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👩‍🎓 | Corona's child-rearing support measures ... Each party's pledge for the House of Representatives election


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Corona's child-rearing support measures ... Each party's pledge for the House of Representatives election

 
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Taro Kono insists on sustainable social security, child-rearing support, and educational expansion.
 

With the expiration of the term of members of the House of Representatives on October 2021, 10, the 21th House of Representatives general election will be held from October to November ... → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


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社会 保障

社会 保障(Shakasho,British: Social security schemes) Is a personal risk, life problems ()sick-Injury-Obstacle,birth,Ageing,Death,unemploymentEtc.)povertyPrevention, saving the poor and stabilizing livesCountryor社会 Income transferByincomeGuaranteeMedical,Nursing careTo provide social benefits such as.Social security system(Social security system) refers to a system for social security[3].

The word social securitysocial welfareOften used synonymously with, but publicly, in addition to social welfarepublic healthIt is a broader concept that also includes.

The presence and degree of social security varies greatly from country to country.World population53%, or about 40 billion people, are left without social security[4]..In a country with a social security system, the purpose is common to many countries, but the meaning of the word varies from country to country.for exampleThe United KingdomSo Social Security isFinancial securityRefers only.International Labor Organization(ILO)European UnionIn (EU) etc., the term Social Protection is used instead of Social Security.Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD) statistics adopt the concept of Social Expenditure, etc.[5], Makes various classifications for international comparison and statistical processing.

Regarding the financial resources, a method that uses general tax revenue as a source of funds (Beveridge type) and a method that contributes insurance premiums between labor and management (a method that contributes insurance premiums)BismarckDivided into type)[6].. For the latterSocial insurance systemAlso called.

Financial scale

Public and social spending in OECD countries[7]
Per person
Spending(PPPsU.S. dollar)
(2015)
GDPOccupy
Ratio (%)
(2018)
RUBOccupy
Ratio (%)
(2015)
Occupy
Ratio (%)
(2015)
General government spending
Proportion (%)
(2015)
OECDaverage7,819.620.119.623.843.1
8,579.617.818.322.348.5
13,839.426.6[Annotation 1]27.934.154.3
13,298.528.9[Annotation 1]29.236.354.2
7,878.317.3[Annotation 2]17.921.743.1
2,570.410.911.411.4-
6,493.218.720.826.946.5
14,114.528.028.133.552.9
5,085.618.418.121.644.0
12,784.128.730.137.153.2
12,949.331.231.538.256.2
11,886.625.124.429.556.9
6,787.823.525.330.647.2
5,461.619.422.127.041.7
7,354.116.015.918.636.5
10,775.814.419.627.053.6
6,160.816.015.718.039.2
10,435.628.1[Annotation 2]28.635.056.6
8,993.921.9[Annotation 1]21.127.155.8
4,067.811.110.613.132.6
3,849.616.215.820.541.1
4,554.316.216.519.245.4
22,661.422.433.340.653.2
1,377.97.58.09.227.9
8,785.016.717.821.339.5
7,558.318.920.123.548.9
15,244.025.023.728.650.6
5,144.921.121.124.048.1
7,099.222.624.730.049.9
5,256.317.018.122.839.4
7,123.721.223.329.647.4
8,591.123.724.730.056.3
12,615.126.126.031.053.1
10,110.716.015.519.446.7
3,213.212.512.715.034.9
9,044.120.622.125.551.2
10,835.518.718.521.950.1

Countries marked with * are using different year values. Country footnotes indicate which item has a different year value.
All items are specified unless otherwise specified. When there is no footnote in the country name, only the items with footnotes use different year values.

Comparing the size of social security benefits and tax / insurance burdens,NordicCountries are "high welfare and high burden",The United States of AmericaIs said to be a representative example of "low welfare and low burden" (although the United States has small public spending but the largest private spending in OECD countries.CharityPlays a large role[5]).

Institutional financial resources vary from country to country, and if social security finance is operated separately from the government general account,Social security fundCalled (Social security Funds)[8].

Financial resources

ResourcesEmployeroremployer(Or both)Social insurance system(Social insurance),Bismarck typeと 呼 ば れ る[9][6].Germany,FranceIs applicable[6].

On the other hand, the method of providing benefits from general tax revenueBeveridge typeCall[6].スウェーデン,デンマークNordic countries such as[6], Without social insurance systemAustralia,New ZealandIs applicable[10].

