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🛋 | Which is easier to encounter, Huntsman spider, detached house or condominium?Indoor intrusion prevention measures


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Which is easier to encounter, Huntsman spider, detached house or condominium?Indoor intrusion prevention measures

 
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If you still feel uncomfortable and cannot do it, create an environment where cockroaches and flies that feed the Huntsman spider do not come out.
 

It's easy to think that spiders are unpleasant to look at and poisonous, but in reality most spiders are non-toxic.Especially here ... → Continue reading

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Huntsman spider

Huntsman spider(Huntsman spider[3], Octopus, scientific name:Heteropoda venatoria) IsHuntsman spider familyBelongs toク モKind of.Yegmo[Note 1][4],Yatsudekobu-Yaddekot-Yatsunekobu(Kagoshima[6], Yakubu (OkinawaIshigakijima) And other names exist[6].

Wandering,networkWithout stretchingcockroachAmbush the prey such as, and prey on the prey that came in front of you.The largest wandering spider inhabiting Japan[Note 2][7][2], Well known as a large spider that lives in a private house.

Inside the houseUnpleasant pestsOn the other hand[8], Cockroaches, etc. in the houseSanitary pestsI eat theNatural enemy(Beneficial insect) Is also[9].

Features

The length isFemale20 -30 mm,maleThen at 10-25 mm[7][10], Approximately 100 mm (10) when the left and right legs are extended cm[2]Or about 15 cm[11]..Males are slightly smaller than females, slightly slender, and have bulging pedipalps.

The whole is slightly flat, and the long legs are widened to the left and right.The arrangement of the walking legs is so-called traversal, with the front tripod facing forward and the last monopod not facing backward too much.There is not much difference in the length of the legs.Body color is taupe with some mottled patterns.In females, there is a white band on the anterior edge of the cephalothorax and in front of the eye row, and in males, there is a dark spot on the latter half of the cephalothorax.

distributed

The place of origin isIndiaHowever, it is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones around the world.[12].

Huntsman spiderExotic speciesSo, originally it did not inhabit Japan, but it was first reported in Nagasaki Prefecture in 1878.[12]..It is possible that the cause of the import was that it was mixed in with the imported products.in JapanFukushimaSouth ofHonshu-Shikoku-KyusyuInhabits rural areas and has snow accretion in winterHokkaido-Tohoku-IshikawaIt is said that there are no confirmed cases north of it, but it may inhabit locally.It is thought that the artificial distribution in transportation etc. is progressing in the form of chasing the forces of cockroaches, which are the main prey animals, and it is thought that the temperature conditions and the aerial dispersion of baby spiders are also affecting the distribution expansion. Be[12]..However, misidentification with similar species has also been reported.[13].

Ecology

Inside and outside of city buildings[Note 3]Inhabits, butNansei Islands(Tokara IslandsSouth) ・Ogasawara IslandsThen there is a population of small individuals living in the forest[10].

NocturnalSo, in the daytime, shadows, etc.[Note 4]Crawl out of the hidden place at night[10]..Then, spread your legs on the ceiling, shoji, walls, etc. and stand still.[14], Insects approaching[10](cockroach-Flies-The-Mosquitoes-EarwigEtc.) to prey[14]..Spiders, including this species, do not have teeth and chew while producing digestive juices to inhale body fluids.[Note 5][11](In vitro digestion).It has a long lifespan of 3 years or more, and there is a record of living for 8-10 years in captivity.[7].

Become a natural enemy of this speciesCalibachiAs a spider family[Note 6]Sugihara spider bee Leptodialepis sugiharai (Uchida, 1932) [16],Tsumaaka spider bee[17] Tachypompilus analis [18]There is.

Related species, etc.

There are 180 species of Heteropoda in the world.Only three species are known in Japan, including this species, but the other two are very limited in distribution.

  • H. tokarensis Yaginuma, 1961[19] : Tokara IslandsDistributed in Nakanoshima, but unidentified.
  • H. simplex Jäger & Ono, 2000[19] : Yaeyama IslandsDistribution in (JapanEndemic species[10]..The length is 18-25 mm for females and 13-16 mm for males.[10]..It lurks under the bark, fallen trees, decayed trees, cliff depressions, etc. during the day, and wanders around the trunks, cliffs, grasslands, etc. at night.[10].

in Japan,森林There are similar spiders under the fallen leaves and dead trees, but this is (Sinopoda forcipata) Is a different species.This species used to belong to the same genus, but is now a separate genus.However, there is almost no difference in the external morphology due to the characteristics of the reproductive organs.The distinction is that it is slightly smaller than the Huntsman spider, has shorter legs, and has a dark brown body color, but it is very similar and confusing.It is distributed from Honshu to Kyushu, and has a record from China.Huntsman spiders live in places where the natural environment is preserved outdoors, and what are indoor Huntsman spiders?SegregationHowever, it is rarely found indoors or in buildings, and there are cases where it seems to have been misidentified as described above.

