Day of the Ox is not limited to eels⁉ Relationship with customs related to homes such as jichinsai
If you write the contents roughly
If you really want to do construction work or jichinsai during the period, please check if the construction company or shrine supports the day.
Many people think of eel when they hear the day of the Ox.However, eels are not the only customs related to earthenware ... → Continue reading
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Construction industry(Construction industry,English: construction) IsConstruction workCompletion ofUndertakeIt is a business, and in Japan, it is a construction related to civil engineering and construction.Construction business lawStipulate inConstruction workIn the type ofConstructionRefers to the business that undertakes the completion of.Included in the secondary industry.
- Construction business lawOnly the number of articles will be described below.
Unless otherwise noted, all statements below are for the Japanese construction industry.
In the construction industry, production starts after receiving an order from the ordering party, and the ordering party is the owner, so there is a strong awareness of "producing" the building, but there is little awareness of "selling" it...Buildings produced in the construction industry are single-item production, have a wide variety of types, and are produced in different places...Also, the construction industry is land dependent and affected by natural conditions...The industrial form is complex, and the general assembly industry (ア セ ン ブ リ[Avoid ambiguity]It also has an aspect as an industry)..In recent years, major companiesGeneral contractorThere is also a flow of "from ordering to ordering" centered on..Many companies in the construction industry sell themselves住宅And for saleApartmentIt is often built and sold.in this case,Residential land building businessA (real estate) license is also required.In addition, they often have real estate companies in affiliated groups.
In the construction business, with the start of the business (legally, of course, without any special procedure)Work injury insuranceThe relationship is established.In the construction business, the premium for workers' accident compensation insurance is the originalContractIt is obligatory for a person to file and pay in a lump sum (if certain requirements are met, the insurance relationship can be divided into subcontractors by the procedure), and the place where it is easy to see the workers' accident compensation insurance related vote Since it is also stipulated by law to be listed in, the above problem is "Occupational accident hiddenPlease note that you will be severely punished.
Regardless of whether you are a corporation or an individual, even if you are actually undertaking construction workContractOtherwise, it is not a construction industry, so if the number of people is calculated according to the construction content and the labor force is provided by unit price x number of days, it is common.employmentContract (labor as an employee), orWorker dispatchIt falls outside the scope of the construction industry and is not subject to the construction industry permit.in this case,employment insurance ,Employee pension,Health insuranceMust be an employee of the original contractor.
However, it will be subject to accidents during construction.Industrial accidentRepresented byLabor insuranceEtc., camouflagedWorker dispatchIn that case, there are many problems such as insurance cannot be applied in case of emergency.valley-Airin district-KotobukichoGather at so-called "Yama" and "Yoseba" represented by districtsDay laborWorker'semploymentThen, it may develop into a social problem.Even if there is an employment contract, day laborers are classified as "daily hired".Working conditionsThere is a fact that they are employed without any explicit statement.Problems can arise when it comes to serious accidents that are covered by insurance.
List of industries
Permits under the Construction Business Act are to be given separately for each type of construction work listed in the upper column of Attached Table XNUMX to the construction industry listed in the lower column of the same table (Article XNUMX (Permission for Construction Industry). )).For exampleductConstructionPlumbing work businessThere are also examples of construction contents, such as being included in.Example of construction contents by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism(External link)
|Abbreviation||Types of construction work listed in the above column||Construction industry listed in the column below|
|(soil)||SatComplete wood construction||Civil engineering work(Designation)|
|(Ken)||KenComplete construction||Architectural business(Designation)|
|(Big)||LConstruction work||Carpentry business|
|(left)||leftGovernment work||Plasterer business|
|(When)||とBi / earthwork / concrete work||Scaffolding and earthwork business|
|(Ya)||YaRoot construction||Roofing business|
|(Den)||ElectricityKi construction||Electrician business(Designation)|
|(tube)||tubeConstruction||Plumbing work business(Designation)|
|(Ta)||TaIl, brick, block construction||Tile / brick / block construction business|
|(steel)||steelStructural construction||Steel structure(Designation)|
|(muscle)||鉄TendonsConstruction||Reinforcing bar construction business|
|(Public)||舗Exterior work||Pavement business(Designation)|
|(Shu)||ShiyuWorks||Shiyunsetsu construction business|
(dredgingAbout construction, the law says "YuNotated as "Nsetsu")
|(Board)||boardGold work||Sheet metal work business|
|(Ga)||TheLath construction||Glasswork business|
|(Painting)||塗Exterior work||Painter business|
|(Defense)||PreventWater works||Waterproofing business|
|(Inside)||InsideFinishing work||Interior finish work business|
|(Machine)||MachineInstrument installation work||Machine and equipment installation work|
|(Absolute)||heat絶Edge construction||Thermal insulation business|
|(Communication)||ElectricalThroughCredit work||Telecommunications business|
|(well)||BloomwellConstruction||Sakui construction business|
|(water)||WedRoad facility construction||Water supply facilityConstruction business|
|(Erase)||DispelFacility construction||Firefighting facility construction business|
|(Qing)||clearSweeping facility construction||Cleaning facility construction business|
|(Solution)||solutionBody construction||Demolition business|
Not a strict legal definition, but mainlyDetached housesEtc.buildingProfessionalLocal industryTraditionally about the builder ofBuilderOften called.The construction shop undertakes detached houses from individuals and manufacturers, and is a specialized contractor (so to speak).Eagle,carpenter,Plasterer,sheet metal,Electrical,WaterIt is responsible for arranging, managing, and supervising the entire construction work.
