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👩‍🎓 | Otari Village, Nagano Prefecture designated Chibaite discovered in the village as a natural monument


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Chibaite discovered in the village by Otari Village, Nagano Prefecture is designated as a natural monument

 
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The crystals have the same structure as methane hydrate, known as "burning ice."
 

In Otari Village, Nagano Prefecture, the "Okiiwa body" that produced the new mineral chibaite and the "silica claspley" such as chibaite ... → Continue reading

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methane hydrate

methane hydrate(British: Methane hydrate) Means under low temperature and high pressure conditionsmethane分子 Wed分子Surrounded bynetworkStatecrystalConstructionWithClathrate hydrate OfsolidIs[1]..Approximateproportion The0.9 g / cm3AndSedimentIt sticks to the seabed and is buried in large quantities on the seabed.[2]..Methane emits about half the carbon dioxide emitted during combustion compared to petroleum and coal, so it is also effective as a measure against global warming.New energyIt is said to be the source (Natural gasSee also. ) However, methane hydrate has not been commercialized at this time.Fossil fuelBecause it is a kind of再生 可能 エネルギーNot included in.Methane hydrateTomo.

Traits

It looks like ice. 1 m3When thawing methane hydrate at 1 atm, 164 m3Turns into methane gas and water[3]..Before thawing, methane accounts for only 15% of the weight of methane hydrate, and the other 85% is water.Molecular formulaIs CH4· 5.75H2Expressed as O, with a density of 0.910 g / cm3Is.It is sometimes called "burning ice" because it burns when lit.

The icy substance, which is a stable solid crystal with gas molecules located in the gaps of the three-dimensional network structure composed of water molecules, isClathrate hydrate, Gas hydrate, orClathrateIt has a structure called.

There are two types of gas hydrate, one that cannot maintain the lattice structure only with the "clathrate lattice", which is a three-dimensional network structure left when gas is lost (gas hydrate, clathrate), and the other with the clathrate lattice alone. There is something that can be maintained.Methane hydrate is a clathrate, also called "clathrate compound", which is 5-6 Å (XNUMX-XNUMX Å) between the skeleton water molecules.Angstrom, 1 Å = 100 pm) The grid breaks when the gas that has entered the gap goes out.In methane-saturated methane hydrate, a unit consisting of 2 water molecules forming two dodecahedrons and six tetradecahedrons encloses eight molecules of methane.[4].

Generation process

Carbon of methane that composes methane hydrateIsotopeThe ratio is a relatively small value (13C There are also data showing that these methanes are not of non-biological origin confirmed in seafloor hydrothermal systems, but are thought to be mainly of biological origin generated by decomposition of organic matter in sediments. ing.

Biogenerated methane
Methane hydrate is distributed on the seafloor around the continent, and there are no significant findings in the deep ocean far from the continent.Surface layer in those distribution areasSedimentThe feature of is small particle size after a long transportation process.Clastic,mineralparticle,Volcanic ashBesidesorganic matter,ForaminiferaIt is a submarine mud deposit containing biological remains such as.On the seabed (surface layer), soil is created by biological activity, and new sediments are piled up on the soil, reducing the ratio of seawater and deposits.DiagenesisBecomes a working environment.Sulfate-reducing bacteria (for example) for a while after being buried from the surface due to sedimentation Archaeoglobus,Desulforudis Etc.) continues, and this active stratum is called the sulfate reduction zone.The deeper the activity time, the more the carbon isotope ratio (12C: 13C) shows a large value.When the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria ends due to the depletion of sulfate, etc.Methane bacteriaBecame active, with methaneBicarbonate ionIs generated.Here, water containing methane and bicarbonate ions moves to the upper layer due to the compaction action in the deep part of the stratum, and under certain conditions, methane enters the cage structure of water molecules and accumulates as methane hydrate.In the layer where this methane fermentation occurs 13C Bicarbonate ionThe carbon isotope ratio of methane is light (because it is concentrated in13C is less)[5]..For example, the deep-sea exploration vessel "Chikyu"Nankai TroughAnalysis of boring core samples collected in the sea area indicates that it is derived from methanogens.[6].
Hydrothermal ventYou can get a glimpse of the activities of these methane-producing bacteria.for example Methanopyrus ,Methanocaldococcus Synthesizes methane from hydrogen and carbon dioxide generated underground.Besides this Methanocalculus Methane-producing bacteria such as are obtained from oil fields.
Pyrolysis origin methane
In the high temperature environment in the middle and deep part of the stratum, organic matter decomposes abiotically.It is said that the amount of pyrolysis gas is larger, and natural gas hydrate originating from pyrolysis has been confirmed at the plate boundary and oil field areas.Off the coast of Joetsu, it is estimated that methane hydrate derived from pyrolysis-derived methane derived from several kilometers below the seafloor is exposed on the surface of the seafloor or is densely formed in sediments several tens of meters below the seafloor. There is.There is a methane plume on the seafloor, and it has been confirmed that methane hydrate is generated while rising several tens of centimeters from the spout and a large-scale chemically synthesized organism community, and methane plume exploration is effective for exploration of methane hydrate resources. Is said to be[7].
Abiogenic theory
MethanemagmaMade fromVolcanic gasAnd is the simplest hydrocarbon.The theory that discussions are becoming more active in recent years.It is also possible to think of methane produced in Japan as being on the plate boundary, which is a leading deposit in this theory.[8].

