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👩‍🎓 | Prevention of child abuse ... Message from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "To children nationwide"


Photograph Message from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "To children nationwide"

Child Abuse Prevention ... Message from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "To Children Nationwide"

 
If you write the contents roughly
In the message entitled "To children all over the country," he tells the children, "Are you being hit by an adult or being told something terrible?" Don't worry, we call on you to consult with adults around you, such as teachers and school counselors.
 

Before "Child Abuse Prevention Promotion Month" in November, Minister Shinsuke Suematsu of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced on October 11, 2021 that "Children nationwide ... → Continue reading

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The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.


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School counselor

School counselorWhat is (SC)?Educational institutionInPsychological consultationEngage in businessPsychologyThe name of the profession of the expert and the person in charge.[1][2].. CommonlySchool counselorSometimes called. In this section, it is an adjacent occupationSchool advisor(SA),School social worker(SSW) is also described.

Overview

Children-student-Student OfSchool refusalAnd various on-campus / on-campusProblem behaviorIn dealing with such things, it is specializedPsychologyKnowledgepsychologicalAssistance knowledge may be required. Psychologists who have such a high degree of specialized knowledge and engage in psychological counseling services at each educational institutionExpert School counselor(SC)[1][2].

In a broad sense, regardless of national, public or privateprimary school,Junior high school,high school,UniversityIn addition, it may refer to a psychological job working in a counseling room on campus or on campus of all educational institutions. Also involved in educational institutionsdisaster,ACCIDENTOr事件-crime-suicideIn an emergency such asMunicipalities Victim-victim OfMental careOf the "emergency support team (: CRT)" dispatched to schools and other sites forPsychiatrist,Clinical psychologist,Public health nurse,Mental health workerMay refer to expert staff[3].

On the other hand, in a narrow senseMinistry of education(OldMinistry of Education) In the school counselor business, the appointment rules described laterSchool counselor qualification requirementsAdvancedClinical psychology/PsychiatryRefers to a psychologist with specialized knowledge[1][2], Legal statusMunicipalities-Board of educationReceived an appointment fromSpecial occupationIs[4].

Ensuring third-party and externalities

In both broad and narrow senses, the work you are engaged in is "Psychological consultationDue to the nature ofStaffUnlike each child / student / studentGradeWithout evaluation etc.GuardianAnd other faculty members have no stake in "Third party""ExternalityHavePsychologyBeing an expert is a school counselorethicsEspecially needed as a major premise[2][5].. The importance of this "third party" and "externality" was also explained by the user side in the field survey conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, saying, "Unlike teachers, third parties who do not evaluate grades, etc." Because it is a typical existence, children, students, and parents do not hesitateCounselingI was able to receive[6]"A framework different from" children / students and teachers "Human relationsCan be consulted at[7]The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is a school counselor who aims to achieve both "high degree of specialization" and "third-party / externality" in the research based on those reports.AppointmentEspecially important as the above significance[6][7].

Therefore, for example, incumbent faculty and stafftrainingAfter taking such courses, you can also serve concurrentlyretirement"It is an extension of the position as a faculty member," such as the alumnus of a faculty member who was appointed to make use of his teaching experience.The party"And" "[8][9]When "" is related to children / students / students, "" in the field of clinical psychology / psychiatryGuarantee of advanced expertiseIn addition to the point of "", which should be different from the existing faculty and staffEnsuring third-party and externalitiesBecause the point of "is ambiguous, it is professionalNeutralIt is different from the original position of the school counselor who is in charge of psychological counseling work from a positive standpoint.[2][5][6][7].. This is in other fieldsPsychological counselorIs also a major premise inDual relationship(Multiple relationship)Avoidance of[8][9]Is an ethical obligation called[8][9].

This point isAcademic harassmentAnd variousharassmentIt is also common with measures for related problems, and school counselors in a broad sense that include all national, public and private schools, elementary, junior high and high schools are also school counselors in a narrow sense.Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Appointment RegulationsFollowing, "Certified psychologist""Clinical psychologist""Psychiatrist""University facultyAs a qualification requirement, we invite you from outside the school or outside the university.[10][11][12][13][14][15], After satisfying both "guaranteeing highly specialized knowledge" and "securing third-party / externality"mental healthWe are giving consideration to business such as signing a commission contract as a bearer of[16][17].

History

Public school target business

Mental careIn the United States, which is a developed country,1975 of"Education of All Handicapped Children ActBy the enforcement of1970 Already in the teens, a psychological expert in an educational institutionschool psychologistWas laid the groundwork for social recognition, but the opