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👩‍🎓 | The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation holds an online seminar for the implementation of new learning materials for high school languages


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The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation holds an online seminar to implement new learning materials for high school languages

 
If you write the contents roughly
The target is those who belong to a high school (public / private), a board of education / education center (prefecture / government ordinance city), a graduate school for teaching profession, or a university where a teacher's license (national language) can be obtained.
 

The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation announced on August 2021th and 8th, 17 that the 19 High School New Course of Study ... → Continue reading

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This is a news site specializing in Japanese universities and education. We publish news related to universities such as research results and industry-academia collaborations, interviews with key people at each university, and columns by experts about student recruitment status and brand power.


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Board of education

Board of education(Today is good,English: board of education) IsEducationAboutOffice workTo controlAdministrative committee.

The United States of America

The US Board of Education regularly evaluates the superintendent of education and the secretariat[1].. The Board of Education in the United States has a public hearing system, and the hearing of opinions from residents is institutionalized.[2].. However, some people question the effectiveness of this public hearing system.[2].

カナダ

Canada isEnglishFrenchIs the official languageBilingual nationAndQuebec,Alberta,OntarioIn many states, individual boards of education have jurisdiction over education in only one language. Quebec, for example, has 1 English school boards and 11 French school boards.[3].

Japan

Overview

The Board of Education of Japan manages and administers office work related to education.Local government(Prefectures,市町村,special area,Some office associations)Administrative committeeIs[4][5].. It embodies principles such as local autonomy in education and independence from the head of educational administration. However, the Board of EducationHead of the local government(Prefectural governor,Mayor),Local councilIt has received various legal and political interference from the above.

Regarding the Board of Education,Local government lawLaw on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Abbreviation: Local Education Administration Organization Management Law, Local Education Administration Law, Land Law, etc.)

The Board of Education has a secretariat to handle the affairs belonging to its authority (Article 18 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The secretariat of the Board of Education is called the Education Agency in prefectures and the Education Bureau in some cities. The original "educational board" refers to a collegial administrative committee consisting of several board members (Board of Education in a narrow sense), however, the entire organization, which includes a secretariat and a secretariat, is sometimes called the “education board” (Board of Education in a broad sense).

  • Local government law(Showa 22law(No. 67)
    Article 180-8 The Board of Education manages schools and other educational institutions as separately provided by law, and is responsible for organizing schools, handling educational courses, textbooks and other teaching materials, and handling the status of educational staff, as well as social education and other matters. Manages and executes educational, academic and cultural affairs.
  • Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Law No. 31 of 162) Article 2
    (The purpose of this law)
    Article 1 The purpose of this law is to establish the basics of establishing educational boards, handling the status of employees of schools and other educational institutions, and organizing and managing educational administration in local governments.
    (basic principle)
    Article 1-2 Educational administration in local governmentsBasic Education LawIn keeping with the spirit of (Law No. 18 of 120), appropriate division of roles and mutual cooperation with the government so that equal opportunities for education, maintenance and improvement of education standards, and promotion of education according to the actual conditions of the region can be achieved. Must be done in a fair and appropriate manner in cooperation with.
    (Installation)
    Article 2 Prefectures, cities (including special wards; the same shall apply hereinafter) Towns and villages, and local public bodies that handle all or part of the affairs prescribed in Article 23 have an education board.

2018As of September 30, the number of boards of education is 9 in prefectures.Government-designated cityThe number is 20 and the number of municipalities is 1718 (including wide-area federations and joint establishments, and some office associations are not included).

組織

The Board of Education is organized by the superintendent of education and four members (Article 4 of the Local Government Law).However, pursuant to the provisions of the ordinance, among the associations of prefectures or cities or local public organizations, those to which the prefecture or city joins the board of education includes the superintendent of education and five or more members, towns and villages or local public organizations. Of the unions, only towns and villages join, but the board of education can be organized by the superintendent of education and two or more members. (Provision of the same article).The committee members are part-timeSpecial occupationLocal civil servantIs (Article 12 Paragraph 2 of the Land Act,Local Civil Service ActArticle 3 paragraph 3 item 1).

委员 

The members are appointed by the head (chief) of the local public body with the consent of the parliament (Article 4 of the Local Government Law).The qualifications for appointing committee members are "a person who has the right to be elected by the head of the local public body, has a noble personality, and has insight into education, academia, and culture."Also,"BankruptRehabilitationThose who do not get ","imprisonmentAnyone who has been sentenced to the above sentenceDisqualificationIt cannot be appointed if it falls under any of the reasons.Furthermore, the members are members or heads of parliaments of local public bodies, members or members of committees placed as executive bodies in local public bodies, full-time employees of local public bodies, or Article 28-5, Paragraph 1 of the Local Public Service Law. It cannot also serve as an employee who occupies the prescribed short-time work position (No concurrent positions, Article 6 of the Ground Law.

In addition, regarding the composition of the members, more than half of the membersPolitical partyBeing a member of the committee (paragraph 4 of the same article), and being careful not to cause a significant bias in age, gender, occupation, etc.Guardian(CustodyWho doMinor guardianThere is a provision that the person who is) must be included (paragraph 5 of the same article).

The term of office of the committee members is four years, and they can be reappointed (Article 4 of the Local Government Act).If a member finds that he / she is unbearable to perform his / her duties due to physical or mental disability, or if he / she finds that there is a breach of duty or other misconduct that is not suitable for being a member (Article 5, Paragraph 2 of the Jigyo Law), more than half of the members If you belong to the same political party (paragraphs 7 and 1 of the same Article), you will be dismissed, but except in these cases, you will not be dismissed against your will (Identity security, Paragraph 4 of the same Article).A member loses his / her job if he / she falls under a disqualification reason or if he / she no longer has the right to be elected by the chief (Article 9 of the Jigyo Law), and resigns with the consent of the chief and the Board of Education. Can be done (Article 10 of the Jigyo Law).

Request for dismissal from the committee (recall) System (Local Autonomy Law Article 13 paragraph 3). A person who has the right to vote of the mayor shall be one-third of the total number, as provided for by a Cabinet Order.[Note 1]With the co-sign of the above persons, the representative can request the dismissal of the committee member from the representative (Article 8 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). About request for dismissal of board of education, of Local Government ActrecallThe provisions regarding the above apply mutatis mutandis (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

To the committee membersconfidentiality(Article 11, Paragraph 1, Paragraph 2, Paragraph 3 of the Local Government Law), and the appointment of officers of political parties and active political movements are prohibited (Article 6, Paragraph 1).In addition, the committee members are aware of the important responsibility that they bear for the management of the educational administration of the local public body in carrying out their duties, and in accordance with the basic principles stipulated in Article 2-XNUMX of the Jigyo Law. Therefore, it is necessary to use the intention to manage the educational administration of the local public body.

Superintendent of schools

The Board of EducationSuperintendent of schoolsIs placed (Article 3 of the Land Act). The superintendent of the education is appointed by the head of the local government with the consent of the parliament from among those who have a high personality and have knowledge about the educational administration (Article 4 of the Land Act). The superintendent's term of office is 3 years (Article 5 of the Land Transport Act).

The superintendent of education supervises the duties of the Board of Education and represents the Board of Education (Article 13 of the Land Act).

Secretariat

The Board of Education has a secretariat to handle the affairs belonging to its authority (Article 17 of the Land Transport Act). The internal organization of the secretariat is defined by the Board of Education rules (paragraph 2 of the same article).

The secretariat hasCoach,Social Education DirectorOther staff is placed (Article 18 Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Land Transport Act,Social Education ActArticle 9-2 (1)). The staff of the secretariat is appointed by the Board of Education upon the recommendation of the superintendent of education (Section 7 of the same article). The supervisor is a school (a school specified in Article 1 of the School Education Act.Ichijo school) In the curriculum, learning guidance and other related matters related to school education and other specialized matters (section 3 of the same article). The instructor must be a person who has insight in education and must be educated and experienced in the curriculum at school, learning guidance and other specialized matters related to school education (paragraph 4 of the same article). The instructor is not a universityPublic school(Schools established by local governments)Teacher(Teacher stipulated in Article 2, paragraph 2 of the Special Law for Educational Public Employees) can be devoted to fulfillment (dedicated teaching staff).

Education Agency

Education Agency(Kyoikucho) was placed on the board of educationSecretariatOne of the names. "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Showa 31 Law No. 162), many of which are stipulated by the rules of the prefectural board of education regarding internal organizations.PrefecturesPart of the organization.Superintendent of schoolsSums up.

In some cases, the name is not "Education Agency" but "Board of Education Secretariat" which is close to the original meaning.Sagamihara City is the Education Bureau, and Shizuoka City is the Education Bureau under the secretariat.Municipalities often refer to it as the "Board of Education Secretariat" rather than the "Education Agency".Government-designated cityIsSendai city OfSendai City Board of EducationIs called “Sendai Education Bureau”[6].

Job authority

The Board of Education and the head of the local government manage and execute the office work related to education based on the laws, regulations, rules of the local government and rules and regulations established by the institutions of the local government, respectively. Law Article 25).

Authority of the committee

The Board of Education manages and enforces the following matters related to education handled by local governments (Article 23 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Thing about setting, management and the abolition of school and other educational institutions belonging to jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  2. Management of property (education property) used for schools and other educational institutions.
  3. Thing about appointment and dismissal of personnel of the Board of Education and school and other educational institutions and other personnel affairs.
  4. Enrollment of school-age students and school-age children and admission, transfer and withdrawal of students, children and infants.
  5. Thing about organizational organization of school, curriculum, learning instruction, student instruction and vocational instruction.
  6. Handling of textbooks and other teaching materials.
  7. Thing about maintenance of school building and other facilities and teaching materials and other facilities
  8. Thing about training of principal, teacher or other educational staff.
  9. Matters concerning the health, safety, welfare and welfare of principals, teachers and other educational staff and students, children and infants.
  10. Thing about environmental hygiene of school and other educational institutions.
  11. School lunchAbout
  12. Thing about youth education, woman education and public hall business and other social education.
  13. Thing about sports.
  14. Thing about protection of cultural assets.
  15. UNESCOThing about activity
  16. Thing about corporation about education.
  17. Thing about investigation to affect education and basic statistics and other statistics.
  18. Matters concerning public relations related to administrative affairs and consultation regarding educational administration related to administrative affairs.
  19. In addition to the matters listed in the preceding items, matters related to office work related to education within the area of ​​the relevant local government.

Establishment of Board of Education rules

The Board of Education can establish the rules of the Board of Education with regard to the affairs belonging to its authority as long as it does not violate the law or ordinance (Article 14 of the Land Act).

Proposal of opinion for the proposal submitted by the mayor

When the head of a local government prepares a bill for a case in which the part of the revenue/expenditure budget pertaining to affairs related to education and other affairs related to affairs related to education, which is subject to a resolution of the assembly, should be submitted by the committee. You can (Article 29 of the Land Transport Act).