Stable conditions

In order to maintain the hydrate network structure, the environment is required to be low temperature and high pressure.On earth, such as SiberiapermafrostIn the sediments of 100-1000 m undergroundseabedThis condition is satisfied and methane hydrate can exist.In reality, most of them exist on the seabed, and not so much in permafrost on the ground.Deep-sea sediments that can contain methane hydrate are cold just below the seafloor, but the temperature rises as they get deeper into the ground, so methane hydrate can only exist near the seafloor.In addition, if the continental slope has the same soil temperature due to the relationship between pressure and temperature, the deeper the continental slope, the thicker the methane hydrate-containing layer.These places contained a large amount of organic matterSedimentIs crystallized in low temperature and high pressure conditions.

Under surface conditions,break downdo itEndothermic reactionWake up.The water generated at this timeMethane hydrate is under normal pressure to form a thin film of -20 ° CIt has self-preservation properties that can be stored for a long time.

Reserve area

It depends on the situation, but generallycontinental shelf500-1000 m in depth on the seafloor slope[9][10](Some studies limit it to 2000m)[11]Dozens to hundreds of meters underground[10]It is said to exist in the upper boundary of the methane gas layer.Although it is usually under high pressure, it is contained in a cage-like crystal structure of frozen water molecules.

Reserves in the waters near Japan

As of 2008, the sea near Japan is said to have one of the largest methane hydrate reserves in the world.Honshu,Shikoku,KyusyuNankai Trough on the south side of the western Japan region[10]It has the largest estimated reserve area in Hokkaido and around Hokkaido and off the coast of Niigata prefecture.[3]Also exists off the Nansei Islands[10]..In addition, on the Sea of ​​Japan side, it exists in a lump state with high purity on the seafloor surface.Independent Research Institute[12], Japan Oil, Gas and Metals Mineral Resources Organization,Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyIt is known from surveys such as.

"" By 12 prefectures along the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, such as Niigata, Akita, and KyotoPromotion of ocean energy resource development Japan Sea Union"On the Sea of ​​Japan side, only academic surveys are being conducted in some areas, and full-scale surveys and production tests for development have not been conducted," said the development of methane hydrate in the Sea of ​​Japan. TowardsMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAgency for Natural Resources and EnergyRequesting to secure a budget[13].Ocean Basic LawThe 2018 Basic Plan for Ocean Policy, which serves as a guideline for ocean policy, aims for commercialization led by private companies in the latter half of the 2020s.[14].. In 2021, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announces plans to start a private-sector-led commercialization project between 2023 and 2027.[15].

In June 2013, Russia's national research institute, the Russian Academy of Sciences Far East, said that methane hydrate, equivalent to up to 6 trillion cubic meters of gas, is likely to be buried on the continental shelf of the Chishima Islands and northern territories. Russia Institute of Geology is also proposing development studies to Russia's state-owned oil giant "Rosneft"[16].

In China, methane hydrate equivalent to 350 billion tons of oil has been found in the Qinghai area, and it is said that there is methane hydrate equivalent to 680 billion tons in the South China Sea. The Ministry of Land Resources of China succeeded in mining high-purity methane hydrate for the first time in the eastern part of the Zhujiangkou Basin along the coast of Guangdong. It has confirmed resources equivalent to 2013 to 6 billion cubic meters of natural gas and has announced that it is aiming for commercialization in 9.[17].

Reserves in the waters near Japan

The amount of methane hydrate resources in Japan is 1996 trillion m in terms of natural gas, even if it is known as of 7.35.3It is estimated to be more than (about 96 years of natural gas consumed in Japan)[18].

