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🛋 | How much is the social insurance premium for part-time workers?Conditions for insurance premiums and benefits of paying


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How much is the part-time social insurance premium?Conditions for insurance premiums and benefits of paying

 
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Part-time workers will be removed from their dependents if their annual income exceeds 130 million yen and will have to take out social insurance.
 

Even those who work part-time for a short time can take out social insurance if they meet the conditions such as annual income and the company they work for.For social insurance ... → Continue reading

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130 million yen per year

(I.e.

Social insurance system(Shakaiken,English: Social insurance schemes) Is社会 保障Is one of the fields ofdisease,Aging,unemployment,Industrial accident,Nursing careSuch asACCIDENT(risk) In advanceEmployerOremployer, Or both are covered by insurance by social contribution[3].

Systems vary from country to country,チ ェ コEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs the highest percentage of total tax revenue in the OECD (44%)[4].. On the other handAustraliaNew ZealandHas no social insurance system and is operated by general tax revenue sources[4].

Japanese systemThen,medical insurance,Pension insurance,Long-term care insurance,employment insurance ,Work injury insuranceThere are five types of social insurance systems. 5% of total tax revenue, Japan is one of the top countries[5].

system

insuranceIn order to prepare for an accident (risk), a large number of people who are engaged in social life gather and contribute goods (insurance premium) to create a common reserve property, thereby trying to stabilize individual economic life. It is a mechanism (insurance method) to do. A group (insurance group) is organized around the property that is mainly composed of insurance premiums, and a relationship (insurance relationship) between the operating entity (insurer) of the insurance group and the participant (insured) occurs. Common conditions pre-arranged (Insurance accidentInsurance payments are made only if As a result, the risk of accidents is dispersed within the group.

In private insurance, the scope of accidents (risks) to be targeted is limited, so the scope of insurance groups that can expect such risk diversification is also limited by the insured's economic status. However, socially, there is a risk of poverty on a larger scale. Therefore, in the social insurance system, the general principle of insurance is modified in accordance with the principle of assistance (or the principle of support), and the scope of the insurance group is compulsory by using the system such as public expense, business burden, and adaptive insurance premium By expanding to, the government is trying to guarantee the livelihood of the people by redistributing income.

In addition, public insurance, social insurance, and personal insurance premiums for social insuranceSocial insurance premiumThat.

Differences from public assistance

Public assistance(Welfare) Is a system that guarantees the minimum living when people actually fall into poverty (a poverty system), while social insurance is a system that tries to prevent poverty due to life risks in advance (a poverty prevention system). is there[6].

  • All persons who meet certain protection requirements are targeted for assistance, and it is done based on the principle of indiscriminate equality, regardless of what accident causes distress.[6].. Social insurance is limited to those who are insured and those who have paid insurance premiums, and the benefits are provided only for insurance accidents that have been determined in advance.
  • A certain level of protection is set, and in many cases, "the principle of minimum living security (National minimum)”[6].. Social insurance aims to guarantee the actual living standard, and in the case of living expenses, the amount of the benefit is basically proportional to wage income.
  • People who receive protection are fully assisted by their abilities, assets available to them, and other social security systems, etc. .. In addition, the obligation to support under civil law has priority over the assistance, and in order to receive the assistance, the property survey (Means test) Is done. Welfare is carried out based on these "principles of supplementary nature of protection". Social insurance is provided regardless of assets or abilities if certain conditions are met.

Difference from private insurance

Private insurance (private insurance) is based on three principles (principles of benefits/equal opposite benefits, principles of insurance technical fairness, principles of income and expenditure, etc.), while social insurance (public insurance). Insurance) does not adhere to this principle. This is one of the purposesRedistribution of incomeBecause it is in.

  • Naturally target those who meet certain requirementsCompulsory joining(Compulsory insurance) Is the principle.
  • The insurance benefit amount is determined by the individual economic demands of the policyholder and the ability to pay insurance premiums. This is a "principle of equal benefit/opposite benefit", but social insurance is based on the average social need. The forehead is determined.
  • It is an "insurance technical fairness principle" in which the amount of insurance premium paid depends on the degree of risk of an accident, and employs an "individual insurance principle" in which the insurance premium is determined according to the risk rate. , "Average premium principle" is adopted based on the average risk rate of the whole insured and the burden (income) of the insured.
  • All insurance business expenditures are covered by insurance premium income and its operating income, but in social insurance, the national and local governments may bear or subsidize part of the insurance premium, and the business owner also shares the insurance premium. There are cases. As a general rule, the national and local governments bear the administrative expenses required for operation.