In addition, there are other species in the genus Heteropoda, and in the Ryukyu Islands, there are different species in each region, and other closely related species have also been discovered.

Breeding

The spawning season for females inhabiting Japan is around May-August.[10]..The mother spider wraps an average of about 300 (180-440) eggs in a thread to form a disk-shaped yolk sac, which is carried by the pedipalp, fangs, and tripod.[Note 7][10]..During that time, the hatched larva molts once in the egg sac.[10]..The mother spider fixes the larva-containing egg sac to the wall with a thread just before the larva emerges from the egg sac.[10]..After 7-10 days, the baby spider emerges and moves to a well-ventilated place, pulls out the thread from the abdomen, and scatters with the thread on the wind (Ballooning).10 times for females, 9 times for malesMoltingAfter that, it becomes an adult in about 2 years[10].

The hatched spiders hang out on the wall around the egg sac for a while, but when someone who discovers them modifies them, the spiders start running all over the place the next moment.

Relationship with people

From its eerie appearanceUnpleasant pestsWhen it appears in a private house, it is often targeted for extermination.[20]..However, there is no aggression to humans[Note 8], There is no actual harm such as polluting the house with a net[21].

On the other hand, live inside and outside the housecockroach-FliesSuch asSanitary pestsPrey onBeneficial insect[22],HonshuThen it mainly inhabits the houseSmokybrown cockroachPrey on[11]..In addition, if another cockroach is experimentally given to this species while eating a cockroach, it has a habit of placing the food (cockroach) in contact with it and trying to prey on new prey, so its predation efficiency. Is estimated to be quite high[Note 9][23]..However, since this species has a territory and only one individual inhabits one room, it is said that it cannot be a definitive natural enemy of cockroaches.[23].

The digestive juice that spiders inject into predators has a strong bactericidal ability, and their legs are also treated with this digestive juice.The same is true for Huntsman spiders, which do not crawl on food, so it is unlikely that wandering or eating husks of prey will lead to pathogen transmission.

For exterminationFly swatter,[11], Cockroach aerosol (Insecticide) Is effective, but Kazuo Yasutomi and Kenji Umeya (1995) said, "This speciesJumping spiderMany spiders are beneficial natural enemies that prey on indoor pests, so they are rather small animals that should be protected. "[8]"This species is the most protected species of indoor spiders," he said.[23]. Also,Shinichiro Saito (2002) also said, "It is foolish to sprinkle pesticides to kill spiders to get rid of cockroaches.Common house spiderIf you don't get rid of them (building a nest in the corner of the room), they will eat the cockroaches (in the house) properly. "[24].

Miyakojima(Okinawa) Has a custom of prizeing the Huntsman spider that lives in the house[Note 10][24]In addition,Iriomote IslandThen, this species is called "Yegumo", and it is customary to crush the egg sac and use it as a sucking medicine for swollen substances (Folk remedies) Was also[25].. on the other hand,IshigakijimaThen, "Yakubu (Huntsman spider)HubIt has the same strong poison as, so if you find it, kill it. "[Note 11][26].

EntomologistAccording to Kazuo Yasutomi's book "The Secret of 3 Million Years of Cockroaches", a house with a few Huntsman spiders is prospering with a large nest.cockroachIs said to be wiped out within half a year.After that, he disappears from the house in search of another prey,インターネットAbove, "" which plays a central role in the army fighting on the front lineSergeantIs called "Sergeant Huntsman Spider"[27][28]..It is said that the origin of the word that compares this Huntsman spider to "sergeant" is Chiba prefecture.[29].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Kumano region(MieandWakayama) AndShikoku(Tokushima-Kochi),Miyazaki,Okinawa Prefecture(Kunigami,Iriomote Island) Etc.[4].HokkaidoThen.AraneusIs called "Yegumo"[5].
  2. ^ As a large wandering spider comparable to this speciesFishing spider(Nansei IslandsThere is (unique).
  3. ^ building(Private house,Shrines and Temples-barnIn addition to outdoors (etc.)Wooded area-Bamboo forest-Shrine and temple forestEtc.)[10].
  4. ^ Gap between walls and walls, cracks in pillars, etc.[14].
  5. ^ Part of a cockroach carcass (wing-footEtc.) is dropped, it is considered to be leftovers of this species[11].
  6. ^ Spider bee family Pompilidae Was once called the spider wasp family[15].
  7. ^ Do not eat until the baby spider hatches and carry the egg sac.
  8. ^ It is basically timid, and when a human approaches, it tends to escape quickly, and it reacts sensitively to vibrations such as hitting a nearby wall.However, if you pick it up with your bare hands, you may be bitten by a large fang for defense.
  9. ^ There are also observational records of biting more than 20 cockroaches overnight.[20].
  10. ^ In particular, females holding egg sac are said to be auspicious.[24].
  11. ^ Shinichiro Saito (2002) explained the reason why Huntsman spiders are repelled on Ishigaki Island.Saxima hub-Himehab(Viper) Inhabits.In order to prevent these snakes from chasing large Huntsman spiders as bait and invading the house, the tradition of "If you find a Huntsman spider, kill it" may have been established. "[26].