Create budget and execute budget

The Board of Education does not have the right to prepare a budget plan, to submit a budget plan to Parliament, or to execute the budget (Articles 109 and 186-6 of the Local Autonomy Law). The budget for the school board is prepared by the chief and submitted to the local council. However, the head of the board of directors must listen to the opinions of the Board of Education when making a bill for the portion of the revenue and expenditure budget related to office work related to education (Article 29 of the Land Travel Act). The budget bill submitted to the parliament is deliberated and voted by the parliament (Local Autonomy Act, Article 96, paragraph 1, item 2). However, with regard to budget execution, in most cases, according to Article 180-2 of the Local Autonomy Law, the Board of Education has subordinated execution of the budget execution right of the Emirati. Divided by amount, such as the superintendent of education spending orders of less than 5000 million yen, the director of the Board of Education secretariat spending orders of less than 1 million yen, and the section manager subordinately executing spending orders of less than 1000 million yen Then, there is an example set by the rule (rule decided by the chief).

Delegation of office work to the superintendent of education

According to the rules of the Board of Education, the Board of Education may delegate a part of the affairs belonging to its authority to the superintendent of education, or may act as the superintendent of education and act as a temporary representative (Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). ). However, the following office work cannot be delegated to the superintendent of education (paragraph 2 of the same article).

  1. Thing about basic policy of administration of office work about education and the execution.
  2. Matters concerning the establishment or revision or abolition of the Board of Education rules and other regulations established by the Board of Education.
  3. Matters concerning the establishment and abolition of schools and other educational institutions belonging to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  4. Matters concerning the appointment and dismissal of staff of schools and other educational institutions that belong to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education and the Board of Education.
  5. Thing about inspection and evaluation of the situation of management and execution of office work about education.
  6. Thing about offer of opinion before making budget bill about education and making bill to submit to assembly.

Duties of the chief

In addition, the head of the local government manages and executes the office work related to the education listed in the following items (Article 22 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Thing about university.
  2. Thing about private school
  3. Acquire and dispose of educational property.
  4. Sign a contract for matters pertaining to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.
  5. In addition to the items listed in the previous item, execute the budget related to matters related to the jurisdiction of the Board of Education.

In addition, the head of a local government may manage and execute any or all of the work related to education listed in the following items (Article 23 of the Land Transport Act).

  1. Sports (excluding physical education at school).
  2. Thing about culture (except thing about protection of cultural property).

Educational institution

Local governments, as required by law,library,博物馆,Public hallIn addition to setting up other educational institutions, by ordinances, it is possible to set up specialized or technical research related to education, training of educational staff, facilities for health or welfare, and other necessary educational institutions. Law Article 30). Among schools and other educational institutions, the university is headed by the local government, and the other is by the Board of Education (text of Article 32 of the Land Act). Provided, however, that the head of a local public entity shall have jurisdiction over the educational institution that only administers and is to be executed by the head of the local public entity.

At the school, as required by law,President,head teacher,Director,Teacher, Administrative staff, technical staff and other necessary staff (Article 31 Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). Administrative staff, technical staff, and other required staff shall be placed at educational institutions other than schools, as provided for by law or bylaw (paragraph 2 of the same article). Principals, principals, teachers, administrative staff, technical staff and other staff of schools and other educational institutions under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education shall be advised by the superintendent of education, unless otherwise specified by this Act. Is appointed (Article 34 of the Land Act). In addition, matters relating to the appointment and dismissal of employees, salary, disciplinary action, service and other status handling, except when there is a special provision in this law and other laws,Local Civil Service Act(Article 35 of the Land Transport Act). The heads of schools and other educational institutionsEducation Civil Service Exception LawUnless otherwise specified, it is possible to offer an opinion on the appointment or dismissal of the staff members of the affiliation or other matters to the appointee (Article 36 of the Land Act). In addition, if the principal of a school attached to the university applies, it will go through the president (the same article).

The Board of Education, to the extent that it does not violate laws and ordinances, handles the facilities, equipment, organizational organization, curriculum, teaching materials, etc. of schools and other educational institutions under its jurisdiction About necessary, we establish rule of the Board of Education (Article 33 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). Board of EducationtextbookRegarding the use of teaching materials other than the above, there is a provision to notify the Board of Education in advance or to obtain approval from the Board of Education (paragraph 2 of the same Article).

Municipal school teachers

Municipal school staff salary payment methodStaff prescribed in Articles 1 and 2 (Prefectural expense staff), the right of appointment belongs to the Prefectural Committee (Article 37 Paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The prefectural committees will appoint the municipal committees to appoint and discontinue the staff of prefectural expenses and other matters (Article 38, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act). The principal of the school may offer opinions regarding the appointment or dismissal of the prefectural expenses and faculty members who belong to the school to the municipalities committee (Article 39 of the Land Transport Act). Municipal committees supervise the service of prefecturally funded faculty members (Article 43, Paragraph 1 of the Land Transport Act).

School management council

According to the rules of the Board of Education, the Board of Education shall, as an institution to discuss the management of the designated school among the schools belonging to the jurisdiction, for each designated school concerned.School management councilCan be placed (Article 47-6 paragraph 1 of the Land Act). The members of the school management council are appointed by the Board of Education for residents of the area where the designated school is located, students enrolled in the designated school, parents of children or infants, and others deemed necessary by the Board of Education ( (2 of the same Article). The principal of a designated school must prepare a basic policy regarding the operation of the designated school regarding the formation of curriculum and other matters specified by the rules of the Board of Education, and obtain approval from the school management council of the designated school ( (Section 3 of the same Article).

Relationship between the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Board of Education

Regarding the following, the prefectures and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology are more involved in municipalities than in other administrative fields.Decentralization is considerably delayed in the field of educational administration.. This is because in addition to the involvement stipulated in the Local Autonomy Law, the Local Education Administration Law stipulates “instruction” and expansion of investigation rights that are not in the Local Autonomy Law.It goes against the purpose of Article 1-XNUMX of the Local Autonomy Law.There is a criticism that. The scandal of the Municipal Board of Education is thought to be, in a sense, a fundamental factor in the current system that has created the state of waiting for instructions from the state or prefecture.

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will coordinate with the prefectural committees or municipal committees, the prefectural committee will coordinate with each other, and the Board of Education will maintain close contact with each other, and In cooperation with the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or other boards of education, we must strive for proper placement and smooth exchange of faculty and staff, improvement of work efficiency of faculty and staff, and proper execution and management of office work related to their respective education. Must be (Article 51 of the Land Transport Act).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology can provide the prefectures or municipalities with the necessary guidance, advice or assistance to the municipalities in order to properly process the office work related to the education of the prefectures or municipalities. (Act 48, paragraph 1)[Note 2].. In addition, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology may give necessary instructions to prefectural committees regarding guidance, advice or assistance to municipalities (paragraph 3 of the same Article). The prefectural governor or the prefectural committee may ask the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for the necessary guidance, advice, or assistance from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or the prefectural committee to process administrative work related to education. Yes (paragraph 4 of the same article).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology shall, in cases where the management and execution of office work related to education by prefectural committees or municipal committees violates the provisions of laws and regulations, or where there is failure to manage and execute such office work, children and students It is possible to request corrections because it is clear that the opportunity to receive such education is hindered and that the right to other education is violated (Article 49 of the Land Act).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology shall, in cases where the management and execution of office work related to education by prefectural committees or municipal committees violates the provisions of laws and regulations, or where there is failure to manage and execute such office work, children and students When there is an urgent need to protect the life or body of a person, etc., the Board of Education may be instructed to correct the violation or to revise the management and execution of the neglected office work ( Ground Law Article 50 text). However, this instruction is limited to cases where it is difficult to correct it by other measures (provided in the same article).

The Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or the Prefectural Committee, when it is necessary to provide guidance, advice, assistance, cooperation, etc., is required regarding administrative work related to education that the head of the local government or the Board of Education manages and executes. Can conduct surveys and survey instructions (Article 53, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Land Transport Act). In addition, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will inform the head of the local government or the Board of Education, and the prefectural committee will inform the head of the municipality or the committee of municipalities regarding the necessary investigations regarding the affairs related to education within the area of ​​the prefecture or municipality. You can request the submission of statistics and other materials or reports (Article 54, Paragraph 2 of the Land Transport Act).

Widening the Board of Education

The Board of EducationOrdinary local government(Prefectures, municipalities) andspecial areaIt is often installed for each. However, it is difficult for a small board of education to have a sufficient human and material system, and there is a problem in terms of efficient administration. So, multiple boards of educationSome office associations(Local Autonomy Law, Article 284, Paragraph 2, Land Transport Law, Article 60)Wide area union(Section 284, paragraph 3)Special local government, Of the institution (Article 252-7),Council(Article 252-2 of the same Article), (Article 252-14 of the same Article)[7].

List of some office associations/wide area federations related to education

A list of some office associations and regional federations related to education by work content (as of June 2004, 16) is as follows:[8].. 176 for some office associations, 1 for regional unions[Note 3], Co-located 7[Note 4].

Business contentSome office associations/wide area unions[Note 5]
(States in parentheses are prefectures)
Number of organizations
 All Educational Affairs Association (Okayama)[Note 6]1
School relations(Hokkaido)[Note 7], (Aomori prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Fukushima prefecture), (Gunma prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Chiba prefecture)[Note 8][Note 9], (Toyama Prefecture), (Toyama Prefecture), (Toyama Prefecture),Public Obama Hospital Union(Fukui prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Mie prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara prefecture), (Wakayama prefecture), (Wakayama prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Okayama Prefecture), (Hiroshima Prefecture)[Note 10], (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture), (Kagawa prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Ehime prefecture), (Kochi prefecture), (Kochi prefecture) , (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Saga prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture), (Kumamoto prefecture) , (Oita prefecture), (Okinawa prefecture)78
Education and training center(Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido)[Note 11],Chubu Kamikita Wide Area Business Association(Aomori Prefecture)[Note 10],Mogami Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Yamagata Prefecture),Haga Area Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 8],Minami Nasu area wide area administrative office association(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 8], (Niigata Prefecture)[Note 8],Special ward personnel/welfare office association(Tokyo)[Note 12], (Fukuoka Prefecture), (Kagoshima Prefecture), (Okinawa Prefecture)15
LunchRelationship(Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido), (Hokkaido),Chubu Kamikita Wide Area Business Association(Aomori Prefecture)[Note 7],Towada area wide area office association(Aomori prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Saitama prefecture), (Saitama prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Chiba prefecture), (Tokyo), (Fukui prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Nagano prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Aichi prefecture), (Kyoto prefecture), (Osaka prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara Prefecture)[Note 8], (Okayama prefecture), (Hiroshima prefecture)[Note 11], (Tokushima prefecture), (Tokushima prefecture), (Tokushima prefecture), (Ehime prefecture) (Kochi prefecture), (Kochi prefecture),Reihoku wide area administrative office association(Kochi Prefecture),Kyotsuki Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Fukuoka Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Nagasaki Prefecture), (Okinawa Prefecture)44
Social educationRelationship(Aomori Prefecture),Sennan area wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture),Osaki area wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture), (Miyagi prefecture),Ishinomaki District Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Miyagi Prefecture),Kesennuma/Motoyoshi regional wide area administrative office association(Miyagi prefecture), (Akita prefecture), (Yamagata prefecture),Minamiaizu Regional Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Fukushima prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture), (Ibaraki prefecture),Ina lot wide area municipalities office association(Ibaraki Prefecture),Joso Regional Wide Area Municipal Area Administrative Association(Ibaraki Prefecture),Haga Area Wide Area Administrative Office Union(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 7],Shioya Wide Area Administrative Association(Tochigi prefecture), (Tochigi prefecture),Minami Nasu area wide area administrative office association(Tochigi Prefecture)[Note 7],(Gunma Prefecture),Wide area municipalities promotion and maintenance association such as Takasaki City(Gunma Prefecture),Tomioka Kanraku Wide Area Municipal Area Promotion Promotion Association(Gunma prefecture), (Gunma prefecture),Hiki Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Saitama prefecture), (Chiba prefecture),Sanmu District City Wide Area Administrative Association(Chiba Prefecture),Chosei-gun City Wide Area Municipal Area Association(Chiba Prefecture), (Chiba Prefecture)[Note 11], (Niigata Prefecture), (Niigata Prefecture)[Note 7],Kofu area wide area administrative office association(Yamanashi prefecture), (Yamanashi prefecture), (Gifu prefecture), (Shizuoka prefecture), (Aichi prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Hyogo prefecture), (Nara prefecture)[Note 10], (Tottori prefecture),Tottori Chubu Hometown Wide Area Union(Tottori prefecture), (Tottori prefecture), (Shimane prefecture), (Yamaguchi prefecture),Shodo district wide area administrative office association(Kagawa prefecture), (Fukuoka prefecture), (Nagasaki prefecture),Nishi various regional administrative office associations(Miyazaki Prefecture)47

The organizations that were established or revised after the above list was created (June 2004, 16) are as follows.