European Union flag European UnionCountries and neighboring five non-member countries of the European Union (Social Protection receipts)
(2015,%)[11]
CountryCompanyCentral governmentLocal governmentSocial security fundGeneral government totalHouseholdNon profit organizationforeign
28.236.114.11.051.219.70.60.4
8.977.10.00.077.114.00.00.0
16.846.629.10.075.77.50.00.0
17.540.64.620.665.715.60.70.5
21.032.427.85.365.413.30.20.0
26.561.43.00.064.49.10.00.0
28.820.239.32.161.69.10.50.0
29.255.65.40.061.09.80.00.0
24.344.015.00.259.216.30.20.0
25.654.51.30.055.815.91.41.3
22.252.03.10.155.222.30.20.1
24.354.30.50.355.219.61.00.0
22.250.92.12.155.022.70.00.0
31.717.437.00.354.713.20.10.2
21.252.51.30.254.015.80.78.3
29.041.46.25.553.117.20.30.4
28.942.68.10.050.720.40.00.0
31.128.515.25.148.820.10.00.0
30.238.77.22.548.320.51.00.0
27.141.33.21.646.125.70.80.4
37.630.512.40.543.418.50.20.3
34.734.75.80.440.923.50.90.0
26.821.318.90.440.631.01.50.0
33.323.516.80.140.426.20.10.0
28.534.31.70.236.235.00.00.3
27.629.23.20.032.440.00.00.0
31.520.210.00.230.432.40.05.7
47.626.51.40.628.523.80.00.0
78.219.11.40.120.61.10.00.0
21.937.914.618.070.56.61.00.0
30.034.120.50.054.515.40.00.0
39.610.713.70.024.436.00.00.0
25.147.90.10.048.026.50.30.0
23.144.01.20.145.231.40.00.2

History

The history of social security is closely related to the movement of economic society, and the system of social security has been accumulated by each country in a long history while influencing each other.19st centuryから20st centuryThe unemployment problem is the biggest issue in each country, and social security has progressed from it.Also, originallywelfareOpposite to戦 争The foundation of social security started with the opportunity. In the advanced countries of the 21st century, declining birthrate and aging population and securing financial resources are major issues for social security.

Poor law

Age of DiscoveryIt is,World tradeTo developCommercialIt brought about a big change.The United KingdomThen.WoolenEnclosure that encourages the establishment of factories and aims for export (Enclosure) Due to the policy, the agricultural land in England is all at oncesheeppastureChanged to. The farmers displaced from the farmland flowed into the city and became unpaid (poor).1601, In the UK, summarize the past relief measuresElizabeth Poor LawsAnd enacted a law to help the poor who cannot get the support of their families.thisPoor law(Poor Law) is nowPublic assistanceAlthough it became the original form, the word social security was not born at that time.1834A major amendment to the Poor Savings Act was carried out to centralize the treatment of poor people and centralize them. Under the New Poor Law, poor people are to be admitted to work in the poor hospital. Regarding the level of poverty, "The poorest of theStandard of livingAlthough the principle of inferior treatment, prohibition of out-of-hospital remedy, deprivation of citizenship, etc. have been established such as "rescue below", social criticism will increase due to the severeness of inferior treatment.

Birth of social insurance

Industrial revolutionBy資本主義Is fixed,CapitalistIt is argued that unemployment is an individual problem and that the country's relief of the poor is harmful. Meanwhile, the factoryWorkerShare their wages and help each other to prevent povertyMutual aid associationWas made.Mutual Aid Association is a friendly society in England and in GermanyDisease safeIt was known by the names such as and provided financial security in case of employment interruption due to illness and unemployment. These contributed to the income security of the members within the mutual aid, but on the other hand, they could not deal with the poverty problem of the elderly (retired workers) outside the mutual aid. In addition, the level of benefits was limited and unstable with a small-scale mutual help system.

1883, Germany's first illness insurance. In 1884Work injury insurance,1889ToPension insuranceWas enacted[6]. in this way,(I.e.While establishing the systemSocialism"Iron-Blood Minister" to suppress the movementOtto von BismarckThe policy ofCandy and whipIs called the policy.The sickness insurance used the existing mutual aid association, and there was no public expense for the expenses, but the workers' accident compensation insurance was entirely borne by the employer.Pension insurance provides benefits to elderly people aged 30 and over who have paid premiums for more than 70 years, and the public expense burden was one-third.The social insurance system that started in Germany will be introduced all over the world after that.[6].

