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👩‍🎓 | [Summer vacation 2021] Supporting research and learning "Let's research organ transplantation!" Released on 7/26


Photo Kids Site "Organ Transplant for Everyone"

[Summer vacation 2021] Supporting research and learning "Let's research organ transplantation!" Released on 7/26

 
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Both sheets have items for interviewing family members and friends about organ transplantation, and not only summarize the research, but also talk with people around them such as family members and friends about "organ transplantation" and "importance of life". Create an opportunity.
 

On July 2021, 7, the Japan Organ Transplant Network will be on the site for young people, "Organ Transplant for Everyone," during the summer vacation ... → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


Wikipedia related words

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Transplant (medical)

transplant(Issho) is the provider (donor) From recipient (Recipient)組織,OrganTransfer and plantMedical practiceThat. The tissues and organs used in transplantation are called "grafts". There are various forms of transplantation as shown below, but in general, transplantation of organs becomes a topic.Organ transplantationKnown as the elephant.

Overview

Human organ transplantation refers to medical treatment in which a healthy organ of another person is transplanted to restore its function to a person whose organ has failed due to illness or accident.[1].

Organ transplantation is a field where humankind has benefited from the development of life science along with treatment of intractable diseases.[2].. Organ transplantation may be the only cure at the current medical level for some diseases[3]..Organ transplantation after brain death is possible,ImmunosuppressantThe progress has also improved the results of organ transplantation.[4]..However, immunosuppressants must be administered for life andImmunologyRaw meat, fish, etc.Bacteria,Fungus,ウ イ ル スHas the disadvantage of not being able to consume foods that may contain[5].

On the other hand, regarding organ transplantation, there is debate about how organ donors should judge brain death.The view of life and death differs greatly depending on the religion and the times as well as the national character, and there are difficult problems in how to understand organ transplantation, etc.[6].. Claim to deny organ transplantation from a ideological and religious standpoint[7]There is also.In addition, organ transplantation is morally recognized in the Catholic Church, and organ donation after death is sublime.[8].

Sort

Classification by relationship between donor and recipient

  • Autologous transplant (autograft): The transfer of one's organization to another place of one's own.
  • Allograft: Transferring organizations other than self.
    • Allogeneic transplant (allograft): same as recipient種Use the tissue of.
      • Syngeneic transplant (isograft):ImmunologyUse the tissues of individuals (identical twins and inbred animals) that are physically identical.
    • Xenotransplantation (xenograft): Use tissue of a different species than the recipient.
  • Artificial transplant: Also called plastic surgery,Artificial materialsIt means to repair organs using. Mainly used in artificial blood vessels, skin, and heart valve replacement surgery.

Classification by donor status

  • Living transplant: To be provided by a living donor.
  • : Provided by a dead donor
    • Brain death transplant: Donorbrain deathAfter it is judged that the organs are removed.
    • Cardiac death transplant (cardiac arrest transplant): Removing organs etc. after donor cardiac arrest.

Target

There are various types of organs that can be transplanted as follows. However, after the cardiac arrest of the donor (cardiac arrest transplantation), the function of the organs declines rapidly, so the transplant target is limited to some organs such as the pancreas, kidneys, and eyeballs. To be[4].

Although it is not a general treatment method, there are some cases in which the following transplant surgery was conducted in research.

  • Head transplant(As of 2016, head transplant surgery was successful in mice and monkeys.In 2019, Russian man Valery Spiridnov suffered from the intractable disease of muscular atrophy. A transplant operation was planned, but the plan was canceled because Valery Spyridnov withdrew his offer.)
  • (1998 ToFranceThe first arm transplant has been performed in Japan, and there are more than a dozen cases reported worldwide. )
  • (People's Republic of ChinaOne case was reported at the academic conference,[9]The second case was in South Africa, and the fourth case was in the United States, one of which was successfully completely transplanted except for the testis, including the scrotum and inferior epigastric wall.[10])
  • Face transplant(FranceThe first transplant was done in[11], There are several other reports. Poland is the first face transplant for life saving.[12])
  • Uterine transplant(There are several reports.)

History

Human transplant medicine began in the 1950s and 1960s.1956 ,Japan OfNiigata UniversityでAcute renal failureSurgery to temporarily transplant a kidney to a patient[1].

1963 Received the world's first liver and lung transplant in the United States[1]. Also,1967 ToRepublic of South AfricaWorld's First Heart Transplant[1].

Bioethics and international standards

Organ trade and transplant tourism

Wealthy people mainly in developed countriesDeveloping countryOrgans from the poorOrgan trade(Organ sale)[13], And a transplant, a type of travel for a transplantTourism[14]Has been viewed as a global issue because it tramples the principles of fairness, justice, and respect for human dignity.[15]And WHO have put forth a regulation policy.

Overseas travel transplant issues

In developed countries, organ transplantation is based on a donor waiting system.As much as we accept patients from abroad who are on the top of the waiting list, it is possible that patients in our own country who are below that patient will die without receiving an organ transplant.Therefore, even if it is different from organ trading, it is argued that it is natural to refuse or restrict travel transplants from abroad as well.[16].

2008 At the International Conference on Transplantation in May, a guideline that calls for efforts to secure necessary organs in each country is the "Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trading and Transplant Tourism."[15]Was adopted, and it was recommended that the principle of overseas travel transplant be banned. In response to this2010 5 of the monthWorld Health Organization (WHO)At the General Assembly, a new guideline on organ transplantation was adopted, which prohibits overseas travel for organ transplant surgery in principle.[17].

On the other hand, in some countries, there is a mechanism to ensure the transparency of the transplant so that it is not regarded as a transplant tourism, and in some countries, the transplant is accepted from a public point of view for people who cannot receive care in their own country.[18].

Transplant medicine in Japan

History of corpse transplantation

Dawn

In Japan in 1956,Niigata UniversityKidney transplant in a patient with acute renal failure[1].

Full-scale organ transplant1964 ToTokyo UniversityFirst Live Kidney Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Renal Failure[1].. Also in the same yearChiba UniversityでliverWas transplanted for the first time[1].

1968 IsSapporo Medical University OfToshiro WadaThe 30th example in the world by the professorHeart transplantAnd the transplant patient survived for 83 days[19]. So-calledWada heart transplant caseIs. Admired during the life of the transplant patient, but whether the donor's lifesaving treatment was adequate after death.brain deathWhether the decision was made properly, whether the recipient really needed a transplant, etc.Brain death criteriaThe brain-dead transplantation of those days was controversial. For Professor WadaMurder OfCriminal chargesAlsoSapporo District Public Prosecutor's OfficeAlthough an arbitrary investigation was carried out by the company, it was dismissed without sufficient charges.

1984 IsUniversity of Tsukuba OfFukao standingThe professor carried out simultaneous pancreatic and renal transplantation based on a judgment of brain death, but due to the death of the patient, the surgeons were charged with murder.

in Japan,brain deathThere is a strong tendency not to regard human death as a human death, and the era in which brain death transplantation continues to be taboo continues.

Development of cardiac death transplant

1979 ,Law on Transplantation of Corneal and KidneyWas enacted, and a law on cardiac death transplantation was put in place. The law allowed the donation of post-mortem kidneys and corneas with the consent of the family. Since then, 150 to 250 kidney transplants and 1600 to 2500 corneal transplants have been performed each year under cardiac death.

Beginning of brain death transplantation

1997 January,Law on organ transplantationIs enforced,PrincipalIs legally recognized as a human death, and brain death transplantation is possible only if the family has written intent to donate the organ according to the brain death determination and the family consents to the brain death determination and organ donation. It was

Under this law,Manifestation of intentionThere is no stipulation of possible age,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareGuidelines for donorsManifestation of intentionPossible age is civil lawwillAccording to the possible age, 15 years or older was notified. In addition, brain death is considered to be human death regardless of organ donation, and even if the intention of the person is unknown, it is extremely strict compared to Europe, America, Australia, etc., which can be provided with the consent of the family. Is very few. For this reason, Japan is one of the countries with advanced medical technology for transplant medicine in Europe, the United States, and Asia, where the number of organ transplants is extremely small. On the other hand, there are strong criticisms from those who question the idea that brain death is the death of humans.brain deathThere are many medical doctors who have strong doubts about the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare standards, and there are people who do not accept organ transplantation itself as medical treatment, and there is an opposition movement against the organ transplantation law itself and legal revision.

As a means of displaying the intention to donate an organ with the establishment of a law on organ transplantation,Organ donation intention display cardIs now distributed. In addition, as an organization that arranges organs,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareBy the approval ofJapan Organ Transplant NetworkWas established.

1999 In February, the first brain death transplant under this law was conducted. From a brain-dead patient admitted to the Kochi Red Cross Hospital in Kochi Prefecture, a heart, liver, kidney, and cornea were transplanted based on the patient's intention and the consent of the family. At the time of this transplantation, it was taken up so much that the mass media companies rushed to the related hospitals in large numbers and chased the vehicles that transport organs with a helicopter. Since then, about five brain death transplantations have been performed each year.

However, the number of patients who wish to have a transplant and are registered is increasing, and there are many cases in which they die without receiving a transplant.In addition, there are an endless number of patients traveling to receive transplants outside Japan.In particular, it was legally impossible in Japan to donate organs after brain death for children under the age of 15, so children who needed a transplant had to travel outside Japan due to problems such as the size of the donated organs. Fund-raising activities are often carried out to cover the high medical costs of tens of millions of yen, and some of these organ transplants that travel outside Japan are interrupted by the power of money. In this case, there is a suspicion that it may be an organ trade.In addition, receiving a transplant overseas means that, depending on the viewpoint, valuable organs may be stolen and patients waiting for a transplant in that country may have to wait longer, and the principle is that patients in their own country should be treated in their own country. There was international criticism under.

Brain death transplantation by a donor under the age of 15

Due to the criticism of Japan's brain death transplantation system as described above, the organ transplantation law that enables brain death transplantation was amended in 2009, and the intention to refuse to provide brain death transplantation after July 2010, 7 Unless otherwise indicated, it will be accepted with the consent of the family. This has made it possible for organ transplants of donors under the age of 17 in Japan.

2011年4月13日に日本で初めて15歳未満のドナーによる脳死移植が行われ、10代のドナーから60代の患者に移植された。2012年6月15日に日本で初めて6歳未満のドナーによる脳死移植が行われ、6歳未満のドナーから10歳未満の患者と60代の患者に移植された。

Living transplant

1964 Living kidney transplant,1989 This was the first time that a partial liver transplant was performed.1992 ToBone marrow bank,1999 ToCord blood bankWas born,Bone marrow transplantation,Hematopoietic stem cell transplantThe mechanism of is maintained.

2014 May 5,Kyoto University HospitalWas the first in the world to successfully perform an inverted lung transplant. In surgery, based on the in-vivo data of both the provider and the patient3D printerI made a model with and examined/tested[20][21][22].

Transplant facility

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant,Kidney transplantIs widely practiced at numerous medical institutions nationwide. Since only a limited number of facilities are undergoing transplant surgery for the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and small intestine, it is shown below.[23].

Transplant facility (as of May 2013, 5)[23]
  • Among heart transplantation facilities, the ones that allow simultaneous cardiopulmonary transplantation are ◎
  • Among the lung transplantation facilities, those that do not do lung transplantation alone △
  • All pancreas transplantation facilities are capable of simultaneous pancreatic kidney transplantation.
  • Only Tohoku University Hospital is carrying out transplant surgery for the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and small intestine.
Facility心 臓liver
Hokkaido University Hospital(North Latitude 43 Degrees 4 Minutes 39.5 Seconds East longitude 141 degree 20 min 43.3 sec /43.077639 degrees north latitude 141.345361 degrees east longitude / 43.077639; 141.345361 (Hokkaido University Hospital (heart, liver, pancreas, intestines)))◎○○○
Iwate Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 38 Degrees 16 Minutes 18.8 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 51 min 40.6 sec /38.271889 degrees north latitude 140.861278 degrees east longitude / 38.271889; 140.861278 (Iwate Medical University (liver)))○
Tohoku University Hospital(North Latitude 38 Degrees 16 Minutes 18.8 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 51 min 40.6 sec /38.271889 degrees north latitude 140.861278 degrees east longitude / 38.271889; 140.861278 (Tohoku University Hospital (heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines)))◎○○○○
Fukushima Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 37 Degrees 41 Minutes 23.9 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 28 min 16.8 sec /37.689972 degrees north latitude 140.471333 degrees east longitude / 37.689972; 140.471333 (Fukushima Medical University Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Jichi Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 36 Degrees 23 Minutes 55.7 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 51 min 37 sec /36.398806 degrees north latitude 139.86028 degrees east longitude / 36.398806; 139.86028 (Jichi Medical University Hospital (liver)))○ Only under 18
Dokkyo Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 36 Degrees 28 Minutes 20.3 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 49 min 31.4 sec /36.472306 degrees north latitude 139.825389 degrees east longitude / 36.472306; 139.825389 (Dokkyo Medical University Hospital (lungs / pancreas)))○○
Saitama Medical University International Medical Center(North Latitude 35 Degrees 55 Minutes 17.4 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 19 min 19.9 sec /35.921500 degrees north latitude 139.322194 degrees east longitude / 35.921500; 139.322194 (Saitama Medical University International Medical Center (heart)))◎
National Hospital Organization Chiba East Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 35 Minutes 4.5 Seconds East longitude 140 degree 9 min 38.7 sec /35.584583 degrees north latitude 140.160750 degrees east longitude / 35.584583; 140.160750 (National Hospital Organization Chiba East Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Keio University Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 40 Minutes 53 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 43 min 4.8 sec /35.68139 degrees north latitude 139.718000 degrees east longitude / 35.68139; 139.718000 (Keio University Hospital (liver / intestine)))○○
Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 41 Minutes 49.5 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 43 min 10.8 sec /35.697083 degrees north latitude 139.719667 degrees east longitude / 35.697083; 139.719667 (Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital (heart / pancreas)))◎○
Juntendo Clinic, Juntendo University School of Medicine(North Latitude 35 Degrees 42 Minutes 7.6 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 45 min 45 sec /35.702111 degrees north latitude 139.76250 degrees east longitude / 35.702111; 139.76250 (Juntendo University School of Medicine Juntendo Clinic (liver)))○
The University of Tokyo Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 42 Minutes 40.1 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 45 min 52.5 sec /35.711139 degrees north latitude 139.764583 degrees east longitude / 35.711139; 139.764583 (University of Tokyo Hospital (Heart / Liver)))◎ Under 11 years old○
National Center for Child Health and Development(North Latitude 35 Degrees 37 Minutes 58.8 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 36 min 42.2 sec /35.633000 degrees north latitude 139.611722 degrees east longitude / 35.633000; 139.611722 (National Center for Child Health and Development (liver)))○ Only under 18
Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center(North Latitude 35 Degrees 37 Minutes 54.9 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 17 min 20.4 sec /35.631917 degrees north latitude 139.289000 degrees east longitude / 35.631917; 139.289000 (Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center (Pancreas)))○
Niigata University Medical and Dental General Hospital(North Latitude 37 Degrees 55 Minutes 6 Seconds East longitude 139 degree 2 min 8.5 sec /37.91833 degrees north latitude 139.035694 degrees east longitude / 37.91833; 139.035694 (Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital (liver, pancreas, intestine)))○○○