Collection method and its issues

Japan has been conducting methane hydrate surveys and exploratory drilling in the Pacific Ocean since the 1990s.[19]..However, the production test in the Mackenzie Delta in the Northwest Territories of Canada, which was conducted jointly with the United States, Germany, Canada, etc. in 2002, and the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals Mineral Resources Organization under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry prepared for two years in 2014. Even in the production test off the coast of Aichi prefecture, which was conducted over a period of time, no measures could be obtained that would lead to commercialization.[20][21], Even in the 2015s, no effective mining method has been established. From 2012 to 3 years, a survey on methane hydrate existing in a relatively shallow stratum called "surface type" on the Sea of ​​Japan side has been carried out.[22][23]..For exploratory drilling, a method of dissociating methane from methane hydrate using a chamber that was once performed in Lake Baikal is used.[24].

Exploration method

Regarding the search for methane hydrate, the mainstream method is to capture the seafloor pseudo-reflective surface (BSR) by reflection seismic survey using ultrasonic waves.[25]In addition to BSR, methods using anticline structures such as those off Joetsu, plate boundaries, and methane sheep and methane plumes have also been proposed.[26].

How to recover methane

Regarding the recovery method, a heating method that raises the temperature of the layer where methane hydrate exists during mining and dissolves methane hydrate to recover methane has been studied, but this method is energy efficient. Since it was difficult to solve the problem, in recent years, a decompression method that reduces the pressure of the layer where methane hydrate exists during mining, dissolves methane hydrate, and recovers methane has been promoted as a target of verification and experiments.[27][28]..Although the decompression method collection has begun to produce some results,[29]This method also has the problem that the decompression causes the sediment on the surrounding seabed to collapse and the recovery pipe to become clogged.[30]However, the cause was identified and it was confirmed that the countermeasures worked.[31]Has been done.In addition to the heating method and decompression method, a method of extracting methane by causing a chemical reaction in the methane hydrate formation.[32]Various proposals have been made, but there are a number of problems that must be solved by either method.[33][34][35][36].

Enhanced recovery method

In Japan, research on a technology called the enhanced recovery method that supports production in order to improve economic efficiency by improving productivity and recovery rate in combination with the decompression method, etc.[37]Is also underway.As the enhanced recovery method, the following methods, which are basically classified into the heating method, are being studied. (0) Decompression of the target layer by decomposition of methane hydrate (endothermic reaction) until the target layer falls below the freezing point, the groundwater freezes (exothermic reaction), and a strong decompression method that raises the temperature to 2 ° C. Research is being conducted on the partial oxidation method that oxidizes (exothermic reaction) with, etc., and (2) the method of heating to about 10 ° C by the formation of COXNUMX hydrate (exothermic reaction) using an emulsion in which water and carbon dioxide (COXNUMX) are finely mixed. Has been done.

As a transportation technology

In April 2010, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding completed the world's first empirical study of natural gas hydrate (NGH) land transportation.This is a method of transporting solid methane hydrate in pellet form.LNGCompared to the above, it can be manufactured near room temperature and is stable at -20 ° C under atmospheric pressure, so it is expected to simplify the entire equipment.[38].

Discussion on methane hydrate

Regarding cost performance

It was in the Nankai Trough that the Japanese government (Methane Hydrate Resource Development Research Consortium) conducted research on methane hydrate collection in the waters near Japan in the early days.In this area, trial excavation was carried out from 1999 to 2000 by applying the mining method of the submarine oil field, and the distribution situation in the survey area was clarified, and a total of 500 billion yen was spent, but it has not been commercialized.It is said that this is because methane hydrate on the Pacific side such as the Nankai Trough is mixed in mud and sand in the deep sea at the molecular level, making it extremely difficult to search and collect.[19].

Yoshinori Ishii, who was the first chairman of the methane hydrate research committee that investigated sand layer methane hydrate on the Pacific side of the Energy Research Institute, which was established in the 1990s, said, "In addition to mining, methane hydrate Energy is also needed to extract methane from the rate, and ultimately less than 1 energy can be obtained from methane hydrate using 1 energy. "[39][40][41].

For the above reasons,Aoyama ShigeharuBy advocatingSea of ​​JapanFormed by a coalition of prefectures on the sidePromotion of ocean energy resource development Japan Sea UnionSo, there is no need for mining work or separation work from mud and sand, and we are planning to collect it because it has a low environmental load, and we are also conducting a public offering of production methods, and elementary school students are also participating.[42].

