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Compulsory education(Compulsory education,British: compulsory education) IsCountryForces the peopleEducationIs..Compulsory education is widespread worldwidesystemHowever, the mechanism differs from country to country.It is a concept closely related to school age, so to understand it more deeply,School ageSee also section.
History of compulsory education
School systemThere was a social system that led to the compulsory education system from ancient times to the present.In the old daysSpartanThere was a compulsory education system for men aged 7 to 30 years old, and both literary and martial arts education was provided for free people.also,CharlemagnePromulgated a compulsory education decree in 802, not limited to aristocratic children.
In the Middle AgesLutheranCountries have begun to focus on education for the people, among othersGermany OfGotha Principality OfPious Prince ErnstThe Gotha Education Ordinance promulgated by 1642 is modern.Educational regulationsalike,,,textbookIt was quite advanced in that detailed regulations such as were made.The Gotha Education Ordinance stipulates that the end of compulsory education is "until the age of 12 or the ability to read letters", and the end standard is curriculum principle in that it does not necessarily require students to attend school until a certain age.Later) And age principle.This kind of education systemPrussia OfFriedrich IIIIt was mainstream until the time of, but basically the purpose of relief for the lower classes was weak.
Industrial revolutionIn the period, young children of the working class came to be used as a labor force in factories and the like, and they were placed in a poor environment.The United KingdomThen in the first half of the 19th centuryFactory lawFor example, the employment of young people in factories was banned, and the compulsory education system came into effect in the latter half of the 19th century.The United States of AmericaMassachusetts enacted the first compulsory education law in 1852.However, there are criticisms that this does not allow the poor, who should have been the original target of the compulsory education system, to be rescued because it allowed parents to keep their children out of school because of poverty.
ModernDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularThe origin of the morphology1807We can call for more educational reforms in Prussia.1806ToFranceIn Prussia, who lost the war withWilhelm von HumboldtObedient to ask for opinions and not run awayConscriptFormulated a rigorous compulsory education program with the goal of nurturing candidates..PredeterminedCurriculumIs managed on a timetable, and the proficiency level of each individual is ignored.school yearThe teaching method taught by credit is called the Prussian model and influenced the education of countries such as the United States..
In the United States at the beginning of the 20th century, some states had a termination rule that used both curriculum and age principles, stating that "the mandatory period of study is up to 14 years old, but if you cannot read or write, up to 16 years old".However, it seems that all of them are now based on age (however).Special support educationThe compulsory education period is from 20 to 21 years old).
Guarantee of compulsory education
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,as well asInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(Commonly known as "International Bill of Human Rights")Primary EducationLevel compulsory education rights and obligations are stipulated.
Primary EducationMust be obligatory and free of charge for all. — International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsArticle 13 Paragraph 2 (a)
After World War II, it was a thing of the past that young people were used for the labor force in factories in developed countries, and the idea of positive "education for children" became stronger. ..The "compulsory education system" is now "compulsory education system" because it is no longer an "obligation to receive education" but a "right to education".Education universalization systemThere is also an opinion that the name should be changed to.
Types of compulsory education
Age-based or curriculum-based
It is categorized according to what is used as a criterion when deciding the target of compulsory education.identificationageDuring the period, the method of making it a target of compulsory educationAgeismCalled a specificDevelopmental stageSpecific after reachingCourseThe method of making compulsory education until the completion ofSocial promotionCalled.this isDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularでAdvancementAbout the standard when doingAgeism and course principleIs a separate concept.
There may be a method that uses both criteria such as age-based at the beginning and curriculum at the end, and a method that uses both age-based and curriculum-based at the end.Historically, there was a curriculum-based compulsory education system, but in modern times most nations have adopted an age-based compulsory education system for the beginning and the end.
About this classificationEducation system OftextbookEven in books at such levels, there are cases where they are confused with age-based and curriculum-based at school...For example, "In the age-based compulsory education system, students are promoted according to their age regardless of the promotion test, and when they reach a certain age, their compulsory school attendance ends." Commentary as if it were a standard is widespread.Of course, there is no rational relationship between the start and end times of compulsory education and the criteria for promotion in schools.for example,FranceIn, the end of compulsory education is defined by age as 16 years old, but from elementary schoolJumping grade-Primary detentionIs popular.In fact, at the age of 16, there are both elementary school students and university students.Thus, even if compulsory education is age-based, there is no problem in implementing a strict-based curriculum-based promotion system in schools.
In addition, the curriculum principle can be divided into a course principle such as "until a certain class is taken" and a mastery principle such as "until you can read and write".
Is it an education obligation or a school attendance obligation?
family Education,Social educationWhether or not they are approved as actual educational activities for compulsory education varies from country to country.In the compulsory education system of the education obligation type, education by homeschooling is also socially accepted.In the compulsory education system of school attendance typeschool educationCompulsory education is provided only by.
Germany stipulates that children have a "duty to be educated at school".
