructor in charge of skill & subject training / certification"[16]..さらに就職活動を控えた学生の多くは(「入社時までに普通運転免許取得必須In addition, many students who are refraining from job hunting ("A regular driver's license must be obtained by the time you join the company"[17][18]Because a driver's license is obtained while attending school (in order to respond to employment at a company whose recruitment condition is "), each driving school shuttle bus often goes to the roads on the premises of each nearby university to improve convenience.In addition, the driving school shuttle bus basically operates on the main road of a fixed route (within the commercial area of ​​the driving school), but the system that requires advance reservation will drop in near the student's home upon request. In some cases, the demand bus (pinpoint pick-up) method will be adopted (consult with staff / driving instructors when making a reservation at the counter for the desired boarding / alighting location).[19].

The dates for the completion and graduation exams differ depending on the driving school, and are not conducted every day (mostly in the morning on weekdays).In addition, trainees involved in cheating (cheat, pre-leakage of questions, sabotage, etc.) will fail all the tests and exams conducted on that day.

eachTraining carLicensed vehicle type (normal)MT·usuallyAT・ A car number (in the form of MT01, AT01, etc.) is assigned to each large, medium, semi-medium, motorcycle, tow, special, moped), and the training instructor in charge of skill training obtains the car in charge of training. In many cases, it is fixedly assigned (in the form of classifying by vehicle type of license and instructor / examiner qualification) (if the training instructor in charge of the skill training that you take is different each time, the car number of the training car you ride is also It will be different every time. Even at a training school that has introduced a "nomination" system that allows you to receive skill training through the same training instructor, the training vehicle in charge of the training instructor will be out of operation due to vehicle inspection, regular inspection, repair, and reservations will be crowded. If so, the car number of the training car you ride on the day may be changed temporarily.[20]..In addition, when taking the test, a training car with a different car number from the one used for skill training is often assigned, and when the test is conducted, a triangular sign or square sign (depending on the prefecture) that says "Under test" is attached to the roof with a magnet. Adsorbed and posted by inserting the display board that says "Under verification" into the temporary license practice display board holder at the rear of the car body).

Things to prepare when you enter the driving school

  • Resident card(The one described in the registered domicile).既に(自動二輪・原付・小特・第一種大型特殊自動車・第一種普通自動車などの)免許を有していて(自動二輪・原付免許・小特免許や第一種大型特殊自動車免許・第一種普通自動車免許を取得後3年以上経過してから取得可能となるYou already have a license (motorcycle, moped, small special, first-class large special vehicle, first-class ordinary car, etc.) (motorcycle, moped license, small special license, first-class large special vehicle license, etc. It will be possible to obtain a first-class ordinary car license more than XNUMX years after it is obtained.[21]"Type XNUMX licenseIn addition, from January 2016, it has become possible to select whether or not to list my number when issuing a copy of the resident's card at the local government office, but in principle, my number is not listed for those submitted to the driving school. You are instructed to submit.
  • Public within the expiration dateIdentification(Health insurance card-passport-My number cardSuch.Copying is not possible, the original must be prepared).
  • Photograph for certificate (pasting the training ledger) (It may be possible to take a photo at the driving school during the admission procedure. The required number depends on the driving school and the type of driver's license).
  • glassesOrcontact lensThe user must wear it during training.
  • Admission fee, training tuition fee & additional training fee, various examination fees & certificate issuance fee, (used in skills & subject training)TextbookAnd supplementary reader price[22](Standard total is around 30 yen).
  • seal(Approval mark-Orca grouperBut it is possible).

(Accident of death or injuryDrunk drivingArrested byTraffic violationIf your driver's license is revoked (due to accumulated points), you will not be allowed to enter the driving school until the "disqualification period" of 2 years at the shortest and 10 years at the longest (the license cannot be reacquired) is resolved.In addition, narcotics, stimulants, dangerous drug addicts, and those who are judged to interfere with safety training due to dementia or alcohol dependence may not be admitted to the driving school.

In many cases, application for admission is accepted not only from the window of the driving school but also from the dedicated form on the official website of each driving school (some driving schools offer a service that discounts the training fee if you apply for admission on the Internet).There are two types of driving schools, one that "accepts every day during business hours" and the other that "specifies the date of application for admission individually".The trainees who have paid the expenses will attend the "entrance ceremony" and receive explanations from the staff about "preparation when attending the training".

If you move within the valid period of the lesson (within 9 months from the date of payment of the entrance fee and the lesson fee), you must submit the "Notice of Change of Address" to the driving school ("Current Address" in your own lesson register. In order to have the entry changed to the new address. At this time as well, it is necessary to submit the resident card of the new address where the registered domicile is written).Also, if you have to transfer to a driving school (within the valid period of your driving school) in order to move to a remote location, the training records (at the driving school you used to attend) will be recorded (unless you notify the withdrawal). Since it will be handed over to the designated driving school (which submitted the transfer notification), there is no need to redo the admission procedure (to the transfer school) or repay the admission fee (unless you leave the school you used to attend). If you are a designated driving school in Japan, you can transfer to any place by following the prescribed procedure as long as you do not submit a dropout notification or the training expiration date has passed).

the first stage

The first stage of the subject training is to learn the basic knowledge for driving on the road.The minimum number of time periods is 10, but the department training No. 1 (driver's knowledge) must be taken first.The remaining 2 to 10 can be taken regardless of the order.

The first stage of skill training (basic operation and basic driving) is all carried out in the driving school.The shortest time limit is 15 for MT cars and 12 for AT cars.In addition, considering the fatigue of trainees, the maximum number of time limits per day for skill training is set to two.

One period of skill training is a simulated driving device (Trainer) Will be the driving practice.However, depending on the driving school, the training may be all in the actual vehicle.When training in an actual driving school, there are many driving schools where the trainee is first placed in the passenger seat and the instructor drives as a model.In addition, wireless training using a wireless instruction device may be conducted for up to three periods.By wireless communication from the instructor in the monitoring room, the trainees will drive on their own.Depending on the skill of the trainee and the policy of the driving school, it may not be implemented.

If the skill does not improve and the item cannot be cleared, the time limit will be extended as an additional lesson, and an additional fee will be incurred accordingly.At the final training period, "Mikiwame" (determination) is performed to confirm the training effect.If you have not reached the level to pass the test, the time limit will be further extended as an extended lesson.The additional time and fee for skill training by this additional training / extended training vary greatly depending on the skill of the trainee.

Completion test and provisional driver's license subject test

If you take all the first-stage subject training and pass the skill training only,Completion testbecome.The purpose is to determine whether or not you have basic driving such as the ability to operate a driving device and the ability to drive in accordance with traffic regulations.The test method and scoring standard have been unified nationwide by the method based on the driver's license skill test implementation standard notified by the Director of the Transportation Bureau of the Police Agency, but each prefecture has more specific details such as the scoring method. Since the standards are based on the skill test standards and skill test implementation guidelines set by each Public Safety Commission, there are some differences depending on the prefecture.

Skill testers are considered by law to be officials engaged in public affairs with respect to the application of criminal law and other penalties (Deemed civil servant).After taking an aptitude test such as a visual acuity test on the day, a skill tester will be in the passenger seat and another examinee will be in the back seat to prevent fraud and drive the course in the hall.The course and the examiner in charge will be announced on the day.If you pass this,Provisional driver's licenseIf you do not pass the academic test, you will be retested by taking supplementary lessons for one period or more.

If you pass the test, it is a provisional driver's license subject test.This is a public examination entrusted to a driving school by the Public Safety Commission, and in 30 minutes, 50 questions in the ○ × formula will pass with 45 or more correct answers.If you pass this,Provisional driver's licenseIs issued (expiration date is 6 months from the date of issue).

Second stage

For both MT and AT, the minimum number of time periods for subject training is 16 and the minimum number of time periods for skill training is 19.The point that the skill training time becomes longer in the additional training / extended training depending on the level of the trainee is the same as in the first stage.技能については、方向変換・For skills, change directionParallel parkingItems such as will be implemented in the venue.In addition, the maximum number of time periods per day for skill training in the second stage is set to 3 periods (it is not possible to ride 3 consecutive periods, and if you take 2 periods, you are obliged to leave at least 1 period).

Unlike the first stage, there are some characteristic lessons.1994A typical example is high-speed training, which is added to the lesson items and is carried out for one period (or two periods in combination with multiple lessons) in the second half.Get on multiple training cars, head for the interchange near the driving school, and drive about 1 kilometers per person on the highway.However, in urban areas and depopulated schools where there is no highway nearby that can run at speeds exceeding 2 km / h.Driving simulator(The highway training date may be postponed even if the highway / private road that passes near the driving school is closed due to an accident or bad weather).またこの教習は、教習を実施する高速道路で50km/h規制(速度規制)が実施された時点で教習が無効になり、後日、再び実施されるか、運転シミュレーターにて代用されるIn addition, this lesson will be invalidated when the XNUMX km / h regulation (speed regulation) is enforced on the highway where the lesson is conducted, and will be re-executed at a later date or replaced by a driving simulator.[23]..Even if you obtain an MT license during high-speed training (to prevent accidents and troubles such as stalling on the main line due to mistakes such as shifting and clutch operation), most driving schools use AT cars.[24].

There is also an item called risk prediction discussion that combines one department period and one skill period.It is time for up to three people to take turns driving, then return to the classroom and discuss with the instructor how to discover the dangerous elements hidden in the traffic scene and how to deal with them.In addition, the department will also hold emergency relief training for three periods.こちらもme too1994A relatively new lesson item added from, for injured in a traffic accidentFirst aidIn time to learn, simulated human body equipmentAutomatic external defibrillatorPracticing at such as.Doctor,Dentist,nurse,ParamedicThose who have such qualifications are exempted (Lifesaving classCompletionRed Cross First AidIt is not allowed).

If you take all the second stage subject training and pass the skill training only,Graduation testbecome.The purpose of the road test is to determine the driver's ability to respond independently to the actual traffic conditions.It will be tested whether driving can respond to road conditions, surrounding traffic, and danger prediction.A skill tester will be in the passenger seat and another examinee will be in the back seat to drive the road course announced on the day.After the end, return to the venue and either parallel park or change direction.これに合格すれば、直後に行なわれる卒業式でIf you pass this, at the graduation ceremony that will be held immediately afterProvisional driver's licenseas well as the Graduation certificateAnd graduation celebrationBeginner SignIs handed over.If you do not pass, you will be re-examined after taking supplementary lessons for at least one period.The graduation test must be passed within 1 months from the date of completion of all courses.

With this graduation certificate and a temporary driver's license, etc., within one year of passing the exam, the prefecture with the residence certificateDriver's license examination siteAfter going to and taking an aptitude test such as a visual acuity test, if you pass this license subject test, you will be issued a driver's license.[25].

Notification Driving School Training Curriculum

The time and method of training are not specified.Instead, you must take a provisional license proficiency test, a provisional license subject test, a main license proficiency test, etc. at the Driver's License Examination Center.In addition, after passing this license skill test, go to a designated driving school or a specific notification driving school, and if you have an ordinary driver's license, 7 hours (danger prediction training 2 hours, highway training 2 hours, first aid training) If you do not take the training at the time of acquisition (3 hours), your license will not be issued.

In addition, at the specific notification driving school, you can take the specific training stipulated by the rules of the National Public Safety Commission.If you get an ordinary driver's license, it takes a total of 7 hours for high-speed training, danger prediction, and emergency relief.If you receive this, you will be able to obtain a certificate of completion and you will be exempted from the training at the time of acquisition.

Driving school equipment

In the case of a driving school designated by the Public Safety Commission, the following three criteria must be met.

  • Human Standards Instructors and examiners who have passed the examination by the Public Safety Commission must be assigned along with managers who have legal qualification requirements.
    • Training instructor-commonlyInstructorIt is called.A certain qualification at a designated driving school,Designated driving school instructorIs necessary.
    • Skill tester- Completion testandGraduation testExaminer to carry out.Because I am acting as an examiner at the Driver's License Examination CenterDeemed civil servantIs said to be.In many cases, he also serves as a training instructor.
    • Deputy Administrator-A person who is in a position to assist the administrator.Plays a vice-principal role in a private school. Most driving schools have about 1 people in each school, and in many cases, the deputy manager conducts certification and subject training.
    • Manager-A person who is in a supervisory position in the training work.Plays the role of principal in a private school.道路交通法施行令第35条でIn Article XNUMX of the Road Traffic Law Enforcement Ordinance"Persons who have been in a managerial or supervisory position in road traffic operations for three years or more and who have the necessary knowledge and experience in the management of driving schools"It is stipulated.都道府県によっては、監督官庁よりDepending on the prefecture, from the regulatory agencydictateDidPolice alumnusIs often the manager of a private driving school.
    • Installer-commonlychiefIt is called.A person on the management side of the lesson.In most cases, he is close to the president of a private school and also serves as the president and chief executive officer of a driving school.
  • Physical Standards Designated driving schools need to be as large as or larger than the Driver's License Examination Center.According to Article 35 (a) of the Road Traffic Law Enforcement Ordinance, "the area of ​​the course site is 8000 square meters" or more (two-wheeled driving school is 3500 square meters or more), and the type, shape and structure of the course such as starting on a slope and passing through a narrow road are required by law. It is necessary to meet the specified standards.また、技能教習や技能検定を行うために必要な種類のIn addition, the types required for skill training and skill testsTraining carAnd, it must be equipped with various facilities and equipment such as buildings, classrooms, and other simulated driving devices and simulators necessary for conducting subject training.
    • Textbook A textbook used in a driving school.It is mainly divided into "department textbooks" for subject training and "driving textbooks" for skill training.ToyotaSystemChubu Nippon Driving School(Aichi) Occupies 70% of that share,Koyama Transportation Education Service, Tokyo Hirao Publishing, Eight Dokoho Publishing, etc.Original textbooks are used by the Tokyo Designated Driving School Association and the Hokkaido Designated Driving School Association.また、第2段階の特定の教習で使用される「安全運転の知識」と「応急救護処置」の2冊はIn addition, the two books "Knowledge of safe driving" and "Emergency first aid" used in the specific training of the second stageAll Japan Designated Driving School Association FederationThe prepared textbook is used.
    • Training car
  • Operating Standards Training must conform to the standards of training methods and training hours based on the prescribed training course table stipulated by law.drivers licenseIf you want to acquire, you need to have a minimum of 26 time periods for the department training course and a minimum 34 time periods for the skill training.自衛隊自動車教習所を除き指定校として認可を受けるためには、それぞれの車種ごとに連続して10名のIn order to be approved as a designated school except for the Self-Defense Forces driving school, XNUMX people in a row for each modelOne shot testStandards are strictly set, such as having to produce successful applicants[26].

In addition,Building Standards LawAs a usage regulation byFirst-class low-rise residential area,Second-class low-rise residential area,First-class middle and high-rise residential area,Area dedicated to second-class middle and high-rise dwellingsCannot be built in.またAlsoType XNUMX residential areaThen, even if it can be constructed by law, it is practically impossible because it is limited to 3000 square meters or less.

The era of driving school selection

Declining 18-year-old population (Younger) AndYouth away from carSince the end of the 1990s, when the number of driving schools became prominent, competition among driving schools has intensified, especially in urban areas.While sales are declining, some driving schools are engaged in services and hospitality, while discounts on fees (competition for price reductions) are intensifying.Although more and more unprofitable schools in rural areas are engaged in training camps, the management of accommodation facilities and the burden of fees on brokers will be heavy.Since the business environment is harsh and there is no prospect of recovery, business closures aimed at the intentions of affiliated companies and conversion to other industries have been conspicuous since around 2000.通常、閉鎖する半年前に(所轄の都道府県)公安委員会に報告して入校を取りやめ、近隣校へ教習生の引き継ぎを行うという指導がなされてきたが、2008年10月にNormally, six months before the closure, it was instructed to report to the Public Safety Commission (prefecture of jurisdiction) to cancel enrollment and hand over the trainees to neighboring schools, but in October XNUMXTokyo District CourtIn Tokyo, which filed a petition for bankruptcy proceedingsHachioji Driving School(Designated school) did not repay the fee, which is said to be 1700 million yen, to about 2 trainees, which caused problems in various places.[27]. Also,HokkaidoSapporoIn November of the same year, the Aiiku Safety Mutual Driving School Group also closed a safety mutual motorcycle license vocational school (designated school) and entered bankruptcy proceedings without refunding tuition fees.

Most of the training cars and shuttle cars used in the closed driving school are in another driving school nearby (of the old driving school).Driver's license examination siteIt may be transferred to.

Western driving school

The United Kingdom

The British driving school also has an instructor qualification system and is supervised.[28]..Some driving schools, such as BSM, have organizations throughout the country, with the exception of many driving schools of a certain size, some of which are office-only.[28]..In the UK, the L mark is attached to the car body, and if the license holder is in the passenger seat, it can run on the road.[28]..Many use a driving school where qualified instructors are on board to train in cars with double braking.[28].

The United States of America

In the United States, you can get a driver's license by taking a simple written test at the State Department of Land Transport, then learning driving skills and taking a driving test.[29]..助手席に2年以上の運転歴を有する人が同乗していれば路上で運転の練習を行うことができるYou can practice driving on the road if a person with more than XNUMX years of driving history is on board in the passenger seat.[29]..そのため親から運転を教わって運転免許を取得する者も多いTherefore, many people learn to drive from their parents and obtain a driver's license.[30]..運転技術を教習するサービスを行っている会社もあるが、特定の施設に通うというシステムがとられることは稀であり、1時間単位の料金制で路上に出て運転技術を教える形態がとられることが多いSome companies offer a service to teach driving skills, but it is rare that a system of going to a specific facility is adopted, and it takes the form of going out on the road and teaching driving skills on an hourly basis. Often[29].


OntarioIn the case of, after self-study with books on traffic regulations and traffic signs, take an alternative written test by computer, and if you get a certain score, you will pass and a provisional license will be issued.[30]..仮免許が交付されれば助手席に運転免許保有者を同乗させることで路上を運転でき、運転技術を習得した後、試験場で試験をパスすれば自動車の運転免許を取得できるIf a provisional license is issued, you can drive on the road by having a driver's license holder in the passenger seat, and after learning driving skills, you can obtain a driver's license if you pass the test at the test site.[30]..ドライビングスクールもあるが、親から運転を教わって運転免許を取得する者も多いThere is also a driving school, but many people learn to drive from their parents and obtain a driver's license.[30].

on the other hand,QuebecIn the case of, the driving training before the license examination was limited to those who wish to obtain a license between the ages of 16 and 17.1983The amendment of the law requires all applicants to obtain a driving lesson.[30]..ただし、一般にドライビングスクールに通うという形態はとられておらず、教官が免許取得希望者の自宅に自動車で迎えに来たあとで、免許取得希望者が運転席に乗り込み路上で運転の練習を行うという形態がとられているHowever, in general, it is not a form of attending a driving school, and after the instructor comes to pick up the driver's license by car, the licensee gets into the driver's seat and practices driving on the road. Is taken[30].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Driving schools that are accredited by miscellaneous schoolsMiscellaneous schools #external linksYou can check the list of miscellaneous schools in each prefecture in.
  2. ^ Own car school (Aomori), car studies (Niigata), own school (Shizuoka), self-discipline (Okinawa) ... Is it embarrassing if you don't know?地域別「自動車教習所」の呼び方How to call a "driving school" by region(2014.4 J Town Net Tokyo)
  3. ^ All lessons must be completed within 9 months from the date of admission (date of payment of admission fee). If the lesson cannot be digested after 9 months, all lesson records will be invalidated and all lesson fees will not be refunded in principle (unless there is an unavoidable reason on the part of the driving school) (for personal reasons within 9 months from the date of enrollment). If the student volunteers to leave the school due to such reasons, the training fee will be refunded during the period after deducting expenses such as cancellation fees).さらにfurtherProvisional licenseThe expiration date is 6 months (starting from the date when the provisional license was passed and the provisional license was issued).
  4. ^ 1時限の教習時間は学科・技能いずれも「毎正時から50分間」と定められており、各業間には10分間の休憩を、正午からは1時間の昼休みをそれぞれ挟む(「毎時10分開始・正時終了」と定めている教習所もある。路上教習及び検定時は最大3時限連続となる単元を除き、開始から1時限枠の50分以内に路上コースから当該教習所内へ戻れるよう、当該時限担当教習指導員及び検定員がコース・ダイヤを即断即決で組む)。教習は「午前の部が9時開始・午後の部が13時開始、平日は午後及び夜間教習を19:50まで、土日祝の午後教習は16:50まで」とそれぞれ定めている教習所が大半を占める(教習の開始・終了時刻は一般の学校教育施設同様、chimeAnnounced by automatic broadcasting in the hall).In addition, "At the time of taking a lesson and taking an examination (both skills and departments)Mobile phone-SmartphoneIn addition, most driving schools stipulate that the premises (including the inside of shuttle cars and training cars) are "no smoking (other than designated places) all day" and "no alcohol is allowed (from the viewpoint of preventing drunk driving)". ..
  5. ^ Large screens & projectors, large plasma / liquid crystal displays, as audiovisual equipment for screening BD / DVD teaching materials (learning correct traffic rules, driving manners, etc.) in classrooms where subject training is conducted.BD / DVD player,OH P(All BD / DVD teaching material software for subject training is not for sale, and it is strictly forbidden to take it out or resell it).However, the antenna wire for watching general TV broadcasts is not connected, and general TV broadcasts can only be viewed on the TV receiver installed in the waiting room for trainees, eating and drinking & rest corner, conversation space, and free nursery room).In addition, the teaching materials used in the department training are also original to each driving school handmade by the training instructor.
  6. ^ The standard total tuition fee is around 30 yen including tax if paid in a lump sum, but a driving school that offers various plans such as license loans and installment payments so that low-income earners and students who are refraining from job hunting can easily obtain a license. There are also many.
  7. ^ No reservation is required for the subject training except for the unit of "First Aid & Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation", and there is no limit to the number of hours that can be taken continuously on the day during business hours.In addition to the prescribed cancellation fee when canceling a reservation, the order may change if the training car you plan to take is filled with the reservation of the other party.
  8. ^ Most driving schools have child-rearing housewives (public transport, even if you don't have a driver's license)Bicycle・ There is a "free childcare room" where you can leave your child while taking a skill & department course / certification to obtain a driver's license (due to moving from a metropolitan area that was in time on foot to an area that is inconvenient if you do not have a car). Even if you go to a small designated driving school that does not have a free nursery room, you can leave your child at a nearby nursery school while you are taking the training / certification. Partial subsidy may be available from the school).
  9. ^ At the start time of the training, the trainee instructor in charge takes out the trainee's ledger for which the skill training is reserved from the storage shelf, calls the name (of the trainee), and then guides him to the place where the training car to board is located.When the skill training for the time period is completed, the training instructor in charge returns the trainee ledger to the storage shelf.If you want to take the subject lessons from the next period onward continuously from the timed skill lesson, the instructor in charge of the skill lesson will hand over the original book directly to the trainee, and when you have taken all the skills and subject lessons for the day, the original book will be promptly taken. (If you take the department training first, the trainee will apply to the counter and get his / her own ledger. The ledger returned by the trainee to the counter will be returned to the reception staff or the training instructor. Return to storage shelf).
  10. ^ It is strictly forbidden to take the original book to the outside to prevent loss and leakage of personal information, and it is stipulated that the original book should be kept strictly on the storage shelf in the driving school after all the training on the day.For this reason, the trainee will return the original book to the window after completing all the skills and subject training for the day, and at the same time make reservations for skill training from the next time (tomorrow) (based on these reservations, dispatch staff & work as each training instructor) Since the staff in charge of creating the table will set up the training car and the operation schedule of the training instructor in charge from the next day onward, the skill training reservation must be completed by the day before the scheduled course in the morning, afternoon, and night. The obi is decided by myself in consideration of compatibility with school and work and other circumstances).In addition, there are some driving schools that have an "automatic check-in machine (for skill training reservation)" and that you can make reservations for skill training on the Internet from the official website of the driving school (some driving schools have a large plasma or liquid crystal display in the student waiting room). , The status of reservations for driving school skills training on the same day and the following day may be displayed on that screen).
  11. ^ Most driving schools conduct questionnaires to trainees about "the atmosphere of the driving school, various services, teaching methods and language of training instructors during skill training, etc.", and the answers and requests received are to improve the management of the driving school in the future. It is used as a material.
  12. ^ Emergency vehicle driving skill training (such as police cars, police motorcycles, fire engines, ambulances, etc.) never causes personal injury, property damage, or contact accidents with general vehicles, and is an "emergency" for emergency transportation, on-site express, and suspicious vehicle tracking. (Driving is to train professional workers who can drive quickly and safely) It is more difficult than a general driving school, and the road to becoming a driving school instructor (examination / certification criteria, etc.) is also steeper than a general driving school instructor.
  13. ^ Road Traffic LawSkill training for trainees will not be conducted on the days and times when the "elderly training" and "violator training" specified in the above will be conducted (because the on-site course and training vehicle of the driving school will be used there). (Lessons only).
  14. ^ In consideration of students who are busy on weekdays due to schoolwork, the driving school is mostly open on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays except for Golden Week, Obon, and the year-end and New Year holidays.Most of the business hours of the driving school are set to "8:20 to 8:18" on weekdays and "XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX" on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, so the working hours and vacations of the driving school staff (training instructors) are "shift (early shift / late shift)". "System" is adopted (staff shifts between early and late shifts before and after lunch break, and employees and training instructors take turns to take leave including paid leave).
  15. ^ The training car is not equipped with car radio and car audio, but the shuttle car is equipped with car radio and car audio like general passenger cars (during the pick-up service, the area concernedEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Transportation informationOften broadcast local AM / FM radio broadcasts for the purpose of obtaining such information).
  16. ^ In most cases, the transfer of trainees to and from the private car of the driving school instructor / staff used for commuting (the so-called "white taxi" misrepresentation) is prohibited by company regulations (accidents). To prevent troubles related to liability and compensation in the event of causing an accident and injuring a trainee, or "the act of having a trainee practice driving in a vehicle other than the training car = own private car". Also, training that is a "public car" Cars, shuttle cars, and commercial vehicles deployed at the training school are also prohibited from being used for purposes other than the intended purpose. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of alleviating traffic congestion and preventing drunk driving, training schools that stipulate "no commuting by car" are also mainly in metropolitan areas. is there).
  17. ^ Since most of the commercial vehicles of taxis and companies are AT vehicles, an increasing number of companies have set the employment condition as "AT limited license is acceptable", but automobile manufacturers, car dealers (including used car purchase dealers), car supplies stores・ Bike & bicycle dealers, automobile maintenance shops (including gas stations), car rental companies, etc. have companies that advocate "MT license required" so that they can handle manufacturing, sales, inspection and repair, parts replacement, rental, and purchase of all types of vehicles. There are many.In addition, since most of the large vehicles such as fixed-route buses, sightseeing buses, trucks, and construction vehicles are MT vehicles, in principle, "acquisition of a large MT license" is listed as a driver employment condition of the company.In addition, some companies have set the hiring condition as "more than one year has passed since the license was obtained (beginner mark is not allowed)".
  18. ^ For high school students who want to get a job, "You can get a license when you reach the age of 16 for mopeds and motorcycles, and 18 for ordinary passenger cars", but each school is in charge of the notification document that you want to get a driver's license. Only students who have submitted in advance to the teacher and the school principal are allowed to go to the driving school, and the license acquisition activity is allowed to be carried out within the range that does not interfere with the school work (using long holidays etc.), and "while attending school" The license obtained is kept by the teacher in charge (of the class to which the student belongs) until the time of graduation, and no vehicle other than a bicycle is allowed to drive until the diploma is received. " In order to prevent "cancellation of job offer" due to being arrested for traffic violations. There is a column in the notification document of the request for permission to attend a driving school, and there is a column to write "reasons for obtaining a license", and while attending school as a private hobby In principle, license acquisition is not permitted = Only for the reason "to be able to get a job at a company that requires the acquisition of a normal driver's license by the time of joining the company". Without submitting the notification document of the license acquisition permission application to the school = Students who go to the driving school without permission from their homeroom teacher and school principal, or who attend the driving school without permission from regular classes may be subject to "suspension" or "withdrawal". Also, poor behavior, poor academic performance, etc. Students who are late, absent, or leave too early may not be granted a license while still in school).In the case of universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools, there are no special provisions regarding the acquisition of a driver's license in the school rules, saying, "Go to a driving school within the range that does not interfere with your studies. We are only enlightening people so that they will not be arrested and have a fatal injury accident and cancel their job offer.
  19. ^ The operating hours are generally "1 hour before the start of the lesson to 1 hour after the end of the last lesson period on the day (weekdays from 8:20 to 8:17, Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX. The first flight is pick-up only and last Each flight is a one-way operation only for sending, and the outbound route of the first flight = the return route of the last flight from the driving school to each course = forwarding from each course to the driving school) ”, and users heading to the driving school from home or school (Places with poor visibility such as sharp curves, intersections, steep slopes, pedestrian crossings, parking prohibited places, etc.Transit BusStopYou can get on the train if you raise your hand and give a signal on a safe and clear route (avoid near the area).車種は主にMainly car modelsToyota Hiace,Nissan caravan,DelicaWagon cars, light vans, etc. are used, and each driving school logo is printed on the car body (MT cars were used in the past, but in recent years, wagon type light vans are also AT cars. In most cases, on routes with a large number of usersMitsubishi Fuso Rosa-Toyota coasterSuch asMicrobusMay be used, in which case the staff and training instructors with semi-medium, medium and large licenses will drive).In addition, the left rear door of the shuttle car can be opened and closed automatically by the driver's button operation, or it can be opened and closed manually by the trainee himself (similar to a general private car).The pick-up vehicle driver records the number of people getting on and off each stop in the course in charge in the daily driving report, and reports them to the training vehicle manager (safe driving manager) (in the form of submitting the daily driving report) after the operation of the section in charge is completed. (The contents of the report will be consulted with the staff meeting of the relevant training schedule held several times a year as materials for creating the shuttle car course & timetable in the future, and requests from the trainees for each course of the shuttle car and the operation schedule at that seat. It is decided after comprehensively considering such things).Since the driving school shuttle car also operates during the lunch break time (between noon and 13:XNUMX), the staff (training instructor) who drives the shuttle car during that time shifts the lunch break time.
  20. ^ Training cars and shuttle cars that are aging or are about to be inspected will be replaced with new cars, but in many cases the car number will continue to be the same as the previous car number (however)License plateRegistration number & symbol changed.Also, when renewing a new car, the driving school logo printed on the car model, manufacturer, car body color, and car body may change for each license type of shuttle car and training car.Since the training car has special specifications and equipment different from general passenger cars, it will not be transferred to other companies after retirement in principle.Scrapped car·Dismantling).
  21. ^ futureDesignated driving school instructorIf you want to become, "For the type of vehicle you want to be in charge of training (normal, moped, motorcycle, semi-medium size, medium size, large size, special, towing)First-class licenseThe condition that "a person who has acquired (MT) and is 21 years old or older at the time of application" must be met as "(prefecture where the driving school is located).Public Safety CommissionThe minimum requirements for applying for the "Driving School Employee Recruitment Examination" and "Driving School Employee Recruitment Examination" (In the case of ordinary, semi-medium, medium, large, special, towing, AT limited license cannot be applied in principle and MT license Acquisition is the minimum requirement. Most driving schools hire personnel who have "acquired an MT license for the type of vehicle they want to take charge of" as full-time employees after being selected through interviews, etc. Immediately after joining the company, they are in charge of assisting senior instructors as "apprentices". After that, he is allowed to stand alone as an instructor & examiner only after passing the "training instructor and skill examiner certification examination").The Road Traffic Act stipulates that "only vehicles that you have a license and instructor & examiner qualification can take charge of training and certification", and to be in charge of training and certification for all vehicle types, type 1 and type 2 A total of 22 types of instructor and examiner qualifications must be obtained (there is even one arrest and accident history due to traffic violations, drunk driving, etc., and these facts were hidden when applying for the certification examination & driving school employee employment examination. = If the history is spoofed, the examination & employment examination will be rejected and the road to the driving school instructor will be closed. Furthermore, in most driving schools, "active driving school instructors are arrested for drunk driving and traffic violations regardless of whether they are public cars or private cars. In principle, if you have a fatal accident, or if you "have been learning without a license or continuing to drive a public car without reporting to your boss that your license has expired due to revocation of your license, etc."Disciplinary dismissal”.In addition, "Public money clothing", "Private (non-purpose) use of public cars", "No roll call as prescribed", "Fashion settlement and padding", "Drunken driving of active training instructors & staff, traffic violations, deaths and injuries" Accident / Unlicensed driving = Driving with a license that has expired without renewal or a license that does not match the vehicle type "・" Illegal & such as canning at the time of certification, leakage of questions, etc.Matchfix"Acts" ・ "Violence against trainees, colleagues, seniors, subordinates, etc. by active instructors, sexual harassment, power harassment, ranting acts" ・ "Driving school, shuttle car, business car operation" ・ "DUI inspection The driving school is under the jurisdiction of a series of "replacement / replacement of balls" and "training and driving a public car without a license because the license has expired".Public Safety CommissionMore "suspension of business for a certain period of time", "suspension of use of several training cars & shuttle cars for a certain period of time", "deprivation of official recognition", "training instructor for the person who caused a problematic behavior that seriously damages the credibility of the driving school" And administrative sanctions based on the Road Traffic Act, such as "disqualification of examiner qualification").Furthermore, if you want to acquire the "skill tester" qualification and also take charge of the skill test, "7 years or more (25 years old at the time of application) after obtaining the license of the car model you want to take charge of the test, and as a training instructor at your driving school You must meet the condition of "more than 4 years of work experience".In addition, if you want to take charge of the "elderly training" stipulated by the Road Traffic Act, you need to have a separate "elderly training instructor" qualification (25 years old or older at the time of application and 5 years or more of work experience as a training instructor). You can take the test if you meet the conditions of).The "National Designated Driving School Instructor Workshop" and "New Training Instructor Study Group" are held several times a year.Nagoya cityShowa WardIt is carried out at "Chubunippon Motor Driving School" in.
