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Grenadier launcher(Kidan Hashaki,English: Grenade launcher) IsGrenadeTo firefirearm..Normal,caliber20 mm or morefirearmIs treated as a gun, but the grenadier is often treated as a firearm due to operational and morphological issues..
The history of the grenadierFlintlock type OfMusket gunIt goes back to the time of.at that time,Grenade OfThrowIn charge ofMilitary departmentAsGrenadierThere was,Siege battleIn the case of, the throwing distance was often insufficient by human power, so a dedicated launcher (Hand mortar) Was developed.This expands the caliber of the rifle so that it can be loaded with grenades, which is comparable to a gun instead of drastically shortening the barrel so that it can withstand the pressure of firing a grenade that is much heavier than the rifle. It became a thick one.This extremely short barrel slowed the initial velocity considerably, which caused the grenade toparabolaBecause it will fly by drawing, it is suitable for shooting through the barrier, so for a whileEuropeIt was used a lot.However, the low accuracy of the hit due to the low initial velocity became a problem, and it became obsolete as the modernization of the battle form progressed..
World War IでWestern FrontIs built, the enemy'sTrenchSince it is necessary to project a grenade (grenadier) on the grenade launcher, the grenade launcher has been attracting attention again.At this time, in the same way as the flintlock type launcher, a cup-shaped launcher is equipped on the muzzle of the rifle, a grenade is put in here and a blank gun is fired, and a round bar is attached to the grenade and the muzzle is attached. Something was developed that plugs into and shoots with a blank gun..However, especially project using a rifleRifle grenadeBecause it is necessary to shoot a large amount of grenades, the chamber pressure rises more than usual, so the recoil is intense, the shooting accuracy is low because it is not possible to shoot on the shoulder, and the rifle body is also heavily consumed.Interwar periodIsWehrmacht Of5 cm leGrW 36,Former Japanese Army OfType XNUMX grenade discharge,British Army OfSBML 2 inch mortarDedicated small size likemortar-Commando mortarWas to be oriented[Note 1]..At this time,Italy kingdomThen for special forcesCarcano M1891/ 28 A 38mm caliber grenadier used by attaching it to a carbine.Mod 28 "Tromboncino"Has been developed and laterXM148,M79It has been pointed out that it may have affected the situation, but it did not spread at this point..
Second World WarSo, in addition to anti-personnel weapons like rifle grenades and small mortars,Anti-tank weaponsA grenadier launcher has also appeared.This is the traditionalArmor-piercing ammunitionIf so, a high initial velocity was required, whereasMonroe / Neuman effectUsedShaped charge ammunitionIn the case of rather low initial velocityAnti-tank grenadeWas because it was more suitable.AlsoVietnam WarThen, the visibility is poor熱 帯 雨林A grenade launcher (so-called "grenadier") that can be carried individually was developed by using high-low pressure bullets with a chamber in the cartridge case in response to the battle in..
There are two basic methods for grenadier launchers: manual and automatic...For military use40mm grenadeWhile is common, 37 / 38mm grenade (37 mm flare) TheTeardrop,Rubber bulletな どPolicemenForLow lethal ammunitionWidely used asThe United States of AmericaSo, the National Firearms Act (NFA) Especially excluded from the crackdown by..Usually, such non-lethal weapons are used as personally carried firearms, with the exception ofMilitary vehicleIs a large caliber for self-defenseSmoke screenBullet (Smoke grenadeGrenadier launcher for projecting ()Smoke bullet launcher) May be installed.
The manual type is to manually perform a series of operations such as loading, closing, firing, and pod ejection, and is further classified as follows..
- Original folding type (Break-action）
- It is a grenade launcher based on a shoulder-shooting type.Especially for military use, the use of manual single grenade launchers has decreased, and the following rifle-mounted types are being used..
- Rifle wearing type (English: add-on grenade launcher）
- There are many methods of fixing to the bottom of the barrel of a rifle.Ammunition is loaded one by one from the back of the barrel, and a firing mechanism is attached to the back of the barrel..