There are various other types, such as whether or not foreigners are obliged to attend school and how much is publicly funded.
Period of compulsory education
The compulsory education period by country is as follows
- 15- Macau, Hong Kong(From September 2017) ( People's Republic of China), メキシコ(From 2013)
- 13- ベルギー, Netherlands, Germany,
- 12- New Zealand, Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- 11- The United Kingdom, ノルウェー, ロシア
- 10- スペイン, France, イタリア, デンマーク, ノルウェー, Australia
- 9 - Japan, People's Republic of China(Depending on the region, some regions are 12 years old), Taiwan(Republic of China), South Korea, ポーランド, スウェーデン, フィンランド, Thailand
- 8- Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu, India, ガーナ, Brazil
- 6- エチオピア, Qatar, Cambodia, Singapore
- 5- Pakistan, ネ パ ー ル, Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
- 4- アンゴラ, Myanmar
- No compulsory education system:Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ネ パ ー ル,Pakistan,Maldives
Compulsory education in Europe
The United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the 1870 Primary Education Act initiated a modern public education system...It is said that the background to the introduction of compulsory education was the protection of children and the maintenance of public order...The public education system was substantially improved by the Fisher Act of 1918... Under the Butler Act of 1944, the term of compulsory education was extended from 9 to 10 years and then to 11 years..
Although the education system in the UK is double-tracked, the Education Reform Act of 1988 established a national common curriculum for compulsory education..
Compulsory education in the UK is 16 years up to the age of 11, but there are many forms of enrollment for 16-year-old students due to school breaks and compulsory education periods that do not match... The 2015 law states that you are obliged to receive either education or vocational training until you are 18 years old after compulsory education..
In the UK, the free education period is 13 years (compulsory education 11 years + 2 years)...Free content is non-collection of tuition fees (textbooks are considered to be items provided at school and can be purchased freely at home).
スペインThen, it is obligatory until the lower secondary education (10 years).
Until September 2019FranceThen.In, it is stipulated as follows.
Article L.131-1: Education is compulsory for French and foreign children of both sexes between the ages of 6 and 16.
Article L.132-1; KindergartenAnd public education conducted in the infant class and public education conducted during the compulsory education period stipulated in Article L.131-1 are free of charge. Secondary educationPublicLyceeas well as the CollegeStudents, as well as in secondary public schoolsGrande école preparation classAnd for students in higher education preparatory classes, education is free.— French Education Code
- Primary Education-Ecole Premail (5 years, equivalent to elementary school)
- Lower Secondary Education- College(4 years, equivalent to junior high school)
- Upper Secondary Education- LyceeEtc. (However, it is treated as compulsory education until the age of 16）
In France, the free period of education is 12 years (compulsory education 10 years + 2 years)...The free contents are non-collection of tuition fees and lending of textbooks...However, since compulsory education will be from 2019 years old after September 9, the common education period for all people will be 3 years from 3 to 16 years old..
Germany(= Reunification Germany) stipulates both "right to education" and "duty to attend school" for children...In addition, children / students and parents are not granted the right to refuse off-the-shelf school education.School refusalIf is found, the person will be forced to go to school and the guardian will be punished.this isNazi Germany OfHitlerAt the time of the administration1938With the text that is still valid, So to speakConscription systemIt has the same coercive force as.Second World WarAfter the defeat, "JapanImperial systemMaintain, GermanyEducation systemWas maintained. ", Germany's education system is JapanSchool reformOne reason is that there was no such major reform.However, due to school refusalHome schoolingIt is said that there are 500 households.
The term of compulsory education in Germany is 6 years from 13 years old (double track type, 9 years, 10 years, 12 years).
Compulsory education in the United States
In the United States, Massachusetts first enacted a compulsory education system in 1852, and after the Civil War, the compulsory education system spread to each state..
Each federal state's law on school education in the United States is under the jurisdiction of each state's state law, and each state sets its own age for compulsory education and age for free education.The mainstream is compulsory education 7 to 18 years old and free education 5 to 21 years old.Many states set the age at which compulsory education ends at 18 years old, but students who have completed the 12th grade course in the skipping class or have obtained the state's high school graduation equivalent academic ability certification test under the age of 18 have the consent of their parents. You can voluntarily drop out (or go on to university) by submitting a letter.Approximately half of the states stipulate that the age at which compulsory education begins is 5 or 6 years old, but this does not mean that the United States will enter elementary school at the age of 12 because it is based on K-5 integrated education. (Compulsory education for kindergartens).
The longest age to end free education is 26 in Texas, the shortest is 17 in Alabama, and 19 in Oregon and Montana (the remaining states are mainly free education up to 20 or 21). The youngest is 4 years old in Florida, Oregon, and Montana (free kindergarten youth group, free but not obligatory).See the external link for the national list.