Kanazawa University Hospital(North Latitude 36 Degrees 33 Minutes 23.6 Seconds East longitude 136 degree 40 min 20.8 sec /36.556556 degrees north latitude 136.672444 degrees east longitude / 36.556556; 136.672444 (Kanazawa University Hospital (liver)))○
Shinshu University Hospital(North Latitude 36 Degrees 14 Minutes 56.9 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 58 min 43.1 sec /36.249139 degrees north latitude 137.978639 degrees east longitude / 36.249139; 137.978639 (Shinshu University Hospital (Liver)))○
Nagoya University Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 9 Minutes 29.5 Seconds East longitude 136 degree 55 min 18.4 sec /35.158194 degrees north latitude 136.921778 degrees east longitude / 35.158194; 136.921778 (Nagoya University Hospital (liver / intestine)))○○
Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 8 Minutes 41.8 Seconds East longitude 136 degree 57 min 56.5 sec /35.144944 degrees north latitude 136.965694 degrees east longitude / 35.144944; 136.965694 (Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Fujita Health University Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 4 Minutes 13.9 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 0 min 1.7 sec /35.070528 degrees north latitude 137.000472 degrees east longitude / 35.070528; 137.000472 (Fujita Health University Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Mie University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 44 Minutes 35.3 Seconds East longitude 136 degree 31 min 16.2 sec /34.743139 degrees north latitude 136.521167 degrees east longitude / 34.743139; 136.521167 (Mie University Hospital (liver)))○
Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 1 Minutes 28.4 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 46 min 11.7 sec /35.024556 degrees north latitude 135.769917 degrees east longitude / 35.024556; 135.769917 (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital (liver / pancreas)))○○
Kyoto University Hospital(North Latitude 35 Degrees 1 Minutes 11 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 46 min 40 sec /35.01972 degrees north latitude 135.77778 degrees east longitude / 35.01972; 135.77778 (Kyoto University Hospital (lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines)))○○○○
Osaka University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 49 Minutes 9.9 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 31 min 42.2 sec /34.819417 degrees north latitude 135.528389 degrees east longitude / 34.819417; 135.528389 (Osaka University Children's Hospital (heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, intestines)))◎ Under 11 years old○○○○
National Cardiovascular Research Center(North Latitude 34 Degrees 49 Minutes 45.3 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 30 min 16.7 sec /34.829250 degrees north latitude 135.504639 degrees east longitude / 34.829250; 135.504639 (National Cardiovascular Research Center (heart / lung)))◎ Under 11 years old△
Kobe University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 41 Minutes 8.8 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 10 min 15.6 sec /34.685778 degrees north latitude 135.171000 degrees east longitude / 34.685778; 135.171000 (Kobe University Hospital (Liver / Pancreas)))○○
Nara Medical University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 30 Minutes 13.3 Seconds East longitude 135 degree 47 min 32.3 sec /34.503694 degrees north latitude 135.792306 degrees east longitude / 34.503694; 135.792306 (Nara Medical University Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Okayama University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 39 Minutes 4.6 Seconds East longitude 133 degree 55 min 14.8 sec /34.651278 degrees north latitude 133.920778 degrees east longitude / 34.651278; 133.920778 (Okayama University Hospital (heart, lungs, liver, intestines)))◎○○○
Hiroshima University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 22 Minutes 47 Seconds East longitude 132 degree 28 min 44.2 sec /34.37972 degrees north latitude 132.478944 degrees east longitude / 34.37972; 132.478944 (Hiroshima University Hospital (liver / pancreas)))○○
Kagawa University Hospital(North Latitude 34 Degrees 17 Minutes 32.3 Seconds East longitude 134 degree 7 min 25 sec /34.292306 degrees north latitude 134.12361 degrees east longitude / 34.292306; 134.12361 (Kagawa University Hospital (Pancreas)))○
Kyushu University Hospital(North Latitude 33 Degrees 36 Minutes 33.1 Seconds East longitude 130 degree 24 min 57 sec /33.609194 degrees north latitude 130.41583 degrees east longitude / 33.609194; 130.41583 (Kyushu University Hospital (heart, liver, pancreas, intestines)))◎○○○
Fukuoka University Hospital(North Latitude 33 Degrees 32 Minutes 51.6 Seconds East longitude 130 degree 21 min 35 sec /33.547667 degrees north latitude 130.35972 degrees east longitude / 33.547667; 130.35972 (Fukuoka University Hospital (lungs)))○
Nagasaki University Hospital(North Latitude 32 Degrees 46 Minutes 10.5 Seconds East longitude 129 degree 52 min 7.2 sec /32.769583 degrees north latitude 129.868667 degrees east longitude / 32.769583; 129.868667 (Nagasaki University Hospital (lungs / liver)))○○
Kumamoto University Hospital(North Latitude 32 Degrees 47 Minutes 45.8 Seconds East longitude 130 degree 42 min 43.6 sec /32.796056 degrees north latitude 130.712111 degrees east longitude / 32.796056; 130.712111 (Kumamoto University School of Medicine Hospital (liver)))○
Number of facilities9921189