The construction site of a detached house is centered on the president (master) and craftsmen, and the president (master) arbitrates the dispute between the craftsmen, arranges the advance payment for compensation, and acts as the person in charge of the local residents. The role of bowing down to the complaints is required.Therefore, trust is the first priority, and it is required to be a personality.Unlike the field principle that executives of large companies say, it is impossible to build a detached house without the field principle.Therefore, the scale within the reach of the president (master) often works better, and such a form of construction company is called a construction shop.
ArchitectIn the case of, the construction site is visited each time as necessary to supervise the construction from the guidance of the craftsman, but the construction is not carried out directly, and the architect office is the design supervision and the construction shop is the construction management Some are shared.But on the contrary,carpenterThere are also many forms of management.As you can see from Ikuo Tachain, "Well, how do you build a wooden house?" (Shogakukan, 2011) and "Survey Report on 1187 Owners" (Nikkei Home Builder, Nikkei BP, 2009), from the past In Japan, it is the carpenter's master and builder who is in charge of everything related to housing construction, from design to craftsman management.It can be said that the construction shop is a developed form of this carpenter's builder.Takenaka Corporation,Ichijo Construction Store,Anabuki Construction CompanyIt is also used for the company names of construction companies such as general contractors and subcontractors, but there is no essential difference from the above-mentioned construction shops just because the company size is different.
In "100 selections of excellent construction shops nationwide" (supervised by the National Association of Excellent Housing, Nippon Architectural Publishing Co., Ltd., 2011), the types of construction shops are classified.According to this, a conventional ridge-type store, a store that has an architect in-house and is trying to differentiate it from other companies by design, a store that only performs construction designed by an external architect, a subcontractor of a house maker, and a specific construction method There are stores that focus on the franchise business, commercialized and series-type stores that use specific building materials and equipment, and stores that sell built-for-sale houses and houses for sale by purchasing their own land. ..
In recent years, most construction shops have been operating in the above-mentioned complex style.In addition, there are various types of construction shops nowadays due to their influence and needs. "Networking of construction shops: industry trends of construction shops and direction of grouping" ("Yano Report" March 2011 issue), Shunichi Ouchi "Practice of entering the nursing care business Strengths of small and medium-sized construction companies and construction shops" "Leveraging" (Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd., 3), Susumu Nozaki, "Building a house that is resistant to the great earthquake, from a regional construction shop in Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture!" (PHP Institute, 2004). It is no exaggeration to say that there is a form.
"Building a house in Tokyo 2006 Summer Tokyo Construction Shop / House Maker / Architects Information 42" (Monthly Housing Editing, Recruit, 2006) "Interview: Regeneration of the disaster area is the mission of the construction shop" ("New Housing Journal" As you can see in the June 2011 issue), it can be said that the construction shops are often open in close contact with the community and have the advantage of being flexible and receiving detailed aftercare.As you can see in the April 6 issue of "Architectural Magazine" <Special Feature> Japanese Design x Build, there are exceptions to requesting a construction shop to build a house directly, but usually the construction shop side designs the house. And outsource both constructionDesign and constructionIt becomes the style.
- As a general rule, in order to carry out the construction industry, each type of construction undertakenAuthorizationMust receive.