Compulsory education in the United States of Mexico
Compulsory education in Japan
JapanTo the Japanese people who protect their childrenlawAccording to the provisions ofObligation to be educatedIt is stipulated that there is (The Constitution of JapanArticle 26, Paragraph 2, First Section).However, all Japanese citizens are required by law.Right to educationSince it also has (Article 26, Paragraph 1), it is assumed that both "right to education" and "obligation to receive education" are stipulated by law, and the establishment of these conditions is regulated by law. Is done by.
Education based on this provision is called "compulsory education".Therefore, parents send school-aged people to elementary and junior high schools.Commuting to schoolThere is an obligation to arrange to do so.thisObligation to attend school (obligation to attend school)That.
- Japan is often seen in other countries because it is a "compulsory school attendance" and not a definition of "compulsory education".Home schoolingIs not considered a performance of compulsory education.
- School education lawIn Article 38 of市町村Is thatregionThe elementary school necessary for enrolling school-aged children in the area must be established. This is also applied mutatis mutandis to junior high school in Article 49.Therefore, municipalities are obliged to establish these schools.thisObligation to set up a schoolThat.
- The state must encourage those who are eligible for compulsory education to attend school.for example,Compulsory education national treasury contributionThe system makes compulsory education free of charge, and for poor familiesSchool supportBy applying the system, it is supposed to guarantee the enrollment of the relevant person as much as possible.thisSchool attendance guarantee obligationThat.
- Business establishments must not use these children as regular workers to ensure that school-aged children subject to compulsory education have ample access to education.Labor Standards Actby).thisObligation to avoidThat.
It is said that compulsory education in Japan is established by the above four obligations.However, some manuals do not include the obligation to avoid it.
Basic Education Law,School education lawJapanese citizens who protect children according to the regulations ofGuardian) Obligations, depending on the education stage for up to 15 years up to 9 years oldIchijo schoolToAttending schoolMust be madeThose who do not fulfill their obligations even if they are urged to fulfill their obligations will be fined up to 10 yen.It is said that.But stipulated about reminderSchool Education Law Enforcement OrdinanceArticles 20 and 21 Depending on the operation of, the guardian will not be reminded and the guardian will not be punished.A specific example of a parent not being prompted is when the child does not go to school even though the parent has provided sufficient convenience for the child to attend school ().School refusal..In olden times it was called "refusal to attend school").For things like thisBullying,School violenceSuch asEducational issuesThere is also a relationship with.
However, for parents of children who must be enrolled by their parents and who are found to be difficult to attend due to illness, underdevelopment, or other unavoidable reasons, the Board of Education of the municipality is the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. As stipulated, of the guardianDefer or exempt obligationcan do
History in Japan
School systemThe compulsory education promotion movement that started fromTuition feeIt didn't work very well because of the collection,1900(Meiji 33)Ordinary elementary schoolAs a result of making the tuition fee free of charge1915In (Taisho 4), the school-age enrollment rate became more than 90%, and school-aged people became more and more enrolled.
Meiji EraからTaisho-Showa periodThe scope of compulsory education in the first semester is practicallyPrimary Education(Ordinary elementary schoolAfter the school typeNational schoolReorganized into) only.1941Until then, the beginning of compulsory education was set at a certain age (although there are many cases of attending school before or after that), but the end of compulsory education is "Ordinary elementary schoolUntil the completion of the program or turning 14 years old, whichever comes first. "At this pointSchool ageThe period and the compulsory education period are separate.About the compulsory education period at that time, at the time of ordinary elementary schoolTraining periodに基づいて「4年間」や「6年間」と固定的なものであるかのような書き方をしている情報源もあるが、実際には課程主義を併用していたことから、「4年間～8年間」、「6年間～8年間」とすべきである。例えば小学校を6年間で修了した場合、まだ14歳になっていなくても義務教育は終わるが、8年かかっても修了できない場合、14歳までが義務教育期間ということになる。文部省の公的文書である「s: Regarding the completion of the course or the certification of graduation, etc.There is also a depiction as if there was a time when the end of the compulsory education period was 12 years old, such as "compulsory education was completed when the compulsory education period was up to 12 years old". Actually, the end of the term varies depending on the time of completion of ordinary elementary school (note that there is no time when the end of school age was XNUMX years old).
1879(12th year of Meiji)Education OrdinanceFrom enforcement1941(Showa 16)National School OrdinanceUntil the enactment of, parents could choose education in "home or other" as compulsory education with the permission of the mayor of the municipality (3rd).Elementary school decreeThen, according to the proviso of Article 36, Paragraph 1).