Beveridge Report

1929In usaWall streetAtStock price crashStarted withGreat DepressionAs a result, a large number of unemployed people were flooded around the world and social unrest increased.President of the United StatesFranklin Roosevelt New Deal PolicyAs part of1935Has enacted the Federal Social Security Act.社会 保障The term was first used at this time, but this Federal Social Security Act covers old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, assistance for persons with disabilities, maternal and child hygiene and child welfare services, etc. It did not mean social security.

The word social security came into full-scale use internationally.Beveridge ReportAfter that.In EnglandSecond World WarIn1942ToWilliam BeveridgeTitled "Social Insurance and Related Services"Beveridge ReportAnd will subsequently have a major impact on the development of social security in many countries.[6]..In this report, we will focus on the social insurance system and integrate public assistance and related services.From cradle to graveyardAdvocated a social security plan with the slogan "[6].After the warIdeal system of social security (National minimum(Guarantee) was shown, and uniform contributions and uniform benefits were adopted for the social insurance system.[6].

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

After World War II, poverty caused social unrest and the tragedy of war,Universal Declaration of Human RightsIn the preamble, "freedom from fear and want" was stipulated in its Article 22 as social security as one of human rights.

"Everyone has the right to social security as a member of society, and by national efforts and international cooperation, and according to the organizations and resources of each country, of his own.dignityAnd selfPersonalityHave the right to realize the economic, social and cultural rights essential to the free development of "

This item was adopted in 1961European Social CharterAdopted in 1966, "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsIs a basic human rightSocial rightsI was given a legal binding force as one of the above.

Expansion of social security

In the latter half of the war, manyDeveloped countrySocial security was expanded in.

KeynesianismBy the acceptance ofNegative stateからActive nationBy converting toFiscal policyAt the same time as intervening in the market through social security policy, intervention in civilian life through social security policy also gained legitimacy.

Social security (egPublic assistance,Unemployment benefit) If the number of recipients isfinanceBecause of the Keynesian policyFull employmentRealization of is a necessary condition for improving the quality of social security.mass productionIs realized and capitalism isFordismAt the stage, the expansion of social security can be tolerated as a price to compel workers to do simple labor.

Through social securityIncome redistributionWill contribute to the expansion of domestic demand, which is a pan for mass production. EspeciallyOpen economyIn these countries, the government will expand social security in return for curbing wage increases. Enhancing social security does not always bring only positive effects.

  1. Impact on labor supply
  2. Impact on capital accumulation
  3. Moral hazard

The negative effect of being recognized[12].

Review of social security in developed countries

1970 eraからOil shockAs a result of the slowdown in the advanced economies, the tax revenues will decrease and the need for social security will come to be restrained. After the introduction of free welfare and low-cost welfare to the elderly, the rapid aging of the population and the declining birthrate in advanced countries have caused social security costs to continue to increase due to the expanding role and scale of social security.

Italian medicalWas once a health insurance union system, but the fund went bankrupt in the 1970s and the UKNational Health ServiceShifted to the National Health Service, which is funded by taxes based on (NHS)[13].

France was a Bismarck method and had social insurance as its main financial source, but it is promoting tax substitution in order to avoid rising insurance premiums, and since 1991(French version)(CSG) is social securityPurpose taxWas introduced as[6].

Japanese social security

Social security system

The 1950 "Recommendations on the Social Security System" by the Social Security System Council stipulates the social security system as follows: "The social security system is illness, injury, delivery, disability, death, old age, unemployment. For those who have many children and other causes of distress, we will take measures for economic security by insurance method or direct public burden, and for those who are in need of living, we will guarantee the minimum living by national assistance and public health. And to improve social welfare so that all people can live a life worthy of being a member of a cultural society. "[14]..Social security in Japan is social insurance,Public assistance,social welfare, 4 pillars of public health, and XNUMX functions of life stability / improvement function, income redistribution function, and economic stability function[15].. Realized in 1961Universal insurance·allpensionIs a system that allows all citizens to receive public medical insurance and pension coverage.Japan's social security system has been constructed by combining various systems such as employment insurance, social welfare, livelihood protection, and long-term care insurance with this "universal insurance / universal pension" as the core.