History

Allied Supreme Commander General Command (GHQ/SCAP) Upon request,The United States of AmericaAn educational mission from1946(Showa 21) Visited Japan on March 3th and 5th, the first on March 7th of the same yearAmerican Education Mission ReportWas submitted and made an installation recommendation. So the Ministry of Education1948The Board of Education was established in 23. This system isDecentralization, In view of the principles of democratization and independence, especially the characteristics of educationEducational administrationBased on the idea of ​​ensuring the stability and neutrality ofBoard of Education ActFounded by. A budget-based administrative committee that is independent of the heads of local governmentsOrdinanceHe had the right to send the original draft and the personnel right to the staff of elementary and junior high schools.

However, due to factors such as "low voter turnout in the board of education elections, candidacy/election of the chief's rival to the board of education, and election activities that mobilized the faculty and staff union" (MEXT, 2004), the board of education was abolished immediately after its establishment. Is claimed.

1956In (31st year of Showa), the public election system was abolished and the appointment system was introduced in order to eliminate the harmful effects of partisan conflict on the Board of Education.Reverse courseXNUMX), the Local Education Administration Law was enacted that introduced the appointment approval system for the superintendent of education and abolished the right to send budget and regulations by the Board of Education in order to harmonize with general administration. It can be said that the chief's influence on educational administration has increased.

Since then, there has been a public debate about the reform of the Board of Education system at the policy level.Extraordinary Education CouncilIt was (Examination).

Looking at the response of each board of education to a series of educational devastation such as school violence, insidious bullying, and so-called problem teachers in recent years, we realized that we are aware that we are responsible for the administrative administration of education in each region. The Board of Education has a sense of responsibility, a sense of mission, lack of understanding of the spirit of decentralization of education, lack of independence, and lack of perspective on the XNUMXst century and motivation for reform. There seems to be a lot. — National Council on Educational Reform 2nd Report “Basic Direction of Educational Administrative and Financial Reform”, 1986

Then, as the direction of reform,

  • Selection and training of board members
  • Term and full-time system of superintendent of education (municipalities)
  • Establishing a complaint handling responsibility system
  • Dealing with teachers who are not qualified
  • Ideal management system for small municipalities
  • Cooperation with governor departments

I am making recommendations.

In the following year, in response to the flow of a trial teaching session, the "Survey and Research Collaborators Conference on Activation of the Board of Education" was established, and measures to activate the Board of Education were examined. The content is

  1. Appointment of the Board of Education
  2. Appointment of superintendent of education (dedicated superintendent of supervision of municipalities and introduction of term of office for superintendent of education)
  3. Management of the Board of Education
  4. Ideal business processing system
  5. Reflecting the intentions of local residents
  6. Cooperation with the head office

The specific measures for these items were proposed. This conference does not exist in the admissions trial, "3. Management of the Board of Education", "4. Ideal way of administrative processing", "5. Reflection of the intentions of local residents", etc. The emphasis is shifting to traditional management. Although proposals such as the dedication of the superintendent of municipalities and the introduction of a term system for superintendents of education did not materialize, the survey coordinators' conference on the state of local education administration and the decentralization promotion committee of the government also decided that the Board of Education Reform was considered.

1996From (8)Decentralization Promotion CommitteeThe examination was advanced in. In the next five recommendations, the Committee referred to the abolition of agency mandates and the review of individual matters such as mandatory regulations and subsidies regarding the relationship between the national and local governments. In relation to the Board of Education, recommendations were made for the abolition of the appointment approval system for the superintendent of education, the review of the relationship between the Minister of Education and prefectural boards of education and municipal boards of education, and the decentralization promotion plan was decided by the Cabinet.

Next year1997In 9, the "Survey and Research Collaborators Conference on the ideal way of local educational administration for the 21st century" was established.

  • Relationship between school and school board
  • Relationships between countries, prefectures, and municipalities
  • Relationship between local residents and the school board/school
  • Administrative system of the Board of Education
  • Cultivation and promotion of local communities

The points of discussion regarding the review of the local educational administration system were summarized along the pillar.

The middle school referee itself1998In 10, he made a report (“The future of local education administration should be”). Also,2000In the partial revision of the Local Education Administration Act due to the enactment of the Decentralization Collective Promotion Act of (12),

  • Abolition of appointment approval system for superintendents
  • Review of regulations regarding guidance
  • Abolishing standard setting for prefectures

I went. As a result, at the discretion of the Board of Education, it became possible to organize a small number of mathematics classes, and the election of the superintendent of education was carried out from among the members of the Board of Education appointed by the Emirates.

2000 (Heisei 12)National Council for Educational ReformBut,

  • Diversification of the composition of the school board and participation of parents
  • Conference opening principle

2 years later2002The law has also been amended. In this way, the educational administration reform is implemented in such a way that the Cabinet establishes an advisory body directly under the Cabinet and shows the direction of the reform by taking the lead, and in response, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Education examine the policy as symptomatic treatment. Has been done.

2006In July, the government decided to establish a special zone for structural reform that could transfer authority such as administrative matters related to culture and sports to the chief by deregulating the board of education of the municipalities. And “Basic Policy on Structural Reform”, 7). The policy is, "In light of the fact that the Board of Education system does not function sufficiently, while paying attention to ensuring political neutrality of education, for the time being, the authority of the Board of Education of the municipality (for example, We will proceed with the experimental efforts of the special zone, which will transfer administrative and administrative authority, administrative authority regarding culture and sports, etc.) to the chief, and will radically reform the educational administration system and board of education system. To conclude."

However,2 Nakamura bullying suicide casesIn response to the growing criticism of public opinion about the response to the Board of Education overEducation reproduction meeting(AfterEducational revitalization meeting), it is considered to enhance the function. In addition, every time school bullying is reported, criticism of the school board response and the whole system is occurring.

2017In October, we began studying the administration of cultural property protection to review the system so that the head office of the local government can also be in charge.[9].. And on April 2019, 4Cultural property protection lawEnforced by revision —[10].

It is said that cultural facilities such as libraries and museums under its jurisdiction will be transferred to the head office of the local government to revitalize the area.Central Education CouncilWas arguing[11].. Law enacted in June 2019 to move the head office from the Board of Education[12].

Board of Education System Reform Trend

It has been pointed out that the Board of Education system has become a mere skeptic, and the theory of activation and the theory of abolition/reduction have been developed. The trends are described here.

Abolition and dismantling theory from the business world and chiefs

The first thing that strongly advocated the abolition/reduction of the Board of Education wasNeoliberalismSocial and Economic Productivity Headquarters (current: Japan Productivity Headquarters)Met. The association1999In (11), "Report on Educational Reform... Educational Reform of Choice, Responsibility, and Solidarity" was announced. Among them, it is meaningless that elementary and junior high schools and high schools are entrusted to the different level of the board of education such as municipalities and prefectures, and that the board of education is the end of the administration of education because it is not publicly elected. In addition, the Board of Education's powerful authority and bureaucratic organization hinder the achievement of school independence. The government boldly insisted that the Board of Education would be significantly reduced and contracted by the transfer of the authority of private education and school education to the principal.

The so-called reformist mayors across the country have publicly urged the theory of abolishment and reduction of the Board of Education system, as will be described later. It is one of the six regional organizationsNational Mayors' AssociationIt is,2001(13), "Opinion on strengthening cooperation between school education and local community...Promotion of decentralized education and review of the role of the Board of Education..." was announced, and in the vertical series with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology at the top. Weakness of voluntary activities in the region, a closed impression due to the lack of contact with non-school educators, and relationships with the mayors of municipalities." On top of that, he proposed the voluntary establishment of a board of education, the strengthening of cooperation between the mayor and the board of education, and the daily exchange of opinions between the mayor and the board of education or the superintendent of education, even though it was a subject for consideration.Lifelong educationRegarding the field, “It is desirable to have a comprehensive approach from various directions rather than a vertical division. In such fields, there is a strong need to be under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education because of the political neutrality of education. There is no reason to think that there is a situation."

In fact, two months later in April 2,Shimane Izumo, The social education and lifelong learning fields such as cultural assets, arts and culture, sports, and libraries were transferred to the head office. As a result, the Secretariat of the Board of Education will be responsible for tasks specialized in school education. Similar movementsAichiTakahama,GunmaOta CityIt has spread to other cities. So to speak, it can be said that the dismantling or reduction of the Board of Education is in progress.

There are also voices from countries that promote decentralization. The Decentralization Reform Promotion Council2004(16) submits a statement of opinion requesting flexibility of mandatory regulations of the Board of Education, stating that "the option of not adopting the Board of Education system should be accepted at the discretion of local governments according to the actual conditions of each region" doing. The conference also said, "From the perspective of unifying the administration of lifelong learning and social education and the departments in charge of childcare, it is necessary for local governments to freely select and coordinate these departments." It appeals to the importance of new infrastructure development of the local education system in preparation for the advent of the decentralization era ("Opinion on the development of administrative system such as promotion of administrative and financial reform of local governments"... Further promotion of decentralization reform Aspiring to become a self-reliant/independent community…).

By pushing this,Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Structural Reform 2004Was decided by the Cabinet, and among them, "In order to take advantage of the ingenuity of the region and increase the degree of freedom of the school, in conjunction with the reform of the Board of Education by the end of 16, strengthening the authority of the principal and the school “Providing a policy for the expansion of external evaluation of”.

Educational journalistNakai Koichi"The Ministry of Education is the most enthusiastic about reform in the entire education world," and "it is the prefectural Board of Education that holds down the uniqueness of the municipal board of education." "The reasons for this are "all prefectures are uniform", "the principle of equal opportunities for education", and "elimination of regional disparities". However, he is the author of The Truth of the Board of EducationYukaku KakudaPoints out that the Ministry of Education and other central politics and government offices have used the Board of Education for centralization of power and have hindered decentralization reform.