1939From (Showa 14)secondary school,Higher elementary schoolFrom 14 to 19 years old for boys who are not enrolled inYouth schoolIt is said that he is obliged to attend school, and he will receive 210 hours of part-time education a year.this isSecond World WarUnderNational WarForMilitary trainingAlthough he had a strong personality, in terms of form, only men had a compulsory education period of 13 years.also,1944From (Showa 19)National School OrdinanceDue to the amendment, compulsory education in daytime classes was planned to be extended to eight years, but it was not implemented due to the worsening war situation.However, even though these compulsory educations may be influenced by the background and circumstances of the times, Japan at that time was a country with a high literacy rate in the world.According to the National School Ordinance, the compulsory education period is eight years, and the end of compulsory education is completely determined by age, regardless of the completion of the national school. Since 8 (Showa 8), the eight-year system of national schools was postponed, so the end of compulsory education remained a combination of age and curriculum as before.The period of the 3-year system and the special wartime exception was the entire period from the enforcement of the National School Ordinance to its abolition, so it has never actually been operated as required by law.
Second World WarAfter the defeatGHQOccupied1947(Showa 22)School reformHas enacted a compulsory education system that has continued for more than 70 years.This is a compulsory education period of 6 years from 15 to 9 years old, and it is operated on a complete age basis, where the completion of the course and the end of compulsory education are irrelevant.In addition, until now, a single school type called Jinjo Elementary School or National School was the school to attend, but this reform adopted a two-stage system in which 6 years of elementary school and 3 years of junior high school correspond to that period.at this pointSpecial educationAlthough compulsory education for schools for the blind and deaf schools was stipulated at an early stage, compulsory education for special schools began in 1979.
- 1871(Meiji 4):Ministry of EducationEstablished (University is abolished, Ministry of Education is set up.)
- 1872(Meiji 5):School systemAnnounce
- 1879(Meiji 12):Education OrdinanceAnnounce
- 1880(Meiji 13):Education OrdinanceAmendment
- 1886(Meiji 19):School decreeAnnounce
- 1890(Meiji 23):Elementary school decreeAmendment
- 1900(Meiji 33):Elementary school decreeFull revision
- Since the period of study at Jinjo Elementary School is four years, the compulsory education period is four to eight years.
- 1903(Meiji 36):National textbook system
- 1907(Meiji 40):Elementary school decreeAmendment
- 1941(Showa 16):National School OrdinanceAnnounce
- In essence, the compulsory education period remains 6 to 6 years because the elementary school of the national school (the period of study is 8 years) has become a compulsory education course instead of the ordinary elementary school.
- 1947(Showa 22):School education lawAnnounce
- The compulsory education period is nine years because the school age is the compulsory education period regardless of the completion of school.Due to the transition, the compulsory education period is 9 years in 1947 and 7 years in 1948.
According to Article 18 of the Fundamental Law of Education (Law No. 120 of 5), "Popular education conducted as compulsory education cultivates the foundation for living independently in society while developing the abilities of each individual, and also the state and It shall be carried out for the purpose of cultivating the basic qualities required as a social former. "
Goals of general education as compulsory education
School education law"Popular education conducted as compulsory education" is defined as follows.
Article 21 General education conducted as compulsory education shall be conducted to achieve the following goals in order to achieve the purpose stipulated in Article 18, Paragraph 120 of the Fundamental Law of Education (Act No. 5 of 2). do.
- Promote social activities inside and outside the school, participate in the formation of society independently based on the spirit of independence, autonomy and cooperation, normative awareness, fair judgment and the public spirit, and cultivate an attitude that contributes to its development. ..
- To promote nature experience activities inside and outside the school, to cultivate a spirit of respect for life and nature, and an attitude that contributes to environmental conservation.
- Leading to a correct understanding of the current situation and history of Japan and its hometown, respecting traditions and culture, cultivating an attitude of loving Japan and its hometown that has nurtured them, and willingly respecting other countries through an understanding of foreign cultures. To cultivate an attitude that contributes to the peace and development of the international community.
- To develop a basic understanding and skills of family and family roles, clothing, food, housing, information, industry and other matters necessary for daily life.
- Familiarize yourself with reading, develop the basic ability to correctly understand and use the national language necessary for daily life.
- To develop the basic ability to correctly understand and process the quantitative relationships necessary for life.
- To cultivate the basic ability to scientifically understand and process natural phenomena related to life through observations and experiments.
- To cultivate the habits necessary for a healthy, safe and happy life, to cultivate physical strength through exercise, and to promote harmonious development of mind and body.
- To cultivate a basic understanding and skills in music, art, literary arts and other arts that brighten and enrich life.
- To develop the basic knowledge and skills of the profession, the attitude of respecting work, and the ability to choose a future course according to individuality.
Children that parents must enroll
JapanIn, "children who must be enrolled by parents" are children who meet the following three conditions.The guardian here is a "person who has custody of the child", and when there is no person who has custody, it is a "guardian of a minor".
- A child from the beginning of the first school year after the day after reaching the age of 6 to the end of the school year to which the day of reaching the age of 15 belongs. (From the new Chapter 2 "Compulsory Education" of the School Education Law)
- A child who lives in Japan.
- School Education Law Enforcement Ordinance"The compilation of the school age book shall be based on the Basic Resident Register of the relevant municipality."The school to attend is designated based on the school age book.