Current status

Changes in Japan's social security benefits[16][17]
年度Amount of moneyNational income ratio
198024 billion yen12.15%
198535 billion yen13.69%
199047 billion yen13.61%
199564 billion yen17.54%
200078 billion yen21.01%
200587 billion yen23.99%
2010105 billion yen29.11%
2015115 billion yen29.57%
2016116 billion yen29.84%
2025
(2018 forecast[18][Annotation 3])
140 billion yen
2040
(2018 forecast)
188 billion yen

社会保障給付費の対GDP比は、2018年度の21.5%(名目額121.3兆円)から、2025年度に21.7~21.8%(同140.2~140.6兆円)となる。その後15年間で2.1~2.2%ポイント上昇し、2040年度には23.8~24.0%(同188.2~190.0兆円)となる[18].

社会保障負担の対GDP比は、2018年度の20.8%(名目額117.2兆円)から、2025年度に21.5~21.6%(同139.0~139.4兆円)となり、2040年度は23.5~23.7%(同185.6~187.3兆円)へと上昇する。その内訳をみると、保険料負担は2018年度の12.4%(同70.2兆円)から、2025年度に12.6%(同81.2~81.4兆円)となり、2040年度には13.4~13.5%(同106.1~107.0兆円)へと上昇、公費負担は2018年度の8.3%(同46.9兆円)から、2025年度に9.0%(同57.8~58.0兆円)となり、2040年度には10.1~10.2%(同79.5~80.3兆円)へと上昇する。(「2040年を見据えた社会保障の将来見通し(議論の素材)」(2018May Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimates)[18]The case of "By planning-based/economic baseline case" of).

In Japan, onceHosokawa CabinetWas envisioning a national welfare tax. In 2012Consumption tax lawThe amendments stipulate the uses for social security and declining birthrate. What caused Japan to fall into a chronic budget deficit due to social security1969March 12 Japanese Socialist PartyとJapan Communist Party, Supported by leftist groupsGovernor of TokyoWonRyokichi MinobeWas to make all the medical expenses of the elderly free of charge without requiring financial resources to be paid for tax increases. From this point on, requesting free medical fees for the elderlyLeftist populismAs a result of the movement, the number of candidates with the support of the leftist organization increases.[19][20][21][22][23][24].1973March 133th House of Representatives general electionThere was some opposition that the financial resources and finances made it unsustainable, due to the defeat in Japan and the sense of crisis toward the left party's promotion.Prime MinisterKakuei TanakaUnder the initiative of, free medical care for the elderly aged 70 and over was implemented. The government will bear two-thirds of the cost of medical care for free of charge for the elderly, and the local government will bear one-third of the cost.[20][21][22][23].. In July of the same year, the Governor of Minobe began the “Marufu” system, which was not covered by the national grant system, but also frees medical expenses for people aged 7 to under 65. In addition, for the elderlyTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationIt is a public gambling that operated a free fare policy and produced a large amount of tax revenue.Korakuen Bicycle RacetrackHas been abolished from October 1972, 10, and Tokyo has a tax deficit without increasing taxes Due to a series of populism policies, Tokyo falls into a budget deficit[20][21][22][23].1974Occurred in October 1973 of the previous yearSecond oil crisisでHigh economic growthAfter the end of the war, Japan suffered a large revenue shortage due to the first negative growth after the war and the excessively high welfare social security expenditure of free medical expenses for the elderly without tax increase.Deficit bondWill be issued[20][21][22][23][25].1975In December, due to lack of revenue, the government will issue deficit-financing bonds for the amount of 12 trillion yen, which is prohibited by the Finance Law in the supplementary budget. When he later became Prime Minister,Masayoshi OhiraThe Minister of Finance decides, "We should not let the descendants pay for deficit-financing bonds." After assuming the post of prime minister, he tried to introduce the consumption tax many times, but died during the campaign in 1980. Since then, the LDP was defeated by the opposition party, who opposed it every time it appealed for consumption tax, and the subsequent government bond-dependent finance of Japan started due to the increasing social security expenditure for the elderly who was not introduced until 1989.[26][23][21][25].1979To35th general electionPrime Minister Masayoshi Ohira launches a general consumption tax (tax rate of 5%), but the Liberal Democratic Party suffers a major defeat with a loss of more than half[25].1987ToYasuhiro NakasoneThe prime minister submitted a sales tax bill (tax rate 5%) to the Diet as a "new indirect tax" that is not as comprehensive as a "large indirect tax."However,11th Unified Local ElectionLiberal Democratic Party is defeated in[27].1988About 20 years after the introductionTakeshita CabinetSometimesConsumption tax lawIs established. December 12 promulgation[28] [29].1989May 4Enforcement of consumption tax law3%Introduced in.19942 Hosokawa CabinetAtHosokawa GohiThe prime minister announced a plan to abolish the consumption tax and introduce a purpose tax "national welfare tax" with a tax rate of 7%. On November 11thMurayama CabinetIn 3, three years later,3%から5%Tax-related reform bill to increase tax, including local consumption tax of 1%)[30]Holds[31].1997ToMurayama Tomi CityBased on the bill passed by the Prime Minister,Hashimoto CabinetCarried out by[31].