The abolition and contraction theory of the Board of Education of administrative scholars

Administrative scholars also raised the theory of abolishing and reducing the Board of Education system.Masato ItoIn the "Iwanami Course Local Government Plan Organization", regarding the future reform of educational administration, (1) Educational Board Activation Model, and (2) General Administration Model in General Administration, (3) Parents The three types of market/selection models based on the school selection system were typed into three governance models and the integration of educational administration into general administration was mentioned.

The first model for revitalizing the Board of Education is, "While aiming to ease the conventional control of the Ministry of Education, we do not add reforms to the root of the system, but rather increase the specialization of the Board of Education, It aims to expand the presence of the school board." As will be described later, it aims to enhance the specialization of the Board of Education by making heavy use of those involved in educational administration and teaching profession, and has gained support not only from the Ministry of Education but also from the academic academia and faculty members.

The second general administrative model is that the Board of Education has a relative independence from the head of the ministry, and "puts the education administration directly under the head of public election" and It will be abolished and reorganized into a department as an assistant mechanism of the chief.” By entrusting the jurisdiction of cultural and social education administration and school education administration to the autonomy of local governments, the chief of the representatives of local governments intends to "develop comprehensive educational policies in line with the needs of local residents". There is.

The third market/selection model is "toward a thorough decentralization of the educational administration system itself." This model advocates "creating a competitive market for the supply of public education by giving schools autonomy as an organization and at the same time giving parents and children the right to choose a school." The market/choice model is “to introduce the market principle into public education with the aim of moving away from the control of the Ministry of Education and uniform school management, and at the same time, the Board of Education delegates significant authority to each public school. The concept is to reduce or stop the function."

Ito has threeGovernance-After presenting the model, he posed the question "whether the activation model of the Board of Education actually causes the activation of the Board of Education." “Reforms aimed at activating the Board of Education will lead to further dematerialization of the Board of Education, with the possibility that the deputy superintendent of education and education will take more initiative than the current situation and deliberation of the Committee may become even more mere. There is a possibility”. Ito stated that he was "centralized with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology at the top" due to the fact that the Board of Education has been set up uniformly from prefectures and ordinance-designated cities to small towns and villages, and the educational administration network has been spread throughout the country. A network of effective guidance and advice is free from the will of the mayor, parliament or residents." It affirms the abolition of the Local Education Administration Law, the abolition of the mandatory regulation of the Board of Education by the revision of the Local Autonomy Law, and the diversification of education governance so that local governments can choose the form of education governance at their own discretion.

Educational Committee Activation Theory in Education

On the other hand, the theory of activation of the Board of Education system is the same as the theory of abolishment/reduction of the Board of Education, in that it points out the current situation in which the discussions at the Board of Education have become mere skeletons or are not activated. The idea is that by activating, the Board of Education can be used and survive. It is often issued by educational institutions, educational law scholars, and educational administration scholars, and there are the following activation measures.

Revival of public election system

The first advocated measure for revitalizing the Board of Education is the revival of the publicly elected Board of Education. By introducing a public election system to the Board of Education, it aims to secure democracy and independence and to enhance the control function of the Board of Education.

Qualification of the superintendent of education and enhancement of training for education committee members

Another policy that can be mentioned as a measure to revitalize the Board of Education is the establishment of an educational staff license for the superintendent of education and the enhancement of training for the Board of Education. Positioning the superintendent of education as a specialist in education administration and training it at a university aims to ensure independence of education.

The establishment of an educational staff license for the superintendent of education (hereinafter referred to as qualification of the superintendent of education) is being considered together with the establishment of a license for the principal/supervisor.Kurosaki IsaoThe qualification of the superintendent of education, "said the superintendent, who is entrusted with reforms, has a unique position and responsibility, not merely subordinate to the chief, because of his professional ethics." Kurosaki then checks and balances between the superintendent of education and the board of education, the chief and the board of education, and the chief and the superintendent of education, respectively, resulting in political neutrality and continuity and stability of education. When it comes to guaranteeing, the significance is emphasized.

The education committee members' training was already mentioned in the second report of the trial hearing. There, it is necessary for the board of education to have a deep understanding of the principles of the current system and the challenges facing education and educational administration in order to make appropriate decisions and decisions regarding the administration of educational administration. Therefore, it is necessary to improve and enhance the training of the board of education for that purpose." In response to the report, each board of education is focusing on training the board of education, and is trying to enhance the role of the board of education and the control of educational administration.

Clarification of division of roles between prefectural board of education and municipal board of education

The third consideration as a measure to activate the Board of Education is to clarify the division of roles between the prefectural Board of Education and the municipal Board of Education. This is because "the role of the prefectural board of education is specialized in narrowly defined educational administration, such as setting various standards and conditions for education, and the so-called educational management such as the management and operation of educational institutions such as kindergarten to high school and social education facilities. Is to be entrusted to the municipal board of education” (Masato Honda).

This is the United StatesStateWith education authoritiesPublic school districtIt assumes a relationship with the Board of Education. This role-sharing has improved problems such as the superiority of resources and the licensing rights of private school corporations, and the municipal board of education takes responsibility for the completion of secondary education. Can be encouraged.

Establishment of permanent specialized committees for each policy area (duties area)

For the establishment of permanent specialized committees for each policy area (job area), refer to "The Board of Education has established specialized committees for each major policy area (job area), such as curriculum and educational management. Is a system to participate as a member (chairperson, etc.)" (Kajisa). The committee is responsible for overseeing the policies and actions of the superintendent of education and secretariat, as well as individual policymaking.

Transfer of authority related to personnel and financial resources (budget) to the municipal board of education

It is related to the theory of division of roles between the prefectural board of education and the municipal board of education, but by transferring authority regarding the personnel affairs of the staff and financial resources (budget) from the prefecture (education board) to the municipality (education board). This claim is to ensure that education administration is carried out closer to the inhabitants, and that education appropriate for schools and children is guaranteed.

Already, in May 2004, the Judge issued an interim report on how to cover the cost of compulsory education, and is considering expanding the authority and responsibility of municipalities. In particular,Prefectural expense staffThe system will be reviewed and expanded to allow for the transfer of authority related to the salary burden of teachers and staff, class organization and the fixed number of teachers to ordinance-designated cities, and the nationalization of the teachers and staff system for municipal expenses.

Strengthening support system for schools

There are many calls for strengthening the support system in relation to school education. Various recommendations have been made, including providing the information needed by the school, flexible administrative measures regarding budget and personnel, and establishing a team of experts for the school.

Introduction of policy evaluation system

The introduction of institutional evaluation of the superintendent of education and the secretariat has been considered for some time, but it has not been realized. However, as pointed out by Kiyoaki Shinohara, such a method is “conditioning or motivation”, and what is most needed for activation is the voluntary desire to be a member of the board of education, awareness of sense of mission, and sense of responsibility. It is supposed to be.

New Zealand

In New Zealand1988In response to the "Picot Report" of the Ministry of Education, the authority of the Ministry of Education was significantly reduced, the Board of Education system abolished for more than 100 years was abolished, and a school board (BOT) system was introduced to transfer authority to the school level.[13].. The "Picot Report" is based on the idea that effective administrative systems should be simple and policy decisions should be made as close to the site as possible.[13].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
注 釈
  1. ^ その総数が40万を超え80万以下の場合にあつてはその40万を超える数に6分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に3分の1を乗じて得た数とを合算して得た数、その総数が80万を超える場合にあつてはその80万を超える数に8分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に6分の1を乗じて得た数と40万に3分の1を乗じて得た数とを合算して得た数。
  2. ^ Requests for submission of technical advice and recommendations and materials, in addition to those pursuant to the same Article,Local government lawSome are based on the provisions of Paragraph 245 of Article 4-1.
  3. ^ Tottori Chubu Furusato Wide Area Association (Tottori) only.
  4. ^ (Miyagi), (Gifu), (Hyogo), (Shimane), (Okayama) 7.
  5. ^ If the work content is multiple, it will be duplicated.
  6. ^ Maniwa District, Okayama Prefecture (old)Yatsuka・(Old)Kawakami-muraThe Board of Education of the Educational Union, which is made up of two villages. In March 2, two villages merged with other seven towns and villagesManiwaAs a result, Hiruzen Education Office Cooperative Association 1 Junior High School and 2 Elementary School became Maniwa City.
  7. ^ a b c d e Located in the Education and Training Center.
  8. ^ a b c d e There is a social education relationship.
  9. ^ ChibaKisarazu-Kimitsu-Futtsu-SodegauraBoard of Education in 4 cities. Establish and manage the Kimitsu Regional Audio-Visual Teaching Material Center. Initially established in 1969 (Showa 44) with Kisarazu CityKimitsu-gun OfTomirita Town-Sodegaura Town-Hirakawa Town-Obitsu Village-Kazusa Town-Kimitsu Town-Koito Town-Seiwa Village-Futtsu Town-Osawa Town-Ama TownThere were 12 municipalities.
  10. ^ a b c There is a school lunch relationship.
  11. ^ a b c There is a school relationship.
  12. ^ Has been set up in the union.KindergartenI am in charge of some of the affairs related to educational staff.
  13. ^ When it was first installed in 1969 (Showa 44)Kawashima-Ginan Town-Kasamatsu Town-Yanaizu Town4 towns
  14. ^ The Sayo-gun Board of Education is the first board of education established in Japan in 1966 (Showa 41).
Source
  1. ^ Japan Academy of Education and Management "Management of Series Education 1 Transformation of Public Education and Reconstruction of Educational Management System" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 135 pages
  2. ^ a b Japan Academy of Education and Management "Management of Series Education 1 Transformation of Public Education and Reconstruction of Educational Management System" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 122 pages
  3. ^ Learn French (FSL): Introduction -
  4. ^ Hiroshi Kaneko et al. "Small Dictionary of Law" (4th edition, revised edition) Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 2008.ISBN 4641000271. 
  5. ^ Law on Organization and Management of Local Education AdministrationThen, the prefectural committee is a board of education in each prefecture, and the board of education is a municipal board of education (Article 18, paragraphs 1 and 2).
  6. ^ Board of Education clerical rules Sendai City Regulation
  7. ^ "Materials for widening the Board of Education" (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Central Education Council Education System Subcommittee, Local Education Administration Subcommittee, 5th, Submission Materials), (June 2004, 6), http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo1/003/gijiroku/04070701/004/001.pdf 2014/3/1Browse. 
  8. ^ "Materials for widening the Board of Education" (Press Release), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Central Education Council Education System Subcommittee, Local Education Administration Subcommittee, 5th, Submission Materials), (June 2004, 6), http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo1/003/gijiroku/04070701/004/004.htm 2014/3/1Browse. 
  9. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (October 2017, 10)
  10. ^ Seasonal travel newspaper
  11. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun (February 2018, 4)
  12. ^ Japan Education Newspaper (June 2019, 6)
  13. ^ a b Education Management Society of Japan "Series Education Management 6 Educational Reform and Education Management in Other Countries" Tamagawa University Press, 2001, 128 pages

Related item

外部 リンク

Prefectures

Prefectures(Todofuken) isJapan OfWide-area local public bodiesIs""road""Prefecture""PrefectureIs a generic term.Currently47 prefecturesExists, and the breakdown is1 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures(Tokyo:Tokyo1, Road:Hokkaido1, prefecture:KyotoandOsaka2, prefectures: 43) other than those.