- Rotating magazine type
- A method with a columnar magazine having multiple chambers at equal intervals on the same circumference. Manville Gunn at the end of the 1930s (Manville gun) Was developed, but as a result of pursuing a large number of bullets, it was bulky and had poor operability, so it did not spread.In modern times, most of them are loaded with 6 shots.In addition to the manual rotation, the magazine can be rotated.MainspringSome use.
- Main models
- Original folding type
- Rifle wearing type
- Rotating magazine type
- Automatic gas pressure
- Assault rifleとBullpup method20mm grenade launcher integratedSmall firearm..Plan canceled.
- K11 compound rifle(Korean army) --Bolt action type
- ARWEN ACE-A single-shot model of the ARWEN 37.When you insert ammunition and operate a trigger with a long pulling allowance, all loading, firing, and pod ejection are performed automatically.
Type 74 tankType 74 60mm smoke bomb launcher equipped on
Automatic grenade launcher(English: Automatic grenade launcher) Is a grenade launcher that can fire continuously..As an automatic mechanismBlowback,Gas pressure actuation method,Recoil operation typeHowever, the blowback type with a simple structure is often used..
- Main models
- M75 grenade launcher(U.S. Forces）
- Mk19 automatic grenade launcher(U.S. Forces)
- (U.S. Forces)
- Howa Type 96 40mm automatic bullet gun(Japan Ground Self-Defense Force(Japan）
- H & K GMW (GMG)(German Federal Army）
- (Spanish army）
- AGS-17(Soviet Union Army,Russian army）
- AGS-30(Russian army)
- (Russian army)
- (Republic of Korea）
- (South African Defense Force）
- (Ukrainian army）
- Type 87 grenade launcher(Chinese PLA）
- (People's Liberation Army)
Anti-tank grenade launcher
Due to the nature of the grenadierKinetic energy bulletnotShaped charge ammunitionSuch asChemical energyBullets are used.ArmorPenetrationAnd to improve the accuracy of the hitrocketIntroduced promotionAnti-tank rocketIs becoming more common, and in some cases it is used as a launcher.Recoilless gunIntroducing the principle of, rather than a grenadierRocket launcherOr it can be considered a recoilless rifle.
- Main models
- Panzerfaust 44(German Federal Army)
- Panzerfaust 3(German Federal Army）
- RPG-2(Soviet Union Army,Russian army）
- RPG-7(Soviet Union Army, Russian Army)
- RPG-16(Soviet Union Army, Russian Army)
- RPG-18(Soviet Union Army, Russian Army)
- RPG-29(Soviet Union Army, Russian Army)
- Trial 66mm bullet gun(Japan Ground Self-Defense Force(Japan); Prototype only)
- PF-89(Chinese PLA）
- ^ Ministry of Defense 1971, p. 39.
- ^ a b c Ministry of Defense 1992, p. 23.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Ballistics Study Group 2012, pp. 830–836.
- ^ a b c d Tokai 2008, pp. 88–93.
- ^ World Photo Press 1986, pp. 54–62.
- ^ Tamura 2021, p. 28.
- ^ Rottman 2017, pp. 6–8.
- ^ Tokai 2008, pp. 94–177.
- ^ Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Control Bureau (1995). 37 / 38mm Gas / Flare Guns with Anti-Personnel Ammunition are Defined as NFA Weapons (Report) .
- ^ Ballistics Study Group 2012, pp. 532–533.
- Ministry of Defense (1971). " (PDF)". October 2018th, 7Browse.
- Ministry of Defense (1992). “(PDF)". October 2018th, 7Browse.
- "Handbook of Firearms and Ammunition Technology" edited by Ballistics Study Group Defense Technology Foundation, 2012. NCID BB10661098.
- Naoya Tamura "Introduction to WWII Tactics" Icarus Publishing, 2021.ISBN 978 4802210751.
- Masami Tokoi "Modern Support Weapon Picture Book" Tokuma bookstore〈Tokuma library>,2008.ISBN 978 4198928360.
- World photo pressHen "Heavy Weapons of the World" Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.<Military Illustrated>, 1986.ISBN 978 4334703738.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2017). US Grenade Launchers: M79, M203, and M320. Osprey Weapon Series. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978 1472819529