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💼 | Job hunting status of 21st and 22nd year graduates, 22nd year graduates are increasingly considering non-regular employment and employment ronin [Jaic survey]


Job hunting status of 21st and 22nd year graduates, 22nd year graduates are increasingly considering non-regular employment and employment ronin [Jaic survey]

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As for the direction of job hunting, in each month, there were many cases where "Private job hunting is mainly conducted until a job offer is given", but in 2021, "It will be conducted in parallel with the civil service examination and graduate school entrance examination" and "Already non-regular. Compared to 2020, there were more responses including "Considering employment and employment retention years."

Jake conducted a survey for 2021 and 2022 graduates, saying, "21 graduates and 22 graduates regarding the status of job hunting ... → Continue reading


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Primary detention

Primary detentionWhat is (genkyuryuchi)?Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAre enrolled inChildren-student-Student(Current student), but for some reasonAdvancementNot the sameschool yearRepeatCourseTo do.CommonlyFailure(Rakudai)Repetition(Ryunen) Tomo.


Failure(Rakudai)RepetitionThe official expression for (Ryunen) is to dispose of students and students in this way.Proffesional detention procedureIt's called (Genkyu Ryuchocho).Proffesional retention(Genkyu Tomeoki), or留級It may also be written as (Ryukyu).AntonymIs "Odai" and "Normal promotion".

In a similar case,primary school"Delaying school attendance above standard"Postponement of school",schoolgraduateLater to senior high schoolGoing on to schoolSometimes there is a period "Going on to previous yearsThere is.

Elementary detention under the school system

Treatment of proffesional detention depends on the countryPrimary Education-Secondary education-Higher educationIt also depends on the stage of.

Especially in primary and secondary education, countries that have a high rate of repetition due to the curriculum principle (France,Germany,フィンランドSome countries (such as), institutionally and theoretically can be proffesional, but in reality there is no proffesional (The United Kingdom,JapanEtc.)[1].

The following cases may be treated for proffesional detention.

In the case of reasons attributable to the person in question

  1. Poor grades.
  2. School refusalAnd due to the scandal of the personHumbleness-SuspensionIf there is a shortage due to such reasons (the number of days of resignation or suspension is not included in the number of attendance days).
  3. Sloppy in personal life (too many late arrivals, sleeping in class, not submitting assignment reports, etc.).
  4. When there are other acts that are not suitable for children / students / students.

In the case of reasons not attributable to the person

  1. When long-term hospitalization or medical treatment is required due to an accident, illness, or disability.
  2. Leave of absence (for study abroad, etc.).
  3. In addition, if the person wishes (extended enrollment is permitted at some universities).

Japanese school system

Authorized child institutionincludingKindergarten,Compulsory educationStudy for 9 yearsprimary school,Junior high schoolSuch,Lower secondary educationIn the following schools, in practiceschool yearIn the highest grade (so-called age-equivalent grade) to which you can belong even if you have not takenTransfercan.This kind of skipping for older children is a common feature of school-aged schools (15 years old and younger).

But,high school,College of technology,UniversitySuch,Lower secondary educationAt subsequent schools, even if you are older, you will need to take it from the first grade unless you have taken it at an equivalent school before.

JapaneseSchool education lawThere is no upper limit on the age of enrollment / graduation of various schools, but some schools have an upper limit on the number of repetitions and the maximum period of enrollment in high school and above.In Japan, there are few cases of postponement of schooling, proffesional detention, and going on to higher education until the first and second semesters, so it seems that there is an upper limit in appearance.However, the majority of school-aged children are from 6 years oldAttending schoolHowever, it has become common sense to graduate from junior high school at the age of 15 without repeating a grade, and it is hardly assumed that people who are over school age will be enrolled in ordinary elementary and junior high schools and related organizations.

In the case of repeating a year in a high school or higher course, there are differences depending on the school and school rules, but it is extremely strict school rules"We will not allow you to repeat a year even once and will drop out immediately."In some cases (mostly in graduate master's programs), followed by"Proffesionals are allowed only once, but if a second proffesional is decided, they will be expelled immediately."In some cases (there is no repetition).

Incidentally,Gym clothesSpecifications differ for each gradeSchool suppliesIf there is, replacement by purchase is often not compulsory even if you repeat a year.2010 It was carried out from the degree (22)Free tuition for public high schoolsRegarding, regarding the application when the completion period of the repeater is exceeded, the school establisher (Local government: Each prefecture, special ward or municipalityBoard of education) (Because it will be borne by the school founder, not the national expense).For national and private high school studentsHigh school enrollment support systemDoes not apply to those who have exceeded the term of completion.

Official notation

The official term is "proffesional detention".But the word "detention"DepotSome people pronounce it as "genkyu tomeoki" or write it as "proffesional retention".Before the war, it was often called "deferred to the original level".Also, the word "proffesional" is a remnant of the era of the grade system of the Meiji era, and now it should be "proffesional detention" in the current grade system, but the word proffesional detention is customarily used. ing.

Actual conditions and statistics

In public elementary and junior high schoolsSchool board rules"The principal promptly detains a child or student in a proffesional class.Superintendent of schoolsMust be reported to. It seems that the Board of Education keeps track of the number of proffesional detainees in public elementary and junior high schools.However, statistics on proffesional detention at elementary and junior high schools have not been released at the Japanese overall level.The number of proffesional detentions after upper secondary education (after the second half of high school and secondary school) has been announced.

Incidentally,CensusThen, since we are issuing statistics that classify the students of elementary and junior high school and their ages,School ageYou can know the number of excess elementary and junior high school students.For this statistic, seeAgeism and course principleIt is described in detail in.However, since this is just an age-based statistic for over-school age, it is not possible to know the exact number of proffesional detainees during school age.

Elementary and junior high school

Japan OfSchool systemSo, in most public elementary and junior high schoolsschool year TheAgeismIs takingPostponement of schoolPerson,returnee childrenUnless there are special circumstances such as, the school year to which the student belongs is determined by age.The School Education Law Enforcement Regulations stipulate that the completion and graduation of each grade of elementary and junior high school should be evaluated and certified by the "normal grades" of the children, because of the poor grades of the children.head teacherIt is also possible to proffesional detention at the discretion of[2]At the end of the school year, there are "promotion judgment meeting" and "graduation judgment meeting".

Long time ago,sickFor reasons such as medical treatmentLong absenceProffesional detention was seen to some extent by school judgment in public elementary and junior high schools.this is1953 (Showa 28)Hyogo Prefectural Board of EducationSuperintendent of schoolsIn response to the inquiryMinistry of Education(Reorganization of central ministriesAfterMinistry of education) The director of primary and secondary education said, "Generally speaking, students who are absent for more than half of the total class hours in the third grade are usually not granted graduation certification unless there are special circumstances. Let's answer "(s: Regarding the completion of the course or the certification of graduation, etc.), This notice will be promoted at a public junior high school based on the number of days attended.graduateThere was also a time when it was the basis for making the decision.

on the other hand,HeiseiOf the era1990 eraEnterLong absenceThe number of students has increased rapidly, and since the 1990s, proffesional detention has been taken only slightly if the parents of the students strongly requested it, and the above-mentioned Ministry of Education notice is virtually losing its effect at public elementary and junior high schools. Even if the grades are poor or the number of attendance days has not been reached, the students are promoted and graduated.

On the other hand, even if a child or guardian wishes to voluntarily proffesional detention, the school or because of age principleBoard of educationIn some cases, the child's parents (Guardian) Was refused to proffesional because of a long absence and was forced to promote, so he appealed to the trial.1993 (5)May 8ToKobe District CourtIt was decided that "promotion is justified"Kobe municipal elementary school forced promotion caseThere is an example of.HoweverImprisonmentIf a student is unable to attend school for a long period of time due to reasons not attributable to the student, he / she may be able to choose whether to accept voluntary proffesional detention or to perform proffesional detention.

in recent years,HikikomoriEven if a child who becomes a student or neglects to attend school has been promoted even though he / she has not attended school for several years, and even if the student intends to attend elementary and junior high school later, it is quite difficult to return to class. Will be.Some of them were hikikomori in elementary school, and even though they hadn't attended junior high school for a day, they went to junior high school.graduateThere are even cases where it is made to do.

In addition, it is said that there are some cases of repetition due to poor grades in private elementary schools and junior high schools with entrance examinations and promotion examinations ("(in junior high school and above) there is proffesional detention due to lack of learning achievement". ingTamagawa AcademyExample[3]Such).

September 2004, at that timeMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyTakeo Kawamura TheAsahi ShimbunIn an interview with, he said, "We will study the repetition of compulsory education, which had been almost dead culture until now, so that we can expand the scope."

Since the local board of education summarizes the number of proffesional detainees reported by each school, there may be information as an internal record.

high school

Poor grades and acquisitions in schools after upper secondary education such as high schoolunitIf the number is insufficient, it will be a candidate for proffesional detention,Club activities,otherSubjectIt is decided whether or not to be a proffesional detention by comprehensively considering the academic attitude such as the grades of.Special schoolThe high school is similar to the high school.

In the case of a grade-based school, the number of days attending school and the number of hours attended simply do not reach the standards, and even if the grades are excellent.CourseIn some cases, it is not certified and automatically repeats a year.
In addition, although some subjects are not accredited for earning credits, they are excluded from proffesional detention in the sense that they will develop their talents, such as when they have excellent grades in other subjects. matter(Temporary promotionAlso called).However, it is necessary to fill in the missing credits during the provisional promotion. For example, if you are provisionally promoted from the 1st grade to the 2nd grade, you will have to acquire the missing credits in the 2st grade in addition to the 1nd grade credits, which will increase the burden. ..

on the other hand,Unit systemAt schools in Japan, graduation may be suspended or postponed due to insufficient number of credits earned, but there is no concept of repeating a year because it is sufficient to earn credits for subjects that have not earned credits by the time of graduation. (However, some schools organize classes for each grade for homeroom activities.)