市町村With (Shichoson)Ordinary local governmentKind of.

Overview

Prefectures in JapanAdministrative divisionone of.

Municipalities are "basic local public bodies" (Local government lawArticle 2 paragraph 4), On the other hand, prefectures are regarded as "wide-area local public bodies that include municipalities" (paragraph 5 of the same Article), and handle wide-area affairs and liaison affairs related to municipalities.

All over Japan1724 municipalities(792 city,743 town,Village 189)as well as23special area(Tokyo Ward), All municipalities and special wards47 prefectures(1 capital,1 Road,2 prefectures,43 prefectures) Is included in any one[1], A two-stage local system.

As a voting body in prefecturesParliament (prefectural assembly), As an enforcement agencyGovernor(Governor Department). others,Public Safety Commission(Prefectural Public Safety Commission)Police headquarters,Board of education,Election Management Committee,Audit CommitteeSet up committees and committees and their secretariat. PrefecturesAutonomyHaveOrdinance・Establish rules,Local tax・Assuming and collecting contributions,Local bondHas the authority to issue.

Organizations that are the center of administrative work of prefectures andGovernment buildingIs referred to as the prefectural office, and is a city within the prefecture (Prefectural office location) Is installed.Some prefectures have the same city name as the prefecture name, while others have different names (#namereference).

1947(Showa22 years)May 5 OfThe Constitution of JapanOn the same day as the enforcementLocal government lawIs also enforced, mainly in prefectures and municipalitiesLocal autonomyThe system has started.The Local Autonomy Law stipulates a unified prefectural system.However, among the prefectures, the capital is characterized by having a certain authority to coordinate the special wards.There are no legal differences between prefectures, and the differences in names are exclusively historical.[2].. Roads are treated the same as prefectures under the Local Autonomy Law, but in addition to having a slightly different police organization from prefectures (Police lawArticles 46 and 51),River law(Article 96),Road law(Article 88), etc. have special rules about roads.

When referring to some of the prefectures in Japan, there is also a usage such as "prefecture" if Hokkaido is not included, and "prefecture" if Tokyo is not included.

History

Institutional change in the Meiji period

Edo Period OfBakuhan systemIn the era, there was territorial rule and divisional rule,Meiji RestorationBy the way,CentralizationThe system was established.

1871(Meiji4 years)Abandoned DomainIn each of the prefectures/prefectures/agencies/capitals that were sequentially installed before and afterMinistry of InteriorThe governor-appointed governor was in charge of administration and was positioned as a national administrative agency. On the other hand, a private election for eachParliamentHas been installed,Local autonomyExisted.

Prefecture

1868(Keio4th year, XNUMXst year of Meiji),Edo ShogunateDirect control of (Affairs-Flag bookThe territory of the Meiji era政府Became under the direct control of.the governmentSandu(Edo-Osaka-Kyoto),5 ports openedImportant areas that have jurisdiction overPrefectureAnd other thanPrefectureAs a matter of fact, "Chinese Affairs" was placed in the prefecture, and "Chinese Affairs" in the prefecture.ClanIs as it isDaming(Mouhou) ruled.

1869May 9(Meiji 2May 7), has been issued by princes for some timeRedemptionAfter accepting the wishes of theWisdomAs a result, it was entrusted with the rule of each clan (some clan was abolished).

At this point, the princes have full control over the territory and the people.EmperorAlthough it was supposed to be redeemed toBakuhan system OfEdo ShogunateMeiji government took over the status ofPrefectural Sanji systemIs called (only prefectures are under direct control).

1869May 9(Meiji 2May 8), the official edict ofKyoto-Tokyo-OsakaIt is decided to call all the prefectures except for the other prefectures (Kanagawa Prefecture-Niigata Prefecture-Echigofu-Kaifu-Degree-Narafu-Hakodate-Nagasaki) Changed its name to prefecture. At this point,Emperor Yukiyuki TokyoTokyoI was there,Takagoza(Indicates the whereabouts of the EmperorThroneAnd the place where this isImperial PalaceIt is said that there is no move, so Kyoto Prefecture, which has the high Goza, has a higher ranking than Tokyo Prefecture. In addition, before this proclamation of the Prime MinisterEdo prefectureIt was renamed from Edo to Tokyo at the same time.

1871May 8(Meiji 4May 7) Made inAbandoned DomainAs a result, the feudal clan became a prefecture and the whole country became a direct control of the Meiji government. As a result, 1 messenger (Pioneer) 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka) 302 prefectures. At this point, it was almost the same as the boundaries of the feudal domain and the territory of the Edo period.EnclaveWas found all over the country, hindering prefectural administration. In December of the same year, this was consolidated and merged (First prefecture integration), and became one prefecture with 1 prefectures and 3 prefectures.

1876(Meiji 9) Large-scale merger of prefectures (First prefecture integration) Was carried out and the number decreased to 37 prefectures, but as a result of division movements in various places, one agency (Hokkaido Government) There are 3 prefectures (Tokyo prefecture, Kyoto prefecture, Osaka prefecture).At this time,1878(11th year of Meiji)Local three new lawEnactment and1889From (Meiji 22)1890(Meiji 23)Municipal system-Municipal system-County system-Prefecture systemThe development of local systems, such as the establishment of the above, is being promoted by trial and error. Since the separation of Kagawa prefecture in 1888 (Meiji 21), no merger or division of prefectures has been carried out.[Note 1],1943(Showa 18) officiallyInlandTransferredKarafuto AgencyIn addition to the addition ofTokyoNext to the present (at the end of the war, 1 city (Tokyo) 2 agencies (Hokkaido agency/Karafuta agency) 2 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka) 43 prefectures).

Incidentally,1902(35th year of Meiji),Ministry of InteriorWill abolish 47 prefectures from 19 prefectures and integrate them into 28 prefectures.Prefectural abolition billWas planning[3][Note 2].1903(Meiji 36) The first in NovemberKeitaroCabinetByCabinetDecided[4], Next day1904It was scheduled to come into effect in April (Meiji 37).But in December of the same yearDissolution of the House of RepresentativesAnd March 1904Russo-Japanese Waroutbreak[5]ByParliamentIt was not submitted to[6][7][8].

After the abandonment of prefectures, the prefectural directors were renamed "prefectural ordinances" from "prefectural government", and the ministers of prefectures such as Kyoto, Tokyo, and Osaka were renamed "prefectural governors" to "prefectural governors."1886After (Meiji 19), both were "GovernorWas called. Prefectural governor and prefectural ordinance (prefectural governor)Ministry of InteriorDispatched fromOfficialsMet. On the other hand,1878It is one of the three local new laws enacted in (Meiji 11)Prefectural assembly rulesPrefectural assembly will be set up by (not applied to Hokkaido),Local autonomyIt also had a personality as the subject.

1889(Meiji 22)Municipal systemBegins, butCityIs representative ofCity councilAnd like the presentMayorWas not. However, while the cities under “prefecture” had “mayors recommended by the city council”, the cities under “prefecture” (Tokyo city-Kyoto City-Osaka) Does not have a mayor, and the governor of the prefecture also serves as the mayor.In these three cities,1898(Meiji 31) Only in October was the mayor born.

The prefecture as a national administrative agency isEdictBy the "local government system"MunicipalitiesaslawIsPrefecture system(Meiji 23 Law No. 35: Meiji 32, Law No. 64 completely revised).

OkinawaThe background of the establishment of "prefectures" is different from the other 42 prefectures.

Agency

Changes in the number of prefectures
dateQuantityRemarks
1868May 8
(Keio4May 6)
2 prefecturesAs the first prefectureHakodate,KyotoSettings.
Or later,Prefectural Sanji systemBelow, the areas directly controlled by the government become prefectures
1869May 9
(Meiji 2May 8)
-Fu-ken(PioneerInstallation)
1871May 8
(Meiji 4May 7)
3 prefectures 302 prefecturesAbandoned Domain.. All prefectures except Hokkaido are prefectures
1872May 2
(Meiji 5May 1)
3 prefectures 72 prefecturesMay 1(Previous yearMay 12)- First prefecture integration
1875May 123 prefectures 59 prefecturesBefore the second prefecture integration
1876May 13 prefectures 35 prefecturesDecember 12th of the previous year ~
Second prefecture integration.. The smallest number of prefectures after abandoned clan
1879May 43 prefectures 36 prefecturesOkinawaInstallation
1880May 33 prefectures 37 prefecturesTokushimaSeparation
1881May 2Sakai prefectureTransfer,FukuiSeparation
1881May 93 prefectures 38 prefecturesTottoriSeparation
1882May 23 prefectures 41 prefecturesPioneerThree prefecturesTransition to
1883May 53 prefectures 44 prefecturesToyama,Saga,MiyazakiSeparation
1886May 13 prefectures 41 prefectures 1 agencyThree prefecturesHokkaido GovernmentTransition to
1887May 113 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 agencyNaraSeparation
1888May 123 prefectures 43 prefectures 1 agencyKagawaSeparation
1899May 3Prefecture systemIs enforced in 3 prefectures and 4 prefectures, excluding Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures
All 3 prefectures and 42 prefectures become "local governments"
1943May 13 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 agencyKarafuto AgencyCabinet decision to transfer inland
1943May 71 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 officesTokyo PrefectureTokyoTransition to
19451 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 2 officesOkinawa goes under US administration
1946May 61 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 officesNational Administrative Organization LawThe enforcement of the Karafuto Agency will be officially abolished.
1946May 91 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefecturesHokkaido government moved to Hokkaido due to prefectural system revision
1947May 5Local government lawPrefectural government becomes "ordinary local public entity" by enforcement
1972May 51 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefecturesOkinawa returnReturned Okinawa Prefecture
* Pioneer andPrewarInForeign landExcluded.

"HokkaidoIs called1869(2th year of Meiji)7 OfPioneerThe same year as the installation,MatsumaechiAnd the area called "Ezochi",11 counties in 86 countries in HokkaidoIt started even though it was established. this isRitual systemUnder 68CountryTheGoki ShichidoIt is consistent with the usage divided into.Oshima IslandAbout some of theTate prefectureAbsorbed by Hirosaki PrefectureAomoriWas transferred to the pioneering envoy.1882(15th year of Meiji) The pioneer ambassador was abolished and the province was divided into threeHakodate-Sapporo-NemuroAlthough three prefectures were set up,1886It was abolished in (Meiji 19) "Hokkaido GovernmentWas installed.

At that time, the jurisdiction of the Hokkaido Government was called "Hokkaido", but "Hokkaido" is simply a regional name.RegionIt is the name of the municipality, not the current "road" (InlandTransferredKarafutoInKarafuto AgencyCommon with the nomenclature). Therefore, the term "agency" was used when paralleling with other prefectures as a local government.