Provided facility

  • Generally for cardiac arrest delivery,手術Is possiblehospital・Available at medical facilities.
  • Offers at brain death are nationwideUniversity hospitalとJapan Emergency Medicine SocietyIt is limited to the designated facilities designated by, the specialist training facility designated by the Japanese Society of Neurology, and the specific hospitals that have an emergency lifesaving center.brain deathJudgment and organ donation are not performed.

Transplant medicine in the West

Although there are more brain death transplants in Europe and the United States than in Japan, it is said that there are still more than double the number of transplant applicants in the United States.[4].

The United States of America

The number of organ donors per 2013 million in 100 was 26.0 in the United States[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 2,562 for heart transplants, 1,619 for lung transplants, 6,132 for liver transplants, 12,270 for kidney transplants, and 214 for pancreas transplants.[1].

Germany

In Germany, the number of organ donors per 2013 million in 100 was 10.9[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 313 for heart transplants, 371 for lung transplants, 884 for liver transplants, 1,547 for kidney transplants, and 128 for pancreas transplants.[1].

The United Kingdom

In 2013, there were 100 organ donors per million in the UK[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 194 for heart transplants, 211 for lung transplants, 870 for liver transplants, 2,156 for kidney transplants, and 235 for pancreas transplants.[1].

オーストリア

The number of organ donors per million in Austria was 2013 in 100[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 64 for heart transplants, 128 for lung transplants, 130 for liver transplants, 347 for kidney transplants, and 19 for pancreas transplants.[1].

France

2013 organ donors per million in France in 100[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 410 for heart transplants, 299 for lung transplants, 1,241 for liver transplants, 3,074 for kidney transplants, and 85 for pancreas transplants.[1].

スペイン

In 2013, the number of organ donors per million in Spain was 100[1].

In 2013, the number of organ transplants was 249 for heart transplants, 285 for lung transplants, 1,070 for liver transplants, 2,170 for kidney transplants, and 92 for pancreas transplants.[1].

Related item

A work on the theme of organ transplantation

Here, we will introduce works related to organ transplantation.Works related to organ tradingSee the link for more information.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Welfare Labor" (October 2017 issue) Organ Transplant(Japanese medical planning)
  2. ^ Naoto Kawamura, Engineering Ethics, 2011, p. 187
  3. ^ Naoto Kawamura, Engineering Ethics, 2011, p. 190
  4. ^ a b c Naoto Kawamura, Engineering Ethics, 2011, p. 191
  5. ^ Organ Transplant Q & A: Diet and Life after Heart Transplant,
  6. ^ Naoto Kawamura, Engineering Ethics, 2011, p. 189
  7. ^ Brain Death Organ Transplantation What do foreign religious circles think about? A field survey in Europe and Asia(Professor, Kyoto Bunkyo University Takaaki Ikoma)
  8. ^ Catholic Central Council "Catholic Church Catholicism Summary" 2010 P.241 ss476
  9. ^ Illustrated Arienay Science TextbookA Japanese translation of the paper is published in IIIC.
  10. ^ "Complete Penis and Penis Transplant Surgery, World's First U.S. Military”(Japanese). BBC News (September 2018, 4). October 2021th, 3Browse.
  11. ^ World's first "face transplant" woman reveals post-operative face
  12. ^ Polish doctors succeed in "world's first life-saving face transplant"
  13. ^ Controversy over restarted organ trading(Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine)
  14. ^ If your travel for transplant involves elements of organ trading or transplant commercialism, or because of resources (organs, specialists, transplant facilities) used to transplant organs to foreign patients The case where the number of opportunities is reduced is called "transplant tourism". (Definition in Istanbul Declaration)
  15. ^ a b Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trading and Transplant Tourism
  16. ^ Yasunaru Kawashima. "Heart transplant is medical care for everyone”. National Cardiovascular Research Center. As of January 2011, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.October 2011th, 1Browse.
  17. ^ "Organ transplant commentary”. Japan Organ Transplant Network. As of January 2016, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.October 2015th, 12Browse.
  18. ^ AK Glazier; GM Danovitch; FL Delmonico (2014). “Organ Transplantation for Nonresidents of the United States”. American Journal of Transplantation 14 (8): 1740-1743. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/829384 October 2015th, 12Browse.. (Registration required)
  19. ^ 1968 News Highlights (1968 (Showa 43))
  20. ^ The world's first reverse transplantation of lungs Tested at Kyoto University Hospital XNUMXD printer
  21. ^ Husband's right lung to wife's left lung Kyoto University's first inverted transplant
  22. ^ A part of the right lung of the husband is rotated and transplanted to the left chest of the wife Kyoto University Hospital(Broken link)
  23. ^ a b List of transplant facilities(Japan Organ Transplant Network)
  24. ^ Japan Organ Transplant Network Information Tie-up with the movie "You in me"! October 2009, 10

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