History of social insurance

Establishment of social insurance system

The first social insurance system in the world1880 eraWas founded inGermanyIs the social insurance system. at that time,The United KingdomGermany, which was economically underdeveloped compared toIndustrial revolutionTo promote economic development,Labor movementMust be suppressedSocialist suppressionWas enacted. On the other hand,WorkerGiving candy to (welfareImprovement) and then Prime MinisterOtto von BismarckIt is,1883 The Disease Insurance Act,1884 The Disaster Insurance Act,1889 Enacts old age sickness insurance lawCandy and whipAdopted a policy. Britain has long been called the "Friendship Union".Mutual aid associationHave been developed and the lives of workers have been endowed with each other. But,20st centuryEnter Germany,AmericaAnd other advanced capitalist countries developed, competition intensified in the world economic market, and the lives of workers were squeezed.1911 ToHerbert Henry AsquithCabinetDavid Lloyd GeorgeFinance ministerHealth insurance,Winston ChurchillInterior phase TheUnemployment insuranceWas enforced. Mandatory unemployment insurance was the first system in the world.19st centuryFrom the end to the beginning of the 20th century,EuropeSocial insurance systems have been put in place in a number of countries.

After World War I

1918 OfWorld War IAround the end ofRussian RevolutionBy the first in the worldCommunismadministration,Soviet UnionIs established. Also in Western Europe,オーストリアThen the Social Democratic Party administration was born. Against this historical background, while avoiding the revolutionary political situation caused by the social and economic turmoil after the war, the stability of national life, that is, a class compromise between workers and capitalists, Unemployment insurance and pensions have been developed in European capitalist countries. further1929 Occurred inWorld DepressionPut the rest of the world, except the Soviet Union, at the bottom of the recession. Soviet Union advances medical socialization[7][8][9],1937 A system in which medical care is excluded from social insurance and medical treatment is available to all citizens free of charge (Universal healthcare) Was made. Advocate for national socialismNazi GermanyPromoted universal health insurance. The United States, which had not shown great interest in the social insurance system until then, had no choice but to take the initiative in establishing the system.Franklin RooseveltTookNew Deal PolicyAs part of1935 Federal Social Security Act was enacted inUnemployment insuranceAnd the old-age pension was put in place.

After World War II

Second World WarMeanwhile, countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States were considering measures to avoid the post-war turmoil. In the UK,William Beveridgeof"Beveridge ReportAfter the war, various social security legislations were established in succession based on the social security plan proposed in ".ILOAlso, from the end of World War II to the end of World War II, Japan has exerted its international leadership to promote the development of social security in each country of the world.1952 Has adopted the “Convention on Minimum Standards for Social Security” (No. 102 Convention). Starting with these movements, after World War II, some major countries in the world will have some form of social insurance system.JapanAlso in Japan, the social insurance system was established in earnest.

System of each country

  • British welfareThen, the pension, employment allowance, survivor allowance, job seeker allowance(English editionIs operated in a social insurance model as[10].. Insurance premium is split between employer and employer in the case of employees[10].. On the other handMedicalIs funded by general tax revenue[11],National Health ServicebyPublicly funded medical careIs[10].
  • FranceThen,Medical[11], Pension, family allowance, and workers' compensation insurance are operated under the social insurance model[12].. There are multiple insurers and each unit is a work area[12].
  • Dutch medicalThe system is a social insurance model[11], Private companies become insurers, contributions are split between labor and management[13].
  • German medicalThe system is a social insurance model[11]You can choose an insurer from multiple public and private sectors, and make contributions by labor and management[14].
  • ノルウェーThen, there is national insurance that covers old age, disability, etc., which is a social insurance model.[15][16].. On the other handMedicalAs for, most of the money comes from general tax revenue[11].
  • SingaporeThen, there is a social insurance system in which labor and management both contribute to the Central Reserve Fund (CPF), which is an individual unit funded method rather than a pay-as-you-go system. ReserveMedical expenditureCan be withdrawn after retirement and is a subject of inheritance[17].

Still moreAustraliaNew ZealandHas no social insurance system and is operated by general tax revenue sources[4].

Japanese system

In Japan's social insurance, each insurance group is a member of the group.Compulsory joiningIn search ofAll peopleIt covers (national insurance and pension). The source of financial resources for social insurance is mainly insurance premiums, but the main source other than insurance premiums is the national treasury contribution. In addition, in the case of medical insurance and long-term care insurance, there is a partial contribution to be paid by the insured person. Insurance premiums are borne by the employer as well as the insured person (Payroll tax). In addition, the national and local governments also bear part of the cost to reduce insurance premiums. Such a system has the aspect of forming a cohesion (mutual assistance/social solidarity) as an insurance group including low-income earners.

Japan's total tax revenue is 41.6% (2012), well above the OECD average of 26.2%, close to the top Slovakia (43.9%).[5].

In the history of the institution, after World War I1922 Was established inHealth insurance lawIt has been established for workers (employees) as well, but this is a phenomenon that is common throughout the world. However, after the Second World War, against the background of the demand for enhanced social security, we decided to develop a social insurance system for the general population and ensure the lives of all the people.1961 While the national health insurance system was fully disseminated to theUniversal insurance and universal pensionWas realized.

Types in Japan

Classification by benefit

Temporary incapacity insurance accidents include illness, injury, childbirth, unemployment, and short-term benefits such as medical benefits and allowances. Permanent incapacity insurance accidents include disability, old age, and death, and long-term benefits such as pensions are provided. There is a distinction between business and non-business depending on the cause. Depending on the nature of the benefits, there are in-kind and cash benefits, while pension insurance and employment insurance are all cash benefits, but medical insurance, long-term care insurance, and workers' compensation insurance have both in-kind and cash benefits within the system.