College of technology

At a college of technology (technical college), as with universities, if a certain number of credits or more cannot be earned in that grade, it will be a repeat year.This is no exception in the first to third grades, which is the period of study for general high schools.

In many technical colleges, the main course (Associate degreeYou cannot be enrolled in the course for more than 10 years, and you cannot be enrolled in the same grade for more than 2 years. It becomes.


If the number of credits does not meet a certain standard, it is often a repeat year.Unlike up to high school, the credits you have already earned are valid, and you can advance if you retake the missing part in the next fiscal year and meet the promotion requirements.In rare cases, there may be no courses that can be taken even though the required courses have been abolished or the year of study has been changed. Can be satisfied and can be promoted.

In the case of a regular course, it is twice the period of study (eg, 2 years for a 4-year faculty, 8 years for a 6-year faculty)[4]) Is often not possible.

If you have adopted the university regeneration system (mainly in the Kansai region), the number will increase every other year regardless of your grades. There is no system of repeating a year because it is written.Even in that case, it is often impossible to attend school for more than 1 years (5 years).

However,University correspondenceIn the case of the course of, even in the 4-year faculty, 10 years[5]You may be able to enroll to some extent, andRe-entryIs often easier than going to school.

Incidentally,Drop out of schoolSince the period is not counted in the number of years of enrollment, in that case it is possible that you have been enrolled in the same university for 8 years or more (Godiego's)Takekawa YukihideUsed this system to balance music and schoolwork, and was enrolled for 12 years by repeating leave of absence and returning to school).

There are various reasons for college students to repeat a year, but when analyzing repeaters by high school, there is considerable variation.In particular, the repetition rate of "managed school, boarding system" is high.Tokyo UniversityThe mini-comic magazine "Tsunekawasho" is analyzing[6].

Proffesionals usually occur when students fail to meet the promotion / graduation requirements, but in recent years, graduation requirements have been changed due to reasons such as undecided employment or failure to obtain a license for teaching profession. There is a rapid increase in the number of cases (retirement years of employment) in which students do not intentionally graduate while satisfying their duties and leave their school registration at the university.Against this background, "Proffesional systemThere is also a university that has newly established.

Case over proffesional detention

European school system

The United Kingdom

The United KingdomThere is no provision for the repetition system in the compulsory education course, but it is theoretically possible.[1]..In reality, students rarely repeat grades, and students are automatically promoted with age.[1].

Conservative partyUnder the administration, the introduction of a promotion judgment system in the final grade of elementary school has been considered, but it has been postponed.[1].

2009 yearsOECDAccording to the survey, 15% of 1.6-year-old students in primary education and 0.8% in lower secondary education have repeated grades.[1].


FranceThe compulsory education course is curriculum-based and there is a repeat year system, but parents can file an objection.[1].

According to a 2009 OECD survey, 15% of 17.8-year-old students in primary education and 23.5% in lower secondary education have repeated grades.[1].


GermanyThe compulsory education course is curriculum-based, and repeat grades are decided after consultation between parents and the school.[1].

According to a 2009 OECD survey, 15% of 9.2-year-old students in primary education and 14.2% in lower secondary education have repeated grades.[1].


フィンランドThe compulsory education course is also curriculum-based, and repeat grades are decided through discussions between parents and the school.[1].

According to a 2009 OECD survey, 15% of 2.4-year-old students in primary education and 0.5% in lower secondary education have repeated grades.[1].

United States school system

The United States of AmericaSince the school system of the school has a credit system, there are systematic repetitions.[1].

According to a 2009 OECD survey, 15% of 11.2-year-old students in primary education and 4.2% in lower secondary education have repeated grades.[1]..However, since skipping grades are institutionalized along with repeat grades based on the principle of allocating grades according to ability, dropout is actually more problematic than repeat grades.[1].

High schools in the United States have a graduation postponement system due to lack of credits[1]..Most states have introduced high school graduation exams, which postpone graduation for those who fail the exam.[1].


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "School system (school system) -Comparison with other countries”. Educational Rehabilitation Conference (November 2013, 11). NovemberBrowse.
  2. ^ School Education Law Enforcement Regulations Articles 57 and 79
  3. ^ "Q & A | Junior High School / High School”. Tamagawa Gakuen. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ "Aichi Gakuin University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Promotion / Graduation Guidelines". NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ If you enrolled in the Open University of Japan for the first year as of 2014 and did not add up the period of study using the credits, the period of study is 10 years.
  6. ^ Tetsuo Kobayashi (2009) "History of the rise and fall of high school passing the University of Tokyo" Kobunsha new book

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