Of 2019JapanSocial security costs ofAnnual expenditure34.2% of the total, accounting for about 33 billion yen. In the breakdown of social security costs, elderly-related benefits accounted for the overwhelming majority, and conversely, the proportion of children and child-rearing households was low. Compared to the world's all-generation welfare state, Japan(I.e.For example, pensions, medical expenses, and long-term care expenses are generously and heavily burdened to the working generation, and a large amount of social security expenses are paid to them. Over the past few years, the proportion of child-raising generations such as day care centers has increased, but unbalanced tax distribution to older generations than the parenting generation required by society has been the cause of the declining birthrate and aging population. Are[32][33][34].

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ a b c It is the value of 2015.
  2. ^ a b It is the value of 2017.
  3. ^ The number of future patients and users will be calculated mechanically based on the medical treatment rate by age group at the current level of medical and nursing care services in 2018 (hospitalization rate, outpatient treatment rate, utilization rate for each service). The unit price for each service is calculated by multiplying the current unit price by a certain growth rate. The growth rate multiplied by the unit price is the economic growth rate x 1/3 + 1.9%-0.1% for medical care, and the weighted average of the wage increase rate and the price increase rate for nursing care at 65:35. (Social security/tax integrated reformUse the same assumptions as in the above. )

Source

  1. ^ OECD Social Expenditure --Aggregated data (Report). OECD.State. (2015). https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=SOCX_AGG#. 
  2. ^ OECD Social Expenditure Statistics (Report). OECD. (2012). two:10.1787 / socx-data-en. http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/expenditure.htm. 
  3. ^ "glossary of statical terms -SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES”. OECD. October 2015th, 3Browse.
  4. ^ "53% of the world's population, widening inequality and ILO in Corona without social security"Tokyo Newspaper Posted on TOKYO WebKyodo NewsArticle (delivered on September 2021, 9) Viewed on September 1, 2021
  5. ^ a b OECD Social Expenditure Statistics (Report). OECD. (2011). two:10.1787 / socx-data-en. http://www.oecd.org/els/soc/expenditure.htm. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nobuko Katayama (2008-10). “International Comparison of Social Security Finance: Benefit Levels and Financial Resources Structure” (Japanese). reference (National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau) 58 (10): 73-103. two:10.11501/999641. NOT 40016298909. http://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/287276/www.ndl.go.jp/jp/data/publication/refer/200810_693/069304.pdf. 
  7. ^ OECD (2019). “Social Expenditure-Aggregated data". OECD.State. October 2019th, 6Browse.
  8. ^ "glossary of statical terms -SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS-SNA”. OECD. October 2015th, 3Browse.
  9. ^ "glossary of statical terms -SOCIAL INSURANCE SCHEMES”. OECD. October 2015th, 3Browse.
  10. ^ OECD 2014, pp. 29-30.
  11. ^ Eurostat (2018-05) (Excel). Social protection statistics --financing Figure 4: Social protection receipts by sector of origin, 2015 (Social protection statistics-Funding Figure 4: Ratio of social protection costs by contribution sector in 2015) (Report). European Union. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Social_protection_statistics_-_financing#Sectors_of_origin_of_social_protection_receipts October 2019th, 6Browse.. 
  12. ^ Nihon Keizai ShimbunHen "Easy Economics" (Nikkei Business People Library, 2001) pp. 179-180
  13. ^ Kazuko Matsui "Italian healthcare reform"Overseas Social Security Information, Vol. 85,National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, February 1988.