Classification by target person

It is roughly divided into social insurance for employees and social insurance for self-employed persons. In medical insurance, the employee insurance is covered by the “national health insurance” that the general public joins. (Social insurance)". Also, in terms of insurance premium payment procedures, companies are divided into two categories: health insurance and welfare pension, "social insurance", and employment insurance and worker accident compensation insurance.Labor insuranceSometimes called. Care insurance and medical systems for the elderly are not differentiated by occupation.

  • Employee
    • Private companies-health insurance, welfare pension, employment insurance, worker accident compensation insurance (worker accident insurance)
    • Civil servants-Mutual aid association (short-term benefit), welfare pension, retirement allowance, civil servant accident compensation
    • Seafarers-seafarers' insurance, welfare pension, employment insurance, workers' compensation insurance
    • Member of Parliament/Local Assembly-National Health Insurance, National Pension
  • Self-employed person, etc.
    • Self-employed persons-National health insurance, National pension

Classification by manager

  • Directly managed by government-Employment insurance, accident compensation insurance
  • The government designed the system,Local governmentOperated by-National Health Insurance (Municipal National Health Insurance), Nursing Care Insurance (Municipalities), Medical System for the Elderly Elderly (by prefecture)Wide area union
  • Designed by the government and operated by a public corporation-National pension (Japan Pension Service), welfare pension (Japan Pension Service, mutual aid association), health insurance (National Health Insurance Association,Health insurance association), seafarers' insurance (national health insurance association), national health insurance (National Health Insurance Society), mutual aid association (national public employee mutual aid, local public employee mutual aid, private school mutual aid)

Feature

The social insurance system is the core of Japan's social security system,WelfareUnlike the poverty system, which provides benefits through public expenses (tax), benefits are provided for certain accidents using the mechanism of insurance.Poverty prevention systemIs. In addition, it is said that the state or society relieves the economic loss, which cannot be relieved by individual efforts, by collective power.Social purposeBecause of this, it has a feature different from private insurance.

About the word "social insurance" in Japan

Footnote

  1. ^ a b OECD 2014.
  2. ^ Revenue Statistics 2016 (Report). OECD. (2016). P. 35. two:10.1787 / rev_stats-2016-4-en-fr. 
  3. ^ "glossary of statical terms -SOCIAL INSURANCE SCHEMES”. OECD. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ a b c OECD 2014, pp. 29–30.
  5. ^ a b OECD 2014, p. 93.
  6. ^ a b c Koichi Hiraoka, Social Welfare Studies, Yuhikaku Publishing, December 2011, pp. 12-113.ISBN 9784641053762. 
  7. ^ Noble purpose, grand design, flawed execution, mixed results: Soviet socialized medicine after seventy years
  8. ^ Zhuraleva et al., Teaching History of Medicine in Russia.
  9. ^ Yandex Lingvo
  10. ^ a b c Overseas situation report 2013, Chapt. 3.4.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Health at a Glance 2013 (Report). OECD. (2013-11-21). two:10.1787 / health_glance-2013-en. 
  12. ^ a b Overseas situation report 2013, Chapt. 3.1.
  13. ^ International comparison of medical systems (Report). Financial Policy Institute(2010-06-30). Chapt.3. http://www.mof.go.jp/pri/research/conference/zk087.htm. 
  14. ^ International comparison of medical systems (Report). Financial Policy Institute(2010-06-30). Chapt.1. http://www.mof.go.jp/pri/research/conference/zk087.htm. 
  15. ^ Status of national and local financial roles in major foreign countries (Report). Financial Policy Institute(2005-12). Chapt.11 Sec.4.1.2. http://www.mof.go.jp/pri/research/conference/zk079.htm. 
  16. ^ “Norwegian Social Security System” (Press Release), Embassy of Japan, Norway, (June 2013), http://www.no.emb-japan.go.jp/Japanese/Nikokukan/nikokukan_files/noruweinoshakaihoshouseido.pdf 
  17. ^ Report on medical and social welfare services in Singapore (Report). Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan External Trade Organization. (2014-01). http://www.jetro.go.jp/industry/service/reports/07001564. 

References

  • Shigeki Takahashi "Public Health Measures Course" MEC, 2004
  • Shigeki Takahashi and others "STEP Public Health 5th Edition" Kaiba Shobo, 2002-10-22,ISBN-4 907704-20-8
  • "Common sense of social insurance (text of company worker course)" Japan Management Education Center
  • Jose Harris (Kenzo KashinoTranslation: "William Beveridge (top, middle, bottom)" Owl Publishing, 1995, 1997, 1999
  • HMG (British Government) (Translated by Kenzo Kashino) "New Welfare Contract British Ambitions" Tezukayama University Press, 2008
  • Tomoaki Kato et al. "Social Security Law 4th Edition (Yuhikaku Alma)" Yuhikaku, 2009

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