- ParentsJapanese peopleThe child who is.
- In Article 26, Paragraph 2 of the Constitution of Japan and Article 5, Paragraph 1 of the Fundamental Law of Education, it is the "nation" who is obliged, so children whose guardians do not include Japanese citizens are not applicable.
If any of these are missing, it does not mean that the child must be enrolled by a guardian. There are differences between "children who must be enrolled by their parents" and those who do not, such as admission, withdrawal, tuition collection, disciplinary action such as suspension, and suspension of attendance. It can also occur.
In addition, among those who do not know the system in detail, elementary and junior high school education is called "compulsory education" even if it is education for those who are over school age or for voluntary students such as foreign children. Some people are calling..This seems to be a term that focuses on educational content rather than compulsory school attendance, but it is not a formal expression by law and should be avoided as much as possible.# MisuseSee also section.
Schools that fall into the compulsory education stage
- primary school,Special school OfElementary school(Training period: 6 years)
- Junior high school,Secondary schoolFirst semester course, special schoolMiddle school(Period of study: 3 years)
- Compulsory education school(Period of study: 9 years)
The above schoolCompulsory education schoolsCalled.Most of the students enrolled in compulsory education schools are "children who must be enrolled by their parents".
At present, most of the students of the same age are enrolled in the same grade except for special schools.Most of the children enrolled in elementary school are 6 to 12 years old, and most of the students enrolled in junior high school are 12 to 15 years old.Most of them graduate from junior high school at the same time as the end of school age (compulsory education period).
The obligation to enroll "children who must be enrolled by parents" at school is called enrollment obligation.
The period of compulsory educationschool yearIt is not a standard or a standard for years of school, but justageBecause it is a standard, even if you have not received 9 grades or 9 years of school education as compulsory education, you will not be eligible for compulsory education when a certain date is reached.This idea is called "age principle in the compulsory education period (Above) ”. Those who have reached the age of 4 or older by the end of April 1 (those who are over school age) do not fall under compulsory education even if they are enrolled in the above schools.Postponement of school,Primary detention,Enrollment in previous yearsEven if you cannot graduate from junior high school within the 14-year-old year for some reason, going to school after that is not included in the scope of compulsory education.If you graduate from elementary school during the compulsory education period, you are supposed to go on to junior high school immediately afterwards, but if you are over the school age at the time of graduating from elementary school, you are optional.
If you are a "child who must be enrolled by a guardian", you can enter any of the above-mentioned local public schools almost unconditionally by registering as a resident.For other children, school age is important. For school-aged children, even if they are not "children who must be enrolled by their parents"Convention on the Rights of the ChildIn many cases, it is accepted.However, those who are over school age may not be admitted to new enrollment / transfer...If you exceed your school age while you are still in school, you will not be able to go to school immediately, and you can usually continue to go to school.
Postponement / exemption from school
Even after reaching school age, children who have difficulty attending elementary school due to illness may be subject to procedures such as postponement of school attendance and exemption from school attendance.If you take this procedure, you will not be enrolled in that year.However, with the compulsory education of special schools in 1979, the number of schools for children with disabilities, such as special schools, has increased, and in recent years, both postponement and exemption from school have been almost no longer permitted.
Incidentally,Juvenile trainingSchool-aged children who have been sent may also be deferred from school.
Tuition and school support
Article 26 of the Constitution of JapanIn the latter part of paragraph 2, compulsory education is stipulated as free of charge.There is a dispute over the extent to which it should be free,PrecedentAccording to (Compulsory Education Textbook Expenses National Treasury Burden Proceedings Case Maximum Judgment February 39, 2), what is free of charge in the same article?Tuition feeIt means that there is no charge for textbooks, school supplies, and all other expenses necessary for education.In addition, the judicial precedent states that it is desirable for the government to take measures to reduce the burden on parents for compulsory education other than tuition fees, but it is a matter to be solved as a problem of legislative policy and is not a provision of the Constitution. ..note that,private schoolIn such cases, the collection of tuition fees is permitted by the School Education Law, and this is not the case.
- Article 5, Paragraph 4 of the Fundamental Law of Education
- In schools established by national or local governmentsCompulsory educationAs for, the tuition fee does not collect this.
- School Education Law Article 6
- At school, tuition fees can be collected.However, in the first half of national or public elementary and junior high schools, similar schools for the blind, deaf and nursing schools, or secondary schools.Compulsory educationThis cannot be collected.
Currently, in compulsory education,Law Concerning Free Textbooks for Compulsory Education Schools,Law Concerning Free Measures for Textbooks of Compulsory Education SchoolsTo be used at schooltextbook(Textbooks) are paid free of charge.
In addition, there is an idea that the principle of free compulsory education does not apply to those who are over-schooled at compulsory education schools because they cannot be said to have received compulsory education in the formal sense.However, it seems that many night junior high schools do not collect tuition fees, and it is said that there are many cases where general public junior high schools do not collect tuition fees.Similarly, for foreigners, it is normal for public schools to not collect tuition fees.
