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👩‍🎓 | Learning the value of Goshono Site 110th Anniversary Lecture / Roundtable


Photographs Students enthusiastically listening to the lecture by Director Kazunori Takada

Learn the value of Goshono Site 110th Anniversary Lecture / Roundtable

 
If you write the contents roughly
The students broadened their horizons by learning about the value and future of the Goshono Site, which was registered as a World Cultural Heritage site in July.
 

Ichinohe High School (Principal Mitsuhisa Ueno, 244 students) will hold a lecture and roundtable discussion to commemorate the 23th anniversary of its founding at the same school in Ichinohe Town on the 110rd. → Continue reading

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Cultural Heritage (World Heritage)

world Heritage > Cultural Heritage (World Heritage)

UNESCORegisterworld HeritageAccording to its characteristics,cultural heritage""Natural heritage""Complex heritageIt is classified into.In this item, "cultural heritageIs dealt with.

2021 yearsThe 44th World Heritage CommitteeAt the end of the extended meeting, 897 cultural heritage sites have been registered.[1].

Sort

World Heritage ConventionIn, cultural heritage is classified into one of the following three categories.

Memorial

Monument (monument) [Annotation 1]In Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention, "Buildings have commemorative significance."彫刻as well as the A painting,archeologyProperties and structures of typical nature,Gold stone,TroglodytaeAnd a combination of these properties that has significant historical, artistic or academic value. "[2]Is defined as.In particular,Cologne Cathedral(Germany), A property in which a single building is registered is usually classified into this category.

Buildings

A group of buildings is, according to Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention, "a group of independent or continuous buildings, the architectural style, homogeneity orLandscapeThose that have significant historical, artistic or academic value because of their position within. "[2]Is defined as.In particular,Historic Center of Porto(Portugal), This applies when the townscape is registered.Also, Belgian and French bell towersSome are categorized as "buildings" even if they do not form a cohesive landscape like this.

(I.e.

The site is an area containing artificial products (including those combined with nature) and archaeological sites, as stated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention, and is historical, artistic, folklore or anthropological. Those with outstanding universal value "[2]Is defined as.In this categoryKunta Kinte Island and related archaeological sites(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) AndRuins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Munara(Tanzania) etc.Archaeological siteだ け で な く,Rice terraces in Cordillera, PhilippinesIt also includes areas where the existing agricultural culture is inherited.In other words, it is a category that points to a wider range than archaeological sites, and because site is also used for registered sites of natural heritage, avoid the translation of "ruins" and "PlaceSome experts translate it as[3].

In 1992, "Working Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention"Cultural landscapeThe concept of "" was included, but this is included in the artificial products combined with nature specified in the above three categories of "ruins".[4][Annotation 2].

Registration criteria

In order to be registered as a cultural heritage, it must have "significant universal value" in light of the registration criteria.World Heritage CommitteeIt is necessary to be recognized in.Prior to deliberation by the committeeICOMOSInvestigate and make recommendations on whether or not it is suitable for registration[5].

The criteria for registration as a cultural heritage are as follows.

  • (1) A masterpiece that expresses the creative talents of mankind.
  • (2) An important exchange of human values ​​in the development of architecture, technology, monumental arts, urban planning, and landscape design throughout a period or in a cultural area.
  • (3) The only or at least rare evidence of an existing or extinct cultural tradition or civilization.
  • (4) An excellent example of architectural style, group of buildings, accumulation of technology or landscape that illustrates an important period in human history.
  • (5) Traditional settlements representing a certain culture (or multiple cultures) or outstanding examples of land or sea use. Or a striking example of a human-environmental relationship that is endangered due to irreversible changes.
  • (6) Events that have a prominent and universal significance, those that are directly or explicitly related to existing traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic or literary works (this criterion should be used in combination with other criteria) I think the World Heritage Committee).

These criteria often apply to multiple criteria rather than just one.Below, for each standard, examples of properties registered according to that standard will be given.

Criteria (1)

  • (1) A masterpiece that expresses the creative talents of mankind.

For properties registered to which only standard (1) is applied,Taj Mahal(India),Sydney Opera House(Australia),Preah Vihear Temple(Cambodia).This standard is "Antoni Gaudi's works"Or"Architects Victor Horta's main urban mansions (Brussels)Of course, it often applies to properties that are attributed to individuals who have demonstrated creative talent, such asTiya steles(エチオピア), Even if the creator and the production date are unknown, it may be applied.

Criteria (2)

  • (2) An important exchange of human values ​​in the development of architecture, technology, monumental arts, urban planning, and landscape design throughout a period or in a cultural area.

For properties to which only standard (2) is applied,Lord Ascension Church of Kolomenskoye(ロシア),Speyer Cathedral(Germany),Holles Monastery(ルーマニア),Geghard Monastery and Upper Azato River(アルメニア),Sewell mining city(チリ),Royal Exhibition Hall and Carlton Gardens(Australia)and so on.It is a standard that is also applied to cultural heritage that has contributed to cultural exchange, such as trade points.[6]..An example of that isSilk Road: Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor Trade Route Network(Chugoku,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)and so on.

Criteria (3)

  • (3) The only or at least rare evidence of an existing or extinct cultural tradition or civilization.

For properties to which only standard (3) is applied,Bryggen(ノルウェー),Rock carvings at Alta(Norway),Müstair OfSt. John Monastery(スイス),Bern old town(Switzerland),Butrint(Armenia),Hercules Tower(Spain),Beni Hammad Fort(アルジェリア),Mesa Verde National Park(The United States of America)and so on.This standard also applies to archaeological sites and fossil sites of humankind.[6]..As an example applied in archaeological sitesThe Nazca and Fumana Plains(ペルー),Mohenjodalo(Pakistan),Memphis and its Cemetery Ruins-Pyramids from Giza to Dahshur(Egypt), Etc., as an example applied at human fossil ruinsHuman fossil remains in South Africa(Republic of South Africa),Mount Carmel archaeological sites showing human evolution: Nahal Mearot (Wadi El-Mugala) caves(イ ス ラ エ ル)and so on.

Criteria (4)

  • (4) An excellent example of architectural style, group of buildings, accumulation of technology or landscape that illustrates an important period in human history.

For properties to which only standard (4) is applied,Lugo Roman Wall(スペイン),Levoca Historical Center, Spissky Castle and related cultural properties(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu),Fontenay Cistercian Monastery(France),La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Rockle(スイス),Kronborg Castle(デンマーク),Old church in Petayavesi(フィンランド),Bahla Fort(Oman),Abu Mena(Egypt),Vinales Valley(キ ュ ー バ),Guarani's Jesuit Missions(Brazil-アルゼンチン)and so on.

Criteria (5)

  • (5) Traditional settlements representing a certain culture (or multiple cultures) or outstanding examples of land or sea use. Or a striking example of a human-environmental relationship that is endangered due to irreversible changes.

For properties to which only standard (5) is applied,Cursive Sand Bar(ロシア / リトアニア),Madriu-Perafita-Claro Valley(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu),Old village of Hollókő and its surroundings(ハンガリー),Vega archipelago(ノルウェー),Ashanti traditional buildings(ガーナ),Oman's Irrigation System Aflaj(Oman)and so on.Cultural landscapeOften this standard applies[7].

Criteria (6)

  • (6) Events that have a prominent and universal significance, those that are directly or explicitly related to existing traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic or literary works (this criterion should be used in combination with other criteria) I think the World Heritage Committee).

It is an exceptional case that only criterion (6) is applied and registered.Atomic bomb dome(Japan),Goree Island(セネガル),Auschwitz concentration camp(ポーランド) Etc.Negative world heritageThis case can be seen as it is[7].. other than this,Rila Monastery(Bulgaria),Independence Hall(United States of America),Lance O Meadow National Historic Site(Canada),Head-Smashed-In Buffalo JumpFor (Canada) etc., only (6) is applied.