Under the Hokkaido government system (Meiji 19th Royal Decree No. 83 (later amended)), the Hokkaido government secretary was appointed as the governor of another prefecture.1901(Meiji 34), (Meiji 34 Law No. 2) and (Meiji 34 Law No. 3) were promulgated and a parliament was established.CorporationIt became a local government with a personality. In addition, the authority of the parliament was narrower in the Hokkaido association than in the prefectural association. Then, Karafuto (Common lawIn Article 1 paragraph 2Inland(Included in) was abolished and newly addedKarafuto AgencyWas officially added and became two offices.

Showa period system change

Second World WarIn1943(18)May 7,Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentBy the enforcement of (Law No. 18 of 89),Tokyo city TheTokyoAbsorbed byTokyo", and was stripped of the municipality and autonomy. Under the Tokyo Metropolitan Government system (Korean Decree No. 18 of 504), the "Tokyo Metropolitan Secretary" was made the secretary and Tokyo was established.Internal affairsBe a bureaucratShigeo OdateWas appointed as the first generation.

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government established a metropolitan assembly, and ward associations were also set up in each ward of the former Tokyo city, but the state's control over the ward was particularly strong.

Prefecture

After the war1946(Showa 21) With the revision of the prefectural system in September, and was abolished and integrated into the prefectural system, and the law was renamed the prefectural system.According to the supplementary provisions of this revised law, the local government, which was conventionally called Hokkaido local expenses, is now called "road".

1947(22)May 5With the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law, the government system of the Hokkaido government was abolished, and the Hokkaido government agency, which was a local government agency, became "Hokkaido" which is one of the ordinary local public bodies.

After the enforcement of Local Autonomy Law

Prefectures

1947(Showa 22) March,The Constitution of JapanAs the law planned in Article 92Local government lawWas promulgated. Among them, the prefectures are not in the position of the former “subordinate body of the central government”,市町村Similar toOrdinary local governmentPositioned as a member of parliamentGovernorAlsoelectionWas chosen by. However,1947The first prefectural election for governors implemented in April (Showa 22) is not based on the local autonomy law that had not yet been enacted, but the prefectural system (prefecture system) and Tokyo Metropolitan Government system revision introduced a public election system for local ministers. It was done on the basis of that. At this time, 4 prefecture (Tokyo) 1 way (Hokkaido) 1 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka prefecture) 2 prefectures. afterwards,1972(Showa 47)AmericaReturned to OkinawaOkinawaHas been set up, and it has become 43 prefectures again.

While the prefectural governor is elected, it has its origins before the warAgency delegationSystem is2000It survived for a long time until it was abolished in 12. Prefectures are usually on a par with municipalities as local public bodies, but prefectures市町村As a wide-area local public body that includes the above, the wide-area local governments, those related to communication adjustments related to municipalities, and those deemed unsuitable by ordinary municipalities due to their size or nature are processed (Local Autonomy Law (2nd Article 5))).

However, the definition of “unit” such as “capital”, “road”, “prefecture”, and “prefecture” is not specified in the Local Autonomy Law, and the current prefecture name is the same as Article 3, Paragraph 1 of the same law. It is used based on the rule that "the name of the local government is the conventional name". However, "city" is not just a name, but has a character different from "prefecture". That is, according to the Local Autonomy Law, the "ward" of the "city" is "special areaIt is said that (Local Autonomy Law Article 281 Paragraph 1), it is different from "prefecture". Even if you are a prefectureLaw on the establishment of special wards in metropolitan areasIt is possible to set up a special ward based on the above, and the prefectures that cover the special ward are, in principle, regarded as the "capital" for the application of the provisions of the Local Autonomy Law and other laws and regulations (Article 10 of the same law).

Okinawa

Okinawa The1945From (20) (officiallySan Francisco Peace TreatyCame into effect1952(27)May 4From)1972(Showa 47)Under US occupationThen, because it was not under Japanese rule, the treatment of Okinawa at this time was delicate,国会Then "Ryukyu government","Nansei IslandsIs used, and the number of prefectures is counted as "1 prefectures" of "1 prefecture, 2 prefectures and 42 prefectures", and Okinawa is not included in the number of prefectures.[9].

Return to OkinawaWas established beforeAct on Special Measures for Return of Okinawa", the former Okinawa Prefecture "will continue to exist as a prefecture prescribed by the Local Autonomy Law."

system

Voting body

Tax paid to prefectures

Abandonment

The merger of prefectures or the establishment of new prefectures is called "decommissioning", and can be divided as follows.

  • Abolish multiple prefectures and establish new prefectures (union).
  • Abolish one prefecture and make that area an area of ​​another prefecture (transfer).
  • Abolish one prefecture and set up multiple prefectures in that area (division).
  • Establish a new prefecture by separating part of the prefecture area (separation).

Regarding decommissioning, “boundary change” (changing only the area without setting or abolishing prefectures)市町村Including the transfer of the prefecture to which the company belongs)Article 6 of the Local Autonomy Lawas well as the Article 6-2Stipulated in.

Principle procedure for disposal and consolidation

By law (Article 6, paragraph 1). This lawArticle 95 of the ConstitutionIt is understood that it is a "special law that applies only to one local public entity" (a special law for local autonomy) defined in stipulations. No (Detailed rulesArticle 261 of the Local Autonomy Law-Article 262).

Merge and transfer exceptions

With the revision of Law No. 16 in 57, a new procedure for merging/transferring was established by a simple method.

  • When abolishing multiple prefectures and establishing new prefectures in all areas
  • When one prefecture is abolished and the entire area is changed to another prefecture

Only

  • Apply by the decision of the relevant prefectural assembly,
  • Determined by the Cabinet after approval by the Diet.

It was made possible to follow the procedure (Local Autonomy Law, Article 6-2).

this is,NaganoYamaguchi VillageGifuNakatsugawaAt the time of the merger with, the fact that it was necessary to enact a law for mergers of municipalities that span prefectures (new mergers) was highlighted, andPrefectural systemIt was established with the intention of promoting voluntary merger of prefectures as the first stage of introduction.

Decommissioning and Governor/Member

  • In the case of a merger, the governors of the relevant prefectures and members of the parliament will lose their jobs, and the governor's election and the member's election will be held in the newly established prefecture.
  • In the case of transfer, the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will lose their jobs, but the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will not lose their jobs.
  • In the case of a division, the governors and members of the prefectures to be abolished will lose their jobs, and the governors' elections and members' elections will be held in the newly established prefectures after the division.
  • In the case of separation, the prefectural governors and members of the prefectural government will not lose their jobs, and the prefectural governor's election and the members' election will be held in the newly established prefecture.

Boundary change

Border change of prefectures is basically based on the law (Special Act on Local Autonomy) as in the case of abandonment and consolidation, but in the following cases, it will be "change itself" (Local Autonomy Act No. 6). Article 2).

  • When there is a change in the boundaries of municipalities that are also boundaries of prefectures
  • When municipalities were set up across the boundaries of prefectures

In these two cases, the relevant municipalities/prefectures will apply through the decisions of the respective parliament and will be determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7 paragraph 3).

  • When the area that did not belong to the area of ​​the local government was transferred to the area of ​​the municipality

This is because the change is due to the change in the area of ​​the municipality, like the change of the boundary of the municipality.

Change of prefecture

Even when the whole municipality or county is transferred to another prefecture, it is a boundary change between prefectures and is subject to the law (as of September 25, 9).

Union of municipalities that span prefectures

When a municipality belonging to a different prefecture is abolished and a municipality is established in that area, the relevant municipality/prefecture applies for each through a vote of the Parliament and is determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7, paragraph 3). ).

Conventionally, the unification of municipalities that cross the boundaries of prefectures (abolishing multiple municipalities and establishing new municipalities in that area) is also subject to the newly enacted law under Article 6 Clause 1. It was supposed to be (No. 28 of own departure from June 6, 29).

For that reason,2005(Heisei(17) The merger of Yamaguchi Village in Nagano Prefecture and Nakatsugawa City in Gifu Prefecture will take the form of transfer to Nakatsugawa City. Taking this as an opportunity, it was decided that the amendment under Law No. 16 in 57 would be similar to the procedure for changing the boundaries of municipalities across prefecture boundaries.

Area where division theory exists

1876In some prefectures where a large-scale merger was carried out (Meiji 9), there are some prefectures that were divided again due to the division movement.1888(Meiji 21) At the endKagawa EhimeNo division of prefectures has been implemented since it was separated from.

However, even now, there are voices calling for the division of prefectures, such as the mayors, prefectural governors, and online. Here, we list the prefectures where the mayor or prefectural governor suggests division or separation of prefectures.

Fukui
2006(18) In early March,ReinanCorresponds to (Wakasa region)Tsuruga,Obama City OfMayorIs "(ifPrefectural systemWhen it is laid)ReihokuIf the (Echizen region) enters Hokuriku, it will enter Kinki even if it has no relation to Reihoku," he said, suggesting the withdrawal from the southern part of Fukui prefecture.
Nagano
Chikuma PrefectureHas been split and transferred to Nagano Prefecture, and there have been many movements for splitting. After the merger of both prefectures, it was created as a song song for geography education within the prefecture.Shinano countryWas widely sung as a de facto prefectural song, and was made a symbol of the integration of prefectural awareness (formally established as a prefectural song in 1968).
Yamaguchi Shimonoseki,FukuokaKitakyushu
Kanmon StraitShimonoseki City and Kitakyushu City, which are located on both sides of theStateDoes not belong toKanmon Special CityThere is a movement to form.
Hyogo
Goki ShichidoOut of (XNUMX Goki)Kinai-Sanin road-Sanyo road-NankaidoAcross (most in 47 prefectures),Regulatory countryThen.Settsu-Tamba country-Tajima country-Harima country-Beautiful land-Bizen country-Awaji countryThere is a theory of separation because it spans 7 countries (after 11 countries in Hokkaido) and has different history and climate. Described as 7 borders, 6 republics, 5 ethnic groups, 4 languages, 3 religions, 2 letters, 1 nation.ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ ア"Hyogoslavia" was even compared to[10].
Hokkaido
Hokkaido is larger than the 7 prefectures of Kyushu and the 6 prefectures of Tohoku,Governor of HokkaidoThere is only one. Divide into multiple prefectures, saying that "the governor alone cannot keep an eye on the issues in the vast area of ​​Hokkaido" and "the distance between the prefectural office and the municipalities will be shortened, and flexible administrative measures can be taken according to the actual conditions of the area." There is a concept[11].2016(28)May 1 OfMainichi Newspapersso,Hokkaido Assemblyof"LDP・ It was reported that the "Dominkai" established a private institution "Hokkaido Branch Prefectural Study Group" and started discussions on the "branch prefecture" plan to divide the road into multiple prefectures.[11].May 8 OfHokkaido ShimbunSo, the draft of the report compiled by the study group was reported, and the contents were published by Ryuichi Kita, the chairman of the "Hokkaido Branch Study Group".[12]..At the study group, about 4% of medical institutions such as hospitals and clinics and educational institutions such as universities and junior collegesSapporoAiming to improve the current situation where economic, administrative and cultural functions are concentrated[13]..From the participating members of the study groupHokkaido ShinkansenTheKyushu ShinkansenIn comparison with Kyushu, there is an analysis that it grew immediately because seven governors cooperated, and there is an opinion that the reason why the Hokkaido Shinkansen does not grow easily is that there is only one governor, and the voice is Weaknesses have been pointed out[11]..Ryuichi Kita, the chairman of the study group, said, "There are seven governors, the chairman of the prefectural assembly, and the top of the economic group in Kyushu. I want you to imagine the power when you move together." By increasing the number of governors, the national presence of Hokkaido will increase.[14].
Initially, a four-division plan for "Sapporo prefecture, Hakodate prefecture, Kushiro prefecture, Asahikawa prefecture" and "Donan,Doo,Dohoku,Okhotsk,Tokachi,Kushiro-NemuroThere was a 6-division plan[11], It was judged to be difficult from the viewpoint of "maintaining the independence of the prefecture"[12].Kyodo NewsAccording to the report, on November 2016, 11, the study group announced a three-division plan for "Central Hokkaido / Southern Hokkaido, Northern Hokkaido, and Eastern Hokkaido" (not necessarily a branch of the Promotion Bureau) and " A report that includes the east-west two-division plan for "Eastern Hokkaido and others"Takahashi HarumiSubmitted to the governor (at that time)[12][13]..In the branch prefectureReferendumWith the consent of the majority of the people of Hokkaido,Special lawNeed to be enacted[13]..Once in Hokkaido, February 1882, 15 (Meiji 2)PioneerJanuary 1886, 19 (Meiji 1) from the abolitionHokkaido GovernmentUntil installation, with 3 prefectures of "Sapporo prefecture, Hakodate prefecture, Nemuro prefecture"Ministry of Agriculture and CommerceHokkaido Business Administration Bureau was establishedThree prefectures first erawas there.