For families in financial distressSchool supportThere is a system.This is a subsidy for parents to pay for school supplies and school lunches.
School refusal and compulsory education
Currently of school-age childrenLong absenceIs increasing.obligationMany people still think that school refusal is illegal because of the sound of the word education, but as mentioned above, the obligation to attend school is an obligation of parents, etc., not of the parties concerned ( For the partiesRight to educationIs).Because of this system, if the person voluntarily chooses to be absent, neither the person nor the guardian will be penalized.note that,A person with Japanese nationality at school age wants to go to school (elementary / junior high school)in spite of,Prevented parents from going to schoolIn some cases (forced housework or house arrest), it is a breach of school compulsory.If you do not fulfill even if you receive a reminder,A fine of up to 10 yen will be imposed.
As an out-of-school facility for school refusal students, so-calledFree schoolIs increasing.As with schools, these facilities are increasingly included in the attendance.
Non-compulsory education students in compulsory education schools
Most of the students enrolled in Japanese elementary and junior high schools are compulsory education students, but there are also non-compulsory education students (students who are not compulsory education, students who have voluntary education or desired education).Compulsory and non-compulsory students have different legal positions.Not to mention over-school age, non-school ageJapanese nationalityStudents can also freely drop out or suspend school as a disciplinary measure, or withdraw from school at their own request.
Kyoto CityThen, about the Korean student who was enrolled in, the principal said, "Foreigners living in JapanIt is said that he is not obliged to attend school, so he can be removed from the school. " rice field..As a result, it was decided that compensation of 33 yen was ordered..
Legally, non-compulsory students in compulsory schools are in the same position as high school students.In other words, if there is a legitimate reason, suspension or other disposition is possible.
International School(International school)National school(Foreign school,Ethnic schoolEtc.)Various schools,Unlicensed schoolParents (Japanese) who send their children to Japan do not carry out compulsory educationBoard of educationYou may be notified by.However, some parents want to attend these schools.
Japan is a country where the compulsory education system is almost complete, but it is said that there are 170 million people who have not completed compulsory education over school age.These people are mainlySecond World WarA person who could not attend school during school age due to confusion immediately afterwards.As an elementary and junior high school that these people can go to,Night junior high school,Junior high school correspondence educationHowever, the number of schools is small and the doors are very narrow, so it is not very effective.In most cases, admission is refused to elementary schools and general junior high schools where classes are held in the morning and noon.
The compulsory education period in Japan is based on age, and after school age, it is no longer subject to compulsory education.Partly because of this, it is difficult for over-school age students to enroll in elementary and junior high schools.Therefore, even if preschoolers due to the war as described above or refusal to attend school, which has been increasing in recent years, wish to enroll in elementary and junior high schools, there are many cases where they cannot enroll once they are over school age. ..
The term "compulsory education" should be a more appropriate term because it gives a compulsory impression and can put pressure on students who are absent for a long time and is often misleading to those who are not familiar with the legal system. There is an opinion that.
Maturity extension problem
The extension of the compulsory education period has been strongly insisted on since the Meiji era, and has been gradually extended as the social environment has improved.Jinjo Elementary School, which initially had a four-year period of study, became a six-year system in 4 (Meiji 1907), and after that, the compulsory education period became eight years due to the eight-year system of national schools. It was not implemented due to the intensification of the war situation in World War II, and compulsory education became nine years due to the reform of the school system after the war.In this way, the compulsory education period was short due to the weak economic power of the nation at the beginning, but it was extended due to the strengthening of the economic power and the demand for national training by the military for total war. It is a shape.
Nowadays, the high school enrollment rate is very high, and the enrollment rate in kindergartens and nursery schools is also high, so there is an opinion that the compulsory education period should be extended and those educational institutions should be subject to compulsory education.The LDP has insisted that the age of compulsory education be extended downward and kindergartens should be included in compulsory education.
Misuse / misunderstanding
The term compulsory education is specific because the compulsory education system in Japan is in the form of compulsory school attendance at a certain age and does not require the acquisition of a certain course.CurriculumDoes not mean that.Nevertheless, the word compulsory education is "Primary EducationAnd the previous termSecondary educationThere is an example of using it as a "generic term for".For example, someDoujinshiIn the participation qualification column of the spot sale event such as, there is an expression that "the representative has completed (completed) compulsory education", but this true meaning is "School age"The term has ended", not "Junior high schoolThegraduateOften it is "what you are doing".Normally, "compulsory education is completed" does not mean the completion of lower secondary education such as junior high school, but the end of school age, but it should be avoided to avoid misunderstandings (Japan). There is also the problem that there is no concept of compulsory education in the first place for people without nationality).