Global warming

Methane in the atmosphere is more than 20 times as much as carbon dioxideGreenhouse effectIs said to be[43], Methane hydrate gradually dissociates methane due to changes in seawater temperature and the influence of ocean currents even if left unattended, and that methane is naturally released from the sea into the atmosphere, so we will actively develop and use it. There is an opinion that the warming effect should be suppressed.It has been pointed out that the greenhouse effect of methane could eventually cause damage of several thousand trillion yen.[43][44]. US Geological SurveyEtc. warn that of the methane generated by the development of methane hydrate, methane released into the atmosphere that cannot be recovered may have an even greater impact on climate change.[45][46]However, as mentioned above, it is said that there is a great adverse effect when it is left undeveloped.United States Department of EnergyRay Boswell, Methane Hydrate Development Technology Manager, National Institute of Energy, said that surface-type methane hydrate has a high risk of unrecoverable methane release, and it is not preferable to proceed with development easily.[47], This can be avoided by devising a mechanism to recover methane hydrate without lowering the temperature.The residence period of methane in the atmosphere is about 12 years, and that of carbon dioxide is 5 to 200 years, depending on the analysis method.[48][49][50][51]..There is also an argument that methane released by earthquakes should be considered as a greenhouse gas.[52].

In addition,Global warmingAs the temperature progresses, the seawater temperature rises further, and eventually methane is separated from the methane hydrate, which had been stable on the seabed, and released into the atmosphere.Then, it is predicted that global warming will progress and the seawater temperature will rise, causing a vicious cycle in which more methane is discharged. 2 million years agoPT boundaryThen, there is a theory that this phenomenon actually occurred and made mass extinction more serious.[53].Chiharu AoyamaRecent studies have shown that the reduction in water pressure due to regression during the glacial period leads to the decomposition of methane hydrate, which triggers the transition to the interglacial period.[54], Matsumoto Ryo proposes the "gas hydrate hypothesis" that changes in the global environment are largely dominated by the stability of methane hydrate.[55][56].

More

  • It has been reported that crab communities tend to be found near the outlets of methane plumes generated by the dissolution of methane hydrate.[57][58].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  2. ^ Max, Michael D. (2003). Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P. 62. ISBN 0-7923-6606-9. http://books.google.com/?id=fd8QFKwcSskC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q .
  3. ^ a b Ryo Matsumoto, Yoshihisa Okuda, Akihiro Hiruta, etc.Growth and collapse of methane hydrate in the high methane flux region of the Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of the Sea of ​​Japan Geoscience magazine 2009 Volume 118 Issue 1 p.43-71, two:10.5026 / jgeography.118.43
  4. ^ Matsumoto et al. 1994, pp. 39–43.
  5. ^ Waseda Shu, Iwano Hirotsugu,Reservoir evaluation by gas carbon isotope composition Journal of Japanese Association for Petroleum Technology 2007 Vol. 72, No. 6, p.585-593, two:10.3720 / japt.72.585
  6. ^ Miki Amaha,Evaluation of methanogenic activity in eastern Nankai trough methane hydrate-containing sediments by biomarker analysis Abstracts of the 2015nd Annual Meeting of the Geochemical Society of Japan Session ID: 62P3, two:10.14862 / geochemproc.62.0_285
  7. ^ “Discovery of methane hydrate bubbles on the seabed off the coast of Joetsu City, Niigata Prefecture” (Press release), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, (March 2007, 3), http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_j/press_release/pr2007/pr20070302/pr20070302.html#e1 
  8. ^ Ishikawa 2013, pp. 166-176 § Appendix The theory of domestic resources based on the theory of petroleum-inorganic origin.
  9. ^ Yuichiro Ichikawa "About mining and production of methane hydrate"Geological News" No. 510, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Geological Survey of Japan, February 1997, pp. 2-3,October 2012th, 8Browse.
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注 釈

References

  • Ryo Matsumoto, Yoshihisa Okuda, Yutaka Aoki "Methane Hydrate-Giant Natural Gas Resources in the 21st Century" Nikkei Science, 1994.ISBN 978 4532520298.
  • Ryo Matsumoto "Energy Revolution Methane Hydrate" Asukashinsha Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009.ISBN 978 4870319288.
  • Chiharu Aoyama, Shigeharu Aoyama "Site of Hope Methan Hydrate" Crocodile Plus, 2013.ISBN 978 4847091636.
  • Kenji Ishikawa "A Japanese project aimed at becoming a major marine resource country!Submarine Oil Field Exploration and Methane Hydrate Ability ”Kakugawa Shinsho, September 2013, 9.ISBN 978-4-04-731615-7.

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