Prefectural list

Indicates the location on the map. Separated from Hokkaido and Okinawa.

Major remote island affiliations that are unclear or omitted in the map above are as follows.

By region

Here is a list of prefectures according to the most common regional divisions. For other regional divisionsRegion of JapanSee.

Regions and Prefectures of Japan no labels.svgislandsRegionPrefectures
Hokkaido Hokkaido regionHokkaido
Honshu Tohoku regionAomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima
Kanto regionIbaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa
Chubu regionNiigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi
KinkiMie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama
ChugokuTottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi
Shikoku Shikoku regionTokushima Kagawa Ehime Kochi
Kyushu・Okinawa Kyushu and Okinawa regionFukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Oita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa

Alphabetical order/basic data

ISO/JIS numberPrefecturesreadingPrefectural office locationLargest cityflagRegionarea
(kilometer2)
population
(Man)
The population density
(People/km2)
市町村Quantity国会constant
Masses / Reference
2323AichiAichi PrefectureNagoya cityNagoya cityAichi prefecture flagCentral part5,172.407,484,0941,446.954Zones
0202AomoriAomori prefectureAomoriAomoriAomori prefecture flagTohoku9,645.401,308,649135.7400Zones
0505AkitaAkitakenAkita CityAkita CityAkita prefecture flagTohoku11,637.541,022,83987.9250Zones
1717IshikawaIshikawa PrefectureKanazawaKanazawaIshikawa Prefecture FlagCentral part4,186.151,154,343275.8190Zones
0808IbarakiIbaraki KenMitoMitoIbaraki prefecture flagKanto6,096.932,917,857478.6440Zones
0303IwateIwatekenMoriokaMoriokaIwate prefecture flagTohoku15,275.021,279,81483.8330Zones
3838EhimeEhime KenMatsuyama CityMatsuyama CityEhime prefecture flagShikoku5,676.101,385,840244.2200Zones
4444OitaOitakenOita CityOita CityOita Prefecture FlagKyusyu6,340.611,166,729184.0180Zones
2727OsakaOsaka PrefectureOsakaOsakaOsaka Prefecture FlagKinki1,904.998,838,9084,639.943Zones
3333OkayamaOkayama PrefectureOkayama CityOkayama CityOkayama prefecture flagChugoku7,114.621,922,181270.2270Zones
4747OkinawaOkinawanNahaNahaOkinawa prefecture flagOkinawa2,281.001,434,138628.7410Zones
3737KagawaI don't knowTakamatsuTakamatsuKagawa prefecture flagShikoku1,876.73976,756520.5170Zones
4646KagoshimaKagoshima KenKagoshimaKagoshimaKagoshima prefecture flagKyusyu9,188.101,648,752179.4430Zones
1414KanagawaKanagawa Prefecture横 浜 市横 浜 市Kanagawa prefecture flagKanto2,415.819,127,3233,778.233Zones
2121GifuGifuken(I.e.(I.e.Gifu Prefecture FlagCentral part10,621.292,032,533191.4420Zones
2626KyotoTodayKyoto CityKyoto CityKyoto Prefecture FlagKinki4,612.202,610,140565.9260Zones
4343KumamotoKumamoto KenKumamoto-shiKumamoto-shiKumamoto prefecture flagKyusyu7,409.321,786,969241.2450Zones
1010GunmaGunmakenMaebashiTakasakiGunma prefecture flagKanto6,362.281,973,476310.2350Zones
3939KochiKouchikenKochiKochiKochi prefecture flagShikoku7,103.91728,461102.53402 / *
1111SaitamaSaitama prefectureSaitamaSaitamaSaitama prefecture flagKanto3,797.757,261,2711,912.063Zones
4141SagaSakenSaga CitySaga CitySaga Prefecture FlagKyusyu2,440.64833,245341.4200Zones
2525ShigaShigakenOtsu CityOtsu CityShiga prefecture flagKinki4,017.381,413,184351.8190Zones
2222ShizuokaShizuoka KenShizuoka CityHamamatsu cityShizuoka prefecture flagCentral part7,778.703,701,181475.8350Zones
3232Shimane ShimanekenMatsueMatsueShimane prefecture flagChugoku6,708.23694,188103.51902 / *
1212ChibaChiba PrefectureChibaChibaChiba prefecture flagKanto5,157.646,224,0271,206.854Zones
1313TokyoTokyo Metropolitan areaShinjuku ward (Tokyo 23 WardSetagaya (Tokyo 23 WardTokyo flagKanto2,190.9013,513,7346,168.162Zones
3636TokushimaTokushima KenTokushimaTokushimaTokushima prefecture flagShikoku4,146.93756,063182.32402 / *
0909TochigiTochigikenUtsunomiya CityUtsunomiya CityTochigi prefecture flagKanto6,408.091,974,671308.2250Zones
3131TottoriTottorikenTottori CityTottori CityTottori prefecture flagChugoku3,507.05573,648163.61902 / *
1616ToyamaToyama KenToyamaToyamaToyama Prefecture FlagCentral part4,247.611,066,883251.2150Zones
4242NagasakiNagasaki KenNagasakiNagasakiNagasaki Prefecture FlagKyusyu4,132.321,377,780333.4210Zones
2020NaganoNaganoNagano cityNagano cityNagano Prefecture FlagCentral part13,561.562,099,759154.8770Zones
2929NaraNarakenNaraNaraNara prefecture flagKinki3,690.941,365,008369.8390Zones
1515NiigataNiigata PrefectureNiigataNiigataNiigata Prefecture FlagCentral part12,584.102,305,098183.2300Zones
2828HyogoHyokenKobe CityKobe CityHyogo prefecture flagKinki8,400.905,536,989659.141Zones
3434HiroshimaHiroshima KenHiroshima cityHiroshima cityHiroshima prefecture flagChugoku8,479.382,844,963335.5230Zones
1818FukuiFukuikenFukui CityFukui CityFukui prefecture flagCentral part4,190.43787,099187.8170Zones
4040FukuokaFukuoka provinceFukuoka CityFukuoka CityFukuoka prefecture flagKyusyu4,986.405,102,8711,023.460Zones
0707FukushimaFukushima KenFukushimaIwakiFukushima flagTohoku13,783.751,913,606138.8590Zones
0101HokkaidoHow are youSapporoSapporoHokkaido flagHokkaido83,424.225,383,57968.6179Zones
2424MieMiekenTsu CityYokkaichiMie prefecture flagKinki5,774.391,815,827314.5290Zones
0404MiyagiMiyagi KenSendai citySendai cityMiyagi prefecture flagTohoku7,282.142,334,215320.5350Zones
4545MiyazakiMiyazaki KenMiyazaki CityMiyazaki CityMiyazaki Prefecture FlagKyusyu7,735.311,104,377142.8260Zones
0606YamagataYamagata KenYamagataYamagataYamagata prefecture flagTohoku9,323.151,122,957120.4350Zones
3535Yamaguchi Yamaguchi KenYamaguchi CityShimonosekiYamaguchi prefecture flagChugoku6,112.301,405,007229.9190Zones
1919YamanashiYamanashi KenKofu CityKofu CityYamanashi prefecture flagCentral part4,464.99835,165187.0270Zones
3030WakayamaWakayama PrefectureWakayama CityWakayama CityWakayama prefecture flagKinki4,724.68963,850204.0300Zones


Name

Of the government office that is the origin of the current prefecture
Government building location and county at the time of installation[Note 3]
PrefectureCountyAddressCurrent location
Hokkaido GovernmentSapporo-gunSapporo 
to East Malaysia
North
AomoriTsugaru-gunAomori
IwateIwateMorioka
MiyagiMiyagi-gunSendai
AkitaAkita DistrictAkita[Note 4]
YamagataMurayamaYamagata
FukushimaNobuoFukushima
Seki
to East Malaysia
IbarakiIbaraki-gunMito
TochigiToga DistrictTochigiUtsunomiya[Note 5]
GunmaGunma-gunTakasakiMaebashi
SaitamaSaitama DistrictIwatsuki[Note 6]Saitama[Note 7]
ChibaChiba千葉
TokyoToshimaTokyoShinjuku[Note 8]
Kanagawa PrefectureTachibanajuKanagawaYokohama[Note 9]

unit
Niigata PrefectureKambara-gunNiigata 
ToyamaShinkawa-gunToyama
IshikawaIshikawaMikawaKanazawa[Note 10]
FukuiAsuwa-gunFukui 
YamanashiYamanashiKofu
NaganoMizuuchi-gunNagano
GifuAtsumi-gunGifu
ShizuokaAbe-gunShizuoka
AichiAichi-gunNagoya
Near
Ki
MieMie-gunYokkaichiTsu
ShigaShigaOtsu 
KyotoKuzuno京都
OsakaTosei DistrictOsaka
HyogoYabe-gunHyogoKobe
NaraSoegami-gunNara 
WakayamaNagusa-gunWakayama

Country
TottoriOmi-gunTottori
Shimane ShimaneMatsue
OkayamaMino-gunOkayama
HiroshimaNumata CountyHiroshima
Yamaguchi YoshikiYamaguchi
four
Country
TokushimaMeito-gunTokushima
KagawaKagawa-gunTakamatsu
EhimeHot springsMatsuyama
KochiTosa DistrictKochi
nine
State
FukuokaSawara-gunFukuoka
SagaSaga佐賀
NagasakiHeki-gunNagasaki
KumamotoAkita CountyKumamoto
OitaOita-gunFuchuOita[Note 4]
MiyazakiMiyazaki-gunKamibeppuMiyazaki[Note 4]
KagoshimaKagoshima DistrictKagoshima 
OkinawaShimajiriNaha

As is clear from the table (location and county of government office when the prefecture was established), the principle of prefecture name is the location of the government office. However, if the place name on which the prefecture name is based falls under the following, the prefecture name does not match the current city name of the residence.