  14. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/wp/hakusyo/kousei/12/dl/1-03.pdf
  15. ^ https://www.navinavi-hoken.com/articles/social-security-system
  16. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (October 2018, 8). “FY28 Social Security Expense Statistics Table 8 Changes in Social Security Expenses by Department (FY1950-2016) (Excel, DB) ”. General contact point for government statistics (e-Stat). October 2019th, 6Browse.
  17. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (August 2018, 8). “28 Social Security Expense Statistics Table 10 Social Security Benefit Expenditure by Sector (% of National Income) (1951-2016) (Excel, DB) ”. General contact point for government statistics (e-Stat). October 2019th, 6Browse.
  18. ^ a b c Cabinet Secretariat; Cabinet Office; Ministry of FinanceMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (2018-05-21) (PDF). About "Future outlook for social security with an eye on 2040 (material for discussion)" etc. (Report). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-12600000-Seisakutoukatsukan/0000207399.pdf October 2019th, 6Browse.. 
  19. ^ Strongly protests the policy of freeing pediatric medical expenses, which is accelerating the shortage of pediatric doctors, and demands the abolition of the ordinance ...: Medical Management Finance Association Home Page
  20. ^ a b c d <1960-70's> Keyword: "What brought "free medical care for the elderly""NHK
  21. ^ a b c d e Nobuo Ikeda (September 2017, 2). “Competition of “Balamaki education” begins with high school free” (Japanese). livedoor NEWS. JBpress (Japan Business Press). http://jbpress.ismedia.jp/articles/-/49208 October 2019th, 6Browse. 
  22. ^ a b c d KashiwaAssembly member Izumi Uehashi Kashiwa Municipal Government Study Group http://www16.plala.or.jp/kamihasi-izumi/kouki_kourei.htm
  23. ^ a b c d e Wu Seong (2005-03). “Formation of free medical system for the elderly and national medical expenses” (Japanese). "Bukkyo UniversityBulletin of Graduate School " (Kyoto City: Bukkyo University Graduate School) 33: 223-236. ISSN 13442422. NOT 110006472576. https://archives.bukkyo-u.ac.jp/repository/baker/rid_DO003300006449. 
  24. ^ How to choose the governor of Tokyo who can't fail anymore Meiji UniversityProfessor / Former Vice Governor of Tokyo Aoyama
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  26. ^ "Sato Yu reveals the contradiction of Japanese social democracy with the introduction of consumption tax" (Japanese). NEWS Post Seven. SAPIOJune 2017 issue: pp. 6. (May 2, 2017). https://www.news-postseven.com/archives/20170511_530363.html?PAGE=2 October 2019th, 6Browse. 
  27. ^ Makoto Chung (2009-09). “The Nakasone Cabinet and Consumption Tax: The Failure Process” (Japanese). International Public Policy Research (Toyonaka City, Osaka Prefecture: Graduate School of International Public Policy, Osaka University) 14 (1): 191-205. ISSN 13428101. https://hdl.handle.net/11094/11471. 
  28. ^ Haruko Kamakura (2018-03-15). “VAT of foreign countries (2018 version)” (Japanese). Basic information series (National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau) 24: 6. two:10.11501/11056198. ISBN 9784875828112. http://dl.ndl.go.jp/view/download/digidepo_11056198_po_201803ma.pdf?contentNo=1&alternativeNo= October 2019th, 6Browse.. 
  29. ^ 2008.
  30. ^ Overview of the 131st Diet session House of Councilors
  31. ^ a b 5% consumption tax Murayama Tomi City Former Prime Minister September 2010, 9 Japan Press Club
  32. ^ https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/article?a=20171114-00196208-toyo-bus_all&p=2(※記事名不明/リンク切れ)
  33. ^ https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/article?a=20171114-00196208-toyo-bus_all&p=1(※記事名不明/リンク切れ)
  34. ^ Ministry of Finance (2019-04-23) (PDF). Material Social security (Report). https://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/fiscal_system_council/sub-of_fiscal_system/proceedings/material/zaiseia310423/01.pdf October 2019th, 6Browse.. 

References

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