  22. ^ At most designated driving schools in JapanToyotaSubsidiary "Chubu Nippon Driving SchoolThe textbooks for subject and skill training published by "" are used (however, "first aid" and "basics of safe driving" areAll Japan Designated Driving School Association FederationUse the published textbook).
  23. ^ This driving simulator is also used in other training items, but there are many trainees who are dizzy when looking at the screen, and there are opinions that question the training effect, so the reputation in the field is not very good.
  24. ^ In particular, AT cars are used exclusively from the viewpoint of risk prevention at driving schools that select highways with heavy traffic as training routes.これに関連する高速教習中の事故例もあり、特に重大なものとして高速教習開始直後のThere are also accidents during high-speed training related to this, and the most serious one is immediately after the start of high-speed training.1994May 6,Kyoto City OfRakuto Driving School(Closed in 2016) training carMeishin ExpresswayKusatsu Parking AreaIn the vicinity, there is a case in which a trainee stalled on the main highway due to an operation error, and a large truck that was driving asleep collided with it, resulting in the death of one trainee sitting in the back seat.
  25. ^ Emergency car(Patrol car-White motorcycle-Fire engine-ambulanceRegistered as an "emergency vehicle" with the prefectural police department in chargePatliteas well as the サ イ レ ンThe so-called "silent car") is a "white number" and "yellow number" car like a general private car (the current Road Traffic Act states that "an original driver's license system required to drive an emergency car" (Because there is no regulation), (motorcycles, ordinary, semi-medium, medium, large, special, etc.) You can drive if you have a first-class license suitable for each model, but it is always accompanied by "emergency driving" that is next to danger Due to the nature (because the exception provision of the Road Traffic Act "You do not have to stop at a red light when driving with a siren and a blinking patrol light" is applied), the organization to which you are assigned (Fire Department / Police Headquarters) ) And at business establishments (for the purpose of preventing contact with general vehicles, property damage, and personal injury), driving skill proficiency training & certification test (in the form of renting a local driver's license examination center or designated automobile training center course) It is carried out independently and issues an "emergency driving certificate" to successful applicants (simply has "normal, semi-medium, medium, large, large special, towing, and motorcycle licenses". You cannot drive an emergency car with just "", and first of all, "more than 2 years have passed since you obtained a first-class license suitable for the vehicle type = you are 20 years old or older at the time of application, and you will continue to have no accidents and no violations for 1 year or more." The conditions must be met. In the case of the police, each prefectural police organization independently conducts advanced patrol car and white-buy driving skill proficiency training & test from general automobile training institutes, and depending on the driving skill, "4th grade to 1" Set the level up to "class" (However, there is an upper limit on the number of police officers who can participate in the patrol car / white bye driving proficiency training, and if the proficiency test continues to fail, you will not be able to drive the patrol car / white bye). Police officerPolice schoolDuring the training period in Japan, we conducted vehicle driving training with the goal of acquiring up to "3rd grade".Emergency driving on public roads is not possible unless you can be promoted to "2nd grade" or higher, and 3rd grade or lower is "driving with conditions and restrictions that" narrow down the types and scenes where emergency driving is possible "".If you are promoted to the highest level, "1st grade", you will be qualified as a "police car & police motorcycle driving skill proficiency training instructor", which is higher than the general designated driving school training instructor. Guidance is possible = Many of the training instructorsCar police-Transportation riot police-High speed corpsAn active veteran transportation department member who is active in the "police car professional group".またAlsoPolice motorcycle memberThe "Prefecture and National Police Motorcycle Driving Skills Competition" is also held several times a year.In addition, police officers who meet the condition that "more than 2 years have passed since obtaining a normal MT license and motorcycle license = 20 years old or older at the time of application" can participate in the driving skill training of police cars and police motorcycles.Most police cars are MT cars, so in principle you cannot drive with an AT-only license.The police car & police motorcycle driving skill test is more difficult than the general driver's license skill test, and passing is a narrow gate.In addition, it requires the most advanced police car & police motorcycle driving skills and flexible judgment.High speed corpsIn order to be assigned to "Practice & Driving" in each department that has jurisdiction over general roads such as "Police box", "Traffic section of assigned police station", "Automobile police force", "Mobile investigation team", "Traffic mobile team" It is necessary to accumulate experience for a certain period of time, and even after being assigned to the high-speed corps, rigorous training will be accumulated day and night).In addition, an "emergency vehicle driving skill examination" is conducted every year to check whether driving skills are maintained normally, and those who fail this test will not be able to drive an emergency vehicle for a certain period of time.
  26. ^ Designated a large class 2 license When the law was amended so that students could take training and skill tests at a driving school, schools that used to operate large class 2 as a notification school will be exempted from tuition fees in order to receive a new designation. We had a system in place to recruit 10 students in a row and receive guidance so that they could pass the test once.
  27. ^ "Hachioji Driving School" Sudden Bankruptcy-Shock Spreads to Trainees
  28. ^ a b c d Seimi Tominaga "Current Status and Problems of Driver's License System" Journal of International Traffic Safety Society(Retrieved September 2021, 1)
  29. ^ a b c ICC International Exchange Committee "Challenge Now! American University Study Abroad Final Edition 2007", p. 93
  30. ^ a b c d e f Shigeru Haga, "Reason for Accidents Not Eliminating: Pitfalls of Safety Measures," PHP Shinsho, 2012, pp. 38-39

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