In addition,Second World WarAfterSchool reformUntil just beforeOrdinary elementary schoolorNational schoolBecause it was a system where the end of compulsory education changes depending on the time of graduation from elementary school, There was a concept of "compulsory education completion", but since the reform of the school system, until now, the graduation of a specific school is not linked to the end of compulsory education, and the end is a system that does not change at a certain age, so "compulsory" Although the concept of "end of education" exists, the concept of completion does not exist.In addition, the expression "compulsory education not completed" is sometimes used in the administration, but this is a way of saying including the era of the compulsory education system that used the curriculum principle as in the previous term. It's not a mistake.In addition, since this is a way of saying that the compulsory education period is less than 9 years, it may cause problems if it is simply rephrased as "a person who has not completed the lower secondary education". It is an unavoidable usage..Also, since the generations that have been alive since that time are already over school age, it would be a clear mistake to paraphrase them as "compulsory education unfinished people."
In modern systems, the phrase "compulsory education completion" is ambiguous as to whether it refers to the end of school age or the completion of a junior high school or equivalent course..
In addition,Child Allowance ActIn the supplementary provisions of, there is a part in the provisional measures immediately after the enforcement that if you are enrolled in junior high school or junior high school even after school age, it will be included in compulsory education. In some cases, there is a discrepancy in the usage of words...In these cases, the overwhelming majority of cases in Japan had a junior high school graduate and the end of compulsory education at the same time for a long time after the war, so it is considered that one of the reasons is that the correct usage of terms has not been developed.
In addition, since the compulsory schooling is imposed on the parents of the child, it is originally intended for the students themselves.Right to educationShould be.However, the continuation of the national school education system after the war,Japanese Teachers' Union(Japan Teachers Union)Ministry of education(OldMinistry of Education), Etc., and parents (parents) who want to have a high degree of education (children).Shunsuke SerizawaBy definition,Educational family), Etc., it is easy to interpret it as a one-sided duty imposed on the students themselves.
Compulsory education in Asia
South KoreaThen,Primary Education(primary schoolFrom 6 years)Lower secondary education(Junior high schoolUp to 3 years) is compulsory education.The age at school for compulsory education (elementary and junior high school) is the same as that of Japanese elementary and junior high schools.
In 1968, the 9-year national compulsory education (first-half secondary education) was extended, and from 2014 to 12, the national basic education (abbreviation: 12-year national education) was implemented.also,Primary Education(National elementary schoolFrom 6 years)Lower secondary education(National junior high schoolUp to 3 years) is compulsory education.The age at school is the same as that of Japanese elementary and junior high schools.
Mainland ChinaThen, up to "9-year compulsory education" is compulsory education.
- ^ XNUMXnd Edition, Mention in the World Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Britannica International Encyclopedia Minor Item Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Mypedia, Selected Edition Japanese Language Dictionary, Sobunsha Japanese History Encyclopedia XNUMXrd Edition, Digital Encyclopedia, World Encyclopedia. “What is compulsory education?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2021/8/14Browse.
- ^ a b Matt Ridley "Evolution is Universal: The Future of Mankind, Technology and the Universe" Naoko Ota, Taeko Forgehara, Hiroyuki Shibata, Translated by Michiyo Yoshida Hayakawa Publishing 2016 ISBN 9784152096371 pp. 233-235.
- ^ Problems related to general education and vocational education in the vertical organization of primary and secondary education in the United States Page 31 Retrieved August 2010, 8.
- ^ a b Toshiaki Kuwahara・ Manogu Miyao "Education Rights and Education System", Daiichi Hoki Shuppan
- ^ Example of confusion: "Common sense and insane of" education "-Public education and private education (Waseda Education Series)" Tadahiko Abiko Page 112- "Modern Education System Theory" Kumagai Ichijo Page 80-Both books can be viewed by searching within Amazon.
- ^ Compulsory education period of each country
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap "School system (school system) -Comparison with other countries”. Educational Rehabilitation Conference (November 2013, 11). 2017/9/1Browse.
- ^ "Special school for people with disabilities to achieve normalization”. Scandinavian Tourist Board. 2009/2/21Browse.
- ^ a b c d Kazuyuki Inoue, Shigeru Sano, Yoshiyuki Hirooka, ed., Revised Basic Manual for Education, Sogensha, 2001, p. 83
- ^ a b Kazuyuki Inoue, Shigeru Sano, Yoshiyuki Hirooka, ed., Revised Basic Manual for Education, Sogensha, 2001, p. 85
- ^ "What is the aim of compulsory education from the age of three?I asked the French Minister of Education". globe.asahi.com. GLOBE + (July 2019, 7). 2020/1/8Browse.
- ^ Central Council for Education (January 2005). “Overview of compulsory education systems in each country". Creating compulsory education for a new era (report). Ministry of education. 2020/9/25Browse.
- ^ Editorial department "Family of" homeschooling "forced to escape abroad" "Weekly fridayNo. 699, Friday, April 2008.