Source

  1. ^ "Heteropoda venatoria in World Spider Catalog". NovemberBrowse.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Huntsman spider”(Japanese). Koto bank. NovemberBrowse.
  3. ^ Digital Daijisen. “Huntsman spider”(Japanese). Koto bank. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ a b Shinichiro Saito 2002, p. 161.
  5. ^ Shinichiro Saito 2002, p. 157.
  6. ^ a b Shinichiro Saito 2002, p. 162.
  7. ^ a b c Takeo Yaginuma 1986, p. 199.
  8. ^ a b Kazuo Yasutomi & Kenji Umeya 1995, p. 255.
  9. ^ Kazuo Yasutomi & Kenji Umeya 1995, p. 211,255.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hirotsugu Ono & Kiyoto Ogata 2018, p. 551.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Chapter 3 Biodiversity in Toyota City> Section 4 Thread User Spiders> Column 3-4-2 Huntsman Spider" "Shinshu Toyota City History Separate Edition Nature" Shinshu Toyota City History Special Committee Meeting,AichiToyota City, Nov. 2018, 3, p. 31.
  12. ^ a b c "Geographical distribution of Huntsman spider in Japan"Animal Animals," Vol. 26, No. 4, Japan Society of Medical Entomology, December 1975, 12, pp. 15-255, NOT 110003815149.
  13. ^ Hiroshi Tokumoto "Huntsman spider species misincorporation into the Huntsman spider distribution record (PDF) "Kishidaia," Vol. 86, Tokyo Spider Dialogue, 2004, pp. 1-9,NovemberBrowse.
  14. ^ a b c Eiichi Shinkai 2017, p. 303.
  15. ^ Hiroshi Yoshida, Tsuyoshi Yagi "Notable records of Hymenoptera and Hymenoptera in Kobe (PDF) "Kiberi Hamushi" Vol. 38, No. 2, Hyogo Insects Club / NPO Children and Musi no Kai, March 2016, 3, p. 25NovemberBrowse. ―― “NPO Children and Musi no Kai” is the Sayocho Insect Museum (HyogoSayo-gunSayo Town) Is a corporation that operates.
  16. ^ "Sugihara spider bee". Kyoto Prefecture Red Data Book2015. Kyoto (2015). As of October 2021, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
  17. ^ "insect"Shuji Okajima,Gakken plusGakken's illustrated book LIVE Pocket>, February 2017, 2, p. 23.ISBN 978-4059155041 .
  18. ^ Takashi Nakamura "Spheciformes photographed in Yamaguchi City (PDF) "Nature in Yamaguchi Prefecture," Vol. 74,Yamaguchi Prefectural Yamaguchi Museum,Japanese flag Japan-Yamaguchi Yamaguchi City, November 2014, p. 3,NovemberBrowse.
  19. ^ a b Hirotsugu Ono & Kiyoto Ogata 2018, p. 646.
  20. ^ a b Takeo Yaginuma 1969, p. 26.
  21. ^ Takeo Yaginuma 1969, pp. 26–27.
  22. ^ Masahisa Otoshi "Spiders as natural enemies of sanitary pests: 1. Observation of spiders living inside houses in Nagasaki Prefecture"Sanitary Animals," Vol. 25, No. 2,Japanese Society of Medical and Zoological Sciences, June 1974, 9, pp. 15-153, two:10.7601 / mez.25.153, ISSN 1883-6631 .
  23. ^ a b c Kazuo Yasutomi & Kenji Umeya 1995, p. 211.
  24. ^ a b c Shinichiro Saito 2002, p. 160.
  25. ^ Shinichiro Saito 2002, pp. 122–123.
  26. ^ a b Shinichiro Saito 2002, p. 121.
  27. ^ "If you see Huntsman spider, the strongest cockroach hunter in history, don't be afraid to say "Thank you for your hard work!"”(Japanese). Rocket news 24 (September 2012, 6). NovemberBrowse.
  28. ^ "What is the cockroach's natural enemy "Huntsman spider" with amazing killing ability?”(Japanese). Livedoor news. NovemberBrowse.
  29. ^ "[Reading notice] What are "Hey bee", "Gunsou", and "Hagachi"?If you can answer all the questions correctly, you are a citizen of Chiba! (June 2021, 6) | BIGLOBE News”(Japanese). BIGLOBE News. NovemberBrowse.

References

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