- Those who carry out construction work as a contract are "primary contractors"[Annotation 1]"SubcontractorBothIndividual-CorporationIt is necessary to obtain permission without distinction.The same applies to the case of a secondary subcontractor called a subcontractor who further contracts from a subcontractor, and a third subcontractor who places an order from the second subcontractor to the next subcontractor (Himagouke).Some contractors have no employees and only the business owner works, in this caseSingle masterIt is called (one person).If it goes beyond the scope of "minor construction" described later, a construction business permit is required even for a single business owner.
- Under the Construction Business Act, all construction work undertaken by the orderer is collectively ordered from another contractor.Round throwIs prohibited, and although there are exceptions for private works, the contracted work is done by the main contractor.directed byIt is against the law to subcontract the staff as they are without making them resident.At least, if the contractor who runs the construction industry as a livelihood receives an order for construction work because the orderer trusts the technical capabilities and construction results.Supervising engineer,Lead engineerShould be placed and technical management responsibilities should be fulfilled before some construction work should be subcontracted.
- It is not possible to undertake (or undertake) construction without technical management without having the construction ability in-house and having various qualifications.tunnelOr it is likely that it is a trader called paper.
- RiggingAct, seriousIndustrial accidentIn some cases, such as when such a situation occurs, the regulatory agency may impose a fixed period of business suspension or permission revocation.In addition, for public works, it depends on the ordering organization of the registration destination.Nomination stopThere is also a disposal in the form of.
- If permission is not required
- Minor construction workonlyIt is not always necessary to obtain permission when undertaking a contract. "Minor work" means that in the case of a complete construction work, the amount of one work contract price is less than 1 million yen (including consumption tax), or the total area is 1,500 m.2In the case of construction work other than wooden house construction and complete construction work, the amount of one construction contract price is less than 1 million yen (including consumption tax).
- * So-called housing, which has been a problem since around 2003RenovationProblems with this are mostly caused by unlicensed contractors.
- In addition, when ordering construction work from a subcontractor, if a contract exceeding the above amount is concluded, the orderer is also responsible for confirming whether the subcontractor has a construction permit. So be careful.Even if the work sent to the subcontractor does not fall under the permitted industry, both parties will be disposed of as unauthorized business.
By obtaining a permit, you will be obliged to report the settlement of accounts every year, but you will not be in violation of the law (unlicensed business), and your social credibility will increase.Examination of management itemsThere are merits such as being able to participate in public works.
The construction permit is a five-year renewal system, and it is necessary to apply for a renewal permit before the expiration date.If the permission requirements are not met in the immediately preceding settlement of accounts, the permission will not be granted.If you apply for renewal before the permit deadline, you can operate with the previous permit number until it is decided that the permit will not be granted.
- (1) "Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport"Permission" or "prefecture"Governor"Permission"
- "Permission from the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism" means two or morePrefecturesPermits required when establishing a business office (an office that carries out important business related to construction work contracts such as constant estimation, contract conclusion, receipt of money, payment, etc.) in the area of.For example, it is necessary when the head office (main sales office) is set up in Osaka prefecture and the branch office (subordinate sales office) is set up in Tokyo or Fukuoka prefecture.
- On the other hand, the "prefectural governor's permit" is a permit that is obligatory when establishing a business office only within the area of one prefecture.Even with the "permit of the prefectural governor", there are no restrictions on the business area or construction area, only that the sales offices are limited to the same prefecture.For example, a contractor licensed by the Governor of Osaka Prefecture, who has a sales office in Osaka Prefecture, can accept orders for work in Wakayama Prefecture.If you want to set up a business office that complies with other prefectures, you will need to apply for a new permit change from the currently valid prefectural governor's permit to the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism permit.
- The application documents should be submitted to each prefecture, via each prefectural governor if the prefectural governor permits, or through each prefectural governor if the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism permits.Maintenance Bureau of each regionbecome.
- (2) "Specific construction permit" or "general construction permit"
- "Specified construction business permit" is the amount of subcontract price (subcontract related to the construction) for all or part of the construction work directly undertaken by the contractor (first orderer) of the construction work. Permission required for those who intend to conclude a subcontract contract with a total of 2 million yen or more (including consumption tax, but 4,000 million yen or more for the complete construction business) when there are two or more contracts. That thing.Note that the amount classification is not the contract amount, but the total amount to be outsourced.For the purpose of protecting the subcontractor of the subcontractor, there is a special obligation to pay the order price.