- ^ The need for double-track education Toyohisa Nakamura Retrieved August 2010, 8.
- ^ German media scan-3 months imprisonment for school repellent JanJan Takeo Takemori Retrieved August 2010, 8.
- ^ Kazuyuki Inoue, Shigeru Sano, Yoshiyuki Hirooka, ed., Revised Basic Manual for Education, Sogensha, 2001, p. 86
- ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (November 2017). “School information for foreign countries / regions”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2019/12/6Browse.
- ^ School Education Law Articles 16 and 17
- ^ School Education Law Article 144
- ^ School Education Law Enforcement Ordinance
- Article 20 The principals of elementary schools, junior high schools, secondary schools and special schools shall be in cases where school-aged children or school-aged students enrolled in the school do not attend for 7 consecutive days except holidays, and the attendance status is not good. If it is found that the guardian has no justifiable reason for not attending the school, he / she must promptly notify the school-aged child or the board of education of the municipality where the school-aged student's address is located.
- (Reminders for attendance by the Board of Education, etc.)
- Article 21 The board of education of a municipality neglects the obligation stipulated in Article 17, Paragraph 1 or 2 of the Act by a school-aged child or a guardian of a school-aged student who has an address in the relevant municipality when receiving the notification of the preceding article. When it is found that the child is absent, the guardian must be urged to attend the school-aged child or the school-aged student.
- ^ School Education Law Article 18
- ^ In the case of a four-year ordinary elementary school, it is unclear whether compulsory education was considered to be completed upon completion of the third grade.
- ^ Chatani [2013: 44]
- ^ Recession wave in Okinawa night junior high school: Coral House SukoreIn the video, the announcer states that this is compulsory education for voluntary night junior high school.
- ^ Even if the person is over the school age, it is not prohibited to allow new admission / transfer at the discretion of each board of education.
- ^ State redress lawsuit between mother and child to drop out of public junior high school / refusal to attend school in Kyoto city[Broken link](Mindan Newspaper)
- ^ Compulsory education for foreigners living in Japan, dropout from junior high school, national compensation claim JANJAN
- ^ Win!Korean IV Junior High School Fushugaku Trial in Japan [Ohashi]
- "Plaintiff A did not receive an explanation from the principal of HN about the difference between withdrawal and transfer and the disadvantages that plaintiff A suffers due to withdrawal when receiving the second withdrawal notification. , It is recognized that he suffered mental distress because he could not fully consider the disadvantages suffered by withdrawal and could not be actively involved in the submission of the withdrawal notice by the plaintiff's mother. " ) "Given the above provisions, notifications, etc. and the fact that Plaintiff A was actually enrolled in Konoe Junior High School, even if the question of whether the right to receive education stipulated in Article 2 of the Constitution extends to foreigners is taken into consideration. It is reasonable to admit that Plaintiff A had the legal benefit of being certified as a graduate at the time of graduation, such as by continuing to be enrolled in Konoe Junior High School or by taking over the guidance record etc. when transferring to another school. Is. "
- ^ As mentioned earlier in the history section, the original text is completely age-based, but transitional measures and wartime exceptions have left it with curriculum.
- ^ To express it more accurately, each school would be listed as "a non-graduate of an ordinary elementary school or a national school elementary school".
- ^ When the phrase "compulsory education is completed" is used in the prewar system, it means that the student graduated from ordinary elementary school during school age, and when the phrase "compulsory education is completed" is used, the above In addition, it also means that the school age was exceeded before graduating from ordinary elementary school.It is inherently delicate whether it can be said that "compulsory education is completed" when graduating from ordinary elementary school after school age.
- ^ Child Allowance Act -"Children before the end of compulsory education (meaning children before the last day of the school year to which the day when they reached the age of XNUMX belong, including children who continue to enroll in junior high school, school for the blind, deaf school, or junior high school for the disabled after that day. .same as below.)"
- Basic Education Law - School education law
- Seiichi Chadani 2013 "Makino Nobuaki"Yoshikawa Hirofumikan ISBN 978-4-642-05269-6
- Overview of compulsory education systems in each country
- school education
- Compulsory education school
- Elementary and middle school integrated education
- School age - School age book - School affairs
- School support
- Junior high school graduation certification test for those who are exempted from attending school
- Bunmon Nakano --Ichiro Kiyose based on the belief that compulsory education should be free of chargeLawyerProceedings against the Constitution asGrand court(CurrentSupreme Court) Won the case.The proceedings later made use of that spirit and became the basis for the current compulsory education free of charge.
- Comenius(We devised the mechanism that is the basis of the modern school education system.)
- Roadmap to compare education systems[Broken link] - UNESCO
- About Japan's compulsory education system[Broken link](Central Council for Education Compulsory Education Special Subcommittee Compulsory Education Special Subcommittee (1st) Minutes and handouts[Broken link]）
- List of compulsory and free education age states in the United States