When registering, multiple criteria are often applied, and in some cases 4 or 5 items are applied, but for properties to which all 6 items are appliedMogao Grottoes(Chugoku),Mount Tai(China)[Annotation 3],Venice and its lagoon(イタリア) Only 3 cases (2015)The 39th World Heritage CommitteeAt the end).

Global strategy

"Global Strategy for World Heritage List Representativeity, Balance and Credibility" (1994 ), In order to correct the bias of cultural heritageCultural landscape,Industrial heritage,20st centuryIt was confirmed that it is necessary to register subsequent modern architecture.

Cultural landscape

Cultural landscapeIs a concept included in the 1992 "Working Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention".Organic connection between human cultural activities and natureLandscapeIt is also officially classified in the ICOMOS Recommendations.In the example given above, it was registered only by standard (4).Vinales Valley, Registered only by criteria (5)Cursive Sand Bar,Madriu-Perafita-Claro ValleyEtc. are applicable.Other properties that include this standardAmalfi coast(イタリア),Starry grad(クロアチア),Skull Cultural Landscape(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu),Koutammakou, the land of the Batamaribas(ト ー ゴ),Bam and its cultural landscape((I.e.),Landscape of old tequila industrial facilities and agave(メキシコ) Etc.[8].

Industrial heritage

Industrial heritageAs the name impliesindustrySomething that conveys the activities of(I.e.Is.The definition is not uniform, but ICOMOS has published a list officially categorized up to 2011 registration.Cultural landscapeAlthough it partially overlaps withIwami Ginzan Ruins and their Cultural Landscape(Japan),Historical Shuttle Water Facility((I.e.),Indian mountain railways(India),Derwent Canyon Factories(The United Kingdom),Vizcaya Bridge(スペイン),La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Rockle(スイス),Rideau Canal(カナダ),Humberstone and Santa Laura glass factories(チリ) Etc. are included in it[9].

Contemporary architecture

Buildings and city planning by excellent architects are also registered as World Heritage Sites.Registered about 30 years after completionBrasilia(Brazil) AndSydney Opera House(Australia) Etc. are prominent examples.Besides,Rietveld-designed Schroeder House( Netherlands),Stockley House(ベルギー),House of Tugendhat in Brno(チ ェ コ) Such as private residences,Berlin Modernism Housing Estates(Germany) Like an apartment building,Caracas University City(ベネズエラ),Central Campus of the University City of National Autonomous University of Mexico(メキシコ), Etc. are registered[10].

Other classification

Another classification is "Cultural roadThe concept of "(Cultural Road)" has also emerged.Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountains(Japan),Pilgrimage route of Santiago de Compostela(スペイン) Such aspilgrimageRoad,Midi Canal(France) Such ascanal,Zemmering Railway(オーストリア) Such asTrain,Land of Frankincense(Oman) And other trade routes are examples of those included in this category.[11].

Gallery

Japan

Asia

Oceania

Africa

Europe

North / Central America

South America

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Sometimes translated as "memorial work", but translated as "memorial"Secretariat of World Heritage Test 2012 (p.21),Furuta & Furuta 2013 (p.6),Japan UNESCO Association Federation 2014 Follow (p.36) and so on.
  2. ^ Stelling Van AmsterdamThere are some properties that have been suggested to be applicable to the cultural landscape even if they are classified as "buildings".
  3. ^ TaishanComplex heritage.

Source

References

  • Nobuko Inaba "Future of the World Heritage Convention-Toward the Construction of the Concept of Future Heritage" "World Heritage Studies" No. 2, University of Tsukuba, pp. 1-8, 2016. 
  • World Heritage Test Office "World Heritage Encyclopedia that understands everything <above>" My navi, 2012. (World Heritage AcademySupervision)
  • "World Heritage Annual Report 2015" Kodansha, 2014. 
  • Furuhisa; Mami Furuta "World Heritage Guide Cultural Heritage Edition --2013 Revised Edition" Think Tank Setouchi Research Organization, 2013. 

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