- On the other hand, in the case of "general construction business permit", when the construction is contracted as the prime contractor, it is not possible to order the construction of the amount exceeding the above-mentioned limit amount from the subcontractor, and when ordering the high-priced construction as the prime contractor , The amount of outsourcing will be kept within the frame, and the construction will be directly managed (in-house).These are restrictions only when receiving an order as a prime contract.
- In the case of subcontracting work, not as prime contract work, even if it is a "general construction business permit", it is possible to receive orders without restrictions such as the total amount of outsourcing.
- To apply for a "specific construction permit", the requirements differ depending on whether the designated construction industry is in the industry (described later) or not, but it is stricter than the qualification requirements required for a general construction permit.A specific construction business permit cannot be obtained unless the ability to pay subcontractors (financial content such as equity capital) and the number of engineers assigned to each sales office meet the requirements.
Therefore, there are four types of permission categories: minister identification, governor identification, minister general, and governor general.A trader does not obtain "Minister" and "Governor" or multiple "Governor" permits at the same time, or "General" and "Specific" permits for a certain industry at the same time.However, if the industry is different, one industry may be specified and another industry may be generally permitted.
In addition to the year of permission, it is written as "Specified construction business, construction business, Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism permission (Specified-17) No. ○○○○".A permit that clearly states this must be put up in an easily visible place at the business office and construction site.This permit is commonly called a "gold sign".There are some advertisements and permit slips whose permission year is more than 5 years ago, but in this case, it is also important to confirm whether they have been renewed.
General construction industry
- GeneralMust meet the following requirements in order to obtain a permit (Article 7).
- Being a person who meets the standards specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as having sufficient ability to properly manage the business operations related to the construction industry.
- A full-time officer must meet certain requirements, or have both a full-time officer who meets certain requirements and a person who directly assists the full-time officer.
- Have proper social insurance
- There must be a dedicated technician at each sales office(Full-time engineer）
- Be honest with regard to construction contracts
- Have a financial basis and financial credibility
- The person seeking permission does not meet certain disqualification requirements
Of these, 1.1. Full-time officers and assistants, 2. Full-time technicians must be full-time employees / officers and business owners, not "borrowing names", and permission is obtained without these qualified persons. It is not possible.It is necessary not only when obtaining or renewing a permit, but also continuously, and if you retire or lose your qualification, you have no choice but to replenish qualified personnel or otherwise close the construction industry.
1.2. Social insurance[Annotation 2]The following requirements are stipulated for.
- Applicable establishments for health insurance and welfare annuity insurance[Annotation 3]Notify that you have joined all sales offices that fall under
- For employment insurance, applicable business[Annotation 4]Notify that you have joined all of the business offices that correspond to
Specific construction industry
- specificPermit meets the requirements of the general construction industry and also in 2.Full-time engineer, 4.Property foundationStrict conditions are set for.
Designated construction industry
- In the above list of industries, the blue background (Specified), That is, civil engineering business, construction business, electrical construction business, plumbing business, steel structure construction business, hosiery construction business, landscaping construction business.specificWhen trying to obtain a permit from the construction industry, please refer to 2.Full-time engineerIs not recognized in work experience and has a certain national qualification (Second-class building construction management engineer,First-class civil engineering construction management engineerIt is necessary to have a qualification such as) or to be a specially certified minister.
- ^ Undertake the construction directly from the orderer (first orderer).
- ^ Workers' accident compensation insurance is also included in general social insurance, but since on-site work accidents in the construction industry are established for each construction business, participation in workers' accident compensation insurance is not included in the requirements for a construction business license.
- ^ Business establishments covered by health insurance and welfare annuity insurance are "business establishments that always use 5 or more employees (in the case of civil engineering and construction industry)" or "corporate business establishments that always use employees" It is defined as one of.
- ^ Businesses covered by employment insurance are defined as "businesses in which workers are employed."
- ^ a b c d e Noboru Nagato 1997.
- ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. “Review of permit standards (related to Article XNUMX of the Construction Business Act)". 2021/1/21Browse.
- Noboru Nagato "Understanding the Construction Industry (Common Knowledge of the Latest Industry)" Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd. (Original work, September 1997, 9), 25rd edition.ISBN 9784534026873.
- General contractor
- Public works
- Architect office
- Supervising engineer
- Lead engineer
- Administrative scrivener