1888Since (Meiji 21), there is no change in the place name part of the prefecture name, and now the place name part of the prefecture has become established. Refers to the entire Aomori Prefecture rather than the city) usage is generally used, but is originally a place name showing only a part of the area. Especially when the prefecture name does not match the city name of the government office building, it is often misunderstood that the prefecture name is originally a place name pointing to the entire area. The place name part of the current prefecture name indicates the whole area of ​​prefecture.HokkaidoEhimeOnly.

The principle of using the location of the government building for the prefecture name isNaming rules in the Sanjo system of the prefectureTheAbandoned DomainIt is believed that it was inherited afterwards. Throughout the Edo periodClan namingIt was not recognized that there was a unified policy in (in the first place, the name "han" itself is not the official one at that time),castle townName (eg "Kagoshima clan"),Regulatory countryIt was unclear whether to refer to a wide-area place name (for example, "Satsuma Domain") or the family name of the lord (for example, "Shimadzu Domain"). City name or village name of the government office location (exceptionally, the county name is used in some cases, and the regulatory country name is also used in prefectures and prefectures)[Note 15]) Is the only thing that has come to be used exclusivelyPrefectural Sanji systemAfter that.

after that,Abandoned DomainRight afterFirst prefecture integrationThere were many cases where the prefecture name based on "city name" was renamed to "gun name" at the time of and immediately after that (within about 7 months), and the specific reason is not always clear. In addition, this renameBoshin WarThe theory that it was based on a clear political will to display "reverse" in (Award and punishment), but this theory"Forward and Reverse" evaluation criteria are not clear,Cannot demonstrate the existence of political willThere are problems such as.

Renamed immediately after the first prefecture integrationSince then, the change of the prefecture name due to the relocation of the prefectural office has been exceptional. Even if the prefectural government offices are inherited, the prefectural name is also inherited (Abandoned domain # Transfer from the first prefecture integration to the second prefecture integration"Integration", "Transfer" andAbandoned clan prefecture # Second prefecture integrationSee "Transfer"). The obvious exception is the prefecture's name, which is a "grand name" that symbolizes the entire jurisdiction.Ishitetsu prefectureKamiyamaAs a new "elegant name" when they mergeEhimeIt was the same as the case namedShirakawaAccording to the principleKumamotoOnly two cases have been renamed to. Cases corresponding to exceptions have also been abolishedShinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Meito prefectureWhen we reinstated, instead of the original prefecture nameToyama-Fukui-TokushimaIt is limited to 3 cases.First prefecture integrationAfter that, the case where the prefectural office was moved to another city (Tochigi) And the place name that is the basis of the prefecture name disappeared (Shimane,Kanagawa TownThe name of the prefecture has not changed.

English name of prefecture

PrefectureEnglish"Prefecture" is used as a translation, but this wordCentral governmentDispatched fromPrefectural governor(Prefect) has a sense of word of jurisdiction (similar example: France), the governor has been electedAfter the warIn, this word does not match the word sense,PrewarIt is still used by the convention from. In addition,TokyoIn the case of, "metropolis" is also used.HokkaidoIn some cases, "prefecture" is not used and "Hokkaido" is sometimes used.

symbol

Many prefecturesPrefecture flag,Prefecture badge,symbol markHave been established. They areNational Athletic MeetIn addition to being used for events such as, it is also displayed at the facilities of prefectures, and is used as a sign of facilities managed by prefectures.

Also, in many prefectures,flower, "Of the prefectureThu, "Of the prefecture(I.e.Has been established. Some of them have designated "prefecture fish" and "prefecture beast". Detail isList of symbols of prefecturesSee.

See below for other symbols.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ As a large-scale boundary change, there is a case where the Tama region was transferred from Kanagawa prefecture to Tokyo prefecture in 1893 (Meiji 26), but the establishment or abolition of the prefecture itself is not accompanied.
  2. ^ However, strictly speaking, the bill does not mention Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures.In addition, Hokkaido at that time was a public corporation with "Hokkaido local expenses" which is different from the prefectural system.Hokkaido GovernmentWas governing.Also, "Okinawa Prefecture"1879It was established in (Meiji 12), but1909Until (Meiji 42), the prefectural system like other prefectures was not enforced.
  3. ^ Only the type that has been changed while maintaining the place name part goes back to before the change.If a prefecture with the same place name is once abolished, it will be the government building when it is revived.As a county in Tokyo, Kyoto, and OsakaEdo Castle-Nijo Castle-Osaka CastleI marked the county.
  4. ^ a b c Oita and Miyazaki renamed the prefectural office location name to match the county name after the prefecture was established. Akita also renamed the county name after entering the Meiji era, but before the prefecture was established.
  5. ^ The difference between the prefecture name of Tochigi prefecture and the location name of the prefectural office is that the conflict between Utsunomiya prefecture and the former Tochigi prefecture continued for a long time, so instead of moving the prefectural office from Tochigi to Utsunomiya, the prefecture name remains "Tochigi prefecture". By doing so, both faces are raised.
  6. ^ When Saitama Prefecture was established, Iwatsuki was planned to be the prefectural capital, but a temporary government building was set up in Urawa, and Urawa became the prefectural capital without moving to Iwatsuki.Urawa is not Saitama-gun but Adachi-gun.
  7. ^ Urawa City, which was the prefectural capital, merged with Omiya City and Yono City.Later, Iwatsuki City, which was the original planned location of the prefectural office, was incorporated.
  8. ^ Shinjuku Ward is also a part of the former Tokyo City, and the current location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building is the former Yodobashi Ward, which was Toshima County (later Minami Toshima County ⇒ Toyotama County) before the incorporation of Tokyo City.
  9. ^ "Kanagawa" as the name of the municipality has disappeared, but now Yokohama City "Kanagawa Ward" exists as the base of the prefecture name.
  10. ^ a b IshikawaIs based on the county to which Mikawa (currently Hakusan City) belongs, which is not the current location of the prefectural office, but Kanazawa, the current location, is also in Ishikawa County.
  11. ^ First prefecture integrationSince then, there are cases where the “county name” of the government office is used as a prefecture name, and those that do not currently exist as prefectures (including those that were once abolished and revived under a different prefecture name)Iwai prefecture-Okitama Prefecture-Bandai prefecture-Shinji prefecture-Inba Prefecture-Iruma-Ashigara-Shinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Chikuma Prefecture-Nukata prefecture-Dokai prefecture-Inugami-Shikama Prefecture-Hojo Prefecture-Fukatsu-Oda-Meito prefecture-Mitan prefectureThere are 19 cases (Fukutsu prefecture → Oda prefecture are renamed due to the relocation of the government building, so there are 18 prefectures in total).
  12. ^ Present in Maebashi cityGunmaThe office was located in Gunma-gun since the law, but in the early Meiji eraAn area that is effectively one with Seta-gun, And the county was eventually reset accordingly, so we considered it to be "not the county of the current location".
  13. ^ Cases where the location of the government building, which is the basis of the prefecture name, is not the actual locationFirst prefecture integrationからFirst prefecture integrationThere are many places up to, and the planned place name was used as a nonexistent example.Mizusawa-Inba Prefecture-FukatsuAnd adjacent place names were usedKisarazu-HamadaThere are such cases (dissolved discrepancies in a short period of time, since there are many cases where it is not obvious whether or not they are applicable, it is difficult to list all of them without excess or deficiency).
  14. ^ A non-existent case where a place name that is neither "city name" nor "county name" is used isFirst prefecture integrationAfter thatIshitetsu prefecture-Kamiyama-ShirakawaThere are 3 cases. BesidesNanao PrefectureIn the example, "common name of city = name of castle" is used.
  15. ^ Specifically, the entire government was a former Shogunate territory.Sado prefecture,Hida Prefecture,KaifuAlso played a role in postwar processing of the Boshin WarEchigofu, Had a direct jurisdiction over the relatively small area (mainly the old flag territory)Kawachi Prefecture,Settsu prefecture,Mikawa PrefectureThere is a similar exampleMusashichi Prefectural Government,Hitachi Prefecture Prefectural Government,Shimosui Prefectural Government,Kazusa Awachi Prefectural GovernmentThere is, but SadoFirst prefecture integrationExcept left overAbandoned DomainIt has disappeared due to renaming and integration before.

Source

  1. ^ Find out the number of municipalities | General counter for official statistics(Retrieved September 2020, 10)
  2. ^ Hiroshi Shiono, Administrative Law III, 3rd Edition, p. 137, Yuhikaku,2006
  3. ^ "Prefectural abolition bill (submitted for dissolution)”(Japanese). National Archives Digital Archive.National Archives of Japan. 2020/12/31Browse.
  4. ^ Mitsuo Takenaga. “First Katsura Cabinet's prefectural abolition plan and Tsugunori Fukuoka / Mayor Matsue's move to Tokyo (Matsue City History Study 1)". Shimane Regional Material Repository. Matsue City Board of Education. 2020/12/31Browse.
  5. ^ "Russo-Japanese War chronology". Russo-Japanese War Special Exhibition. National Archives of Japan Center for Asian Historical Records. 2021/1/2Browse.
  6. ^ Nikkei Inc., Nikkei BP. “Kita Kanto 3 prefectures are "Utsunomiya prefecture" 28 phantom prefectural plans | Entertainment! | NIKKEI STYLE”(Japanese). NIKKEI STYLE. 2020/12/19Browse.
  7. ^ Tadamitsu Saito (2013). “Attachment to the Prefectural Abolition Law [Complete Map of the Empire of Japan]”. Japan Map Society "Map" Vol. 51, No. 3: 17. 
  8. ^ Tadamitsu Saito "Prefectural abolition bill attached drawing [Complete map of the Empire of Japan]"Map" Vol. 51, No. 3, Japan Map Society, 2013, 3_17-3_18, two:10.11212 / jjca.51.3_17, ISSN 0009-4897, NOT 130005281792.
  9. ^ 国会議事録第6回衆議院地方行政委員会10号(昭和24年11月25日)門司委員、あるいは国会議事録第38回参議院文教委員会9号(昭和36年03月09日)Mitsuyoshi YajimaAnd many more
  10. ^ “Hyogo responds to SNS posts by the Hyogo Slavia Federation”. Kobe newspaper(July 2018, 8). https://www.kobe-np.co.jp/news/sougou/201808/0011576140.shtml 2018/12/19Browse. Although it was an article in August 2018, there is also a statement in the text that ""Hyogoslavia" became a hot topic on the Internet several years ago."
  11. ^ a b c d "Hokkaido "branch prefectural theory" emerged "The reason why the Shinkansen does not grow is because there is only one governor"”(Japanese). Huff post (September 2016, 1). 2021/9/5Browse.
  12. ^ a b c "Hot for the future of Hokkaido!”. Ryuichi Kita. 2021/9/6Browse.
  13. ^ a b c "Submit Hokkaido branch prefectural plan to the governor Volunteer road council "XNUMX or XNUMX prefectures"”(Japanese). jp.sputniknews.com. 2021/9/5Browse.
  14. ^ "If Hokkaido becomes XNUMX prefectures, the LDP's "branch prefecture" proposal: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2021/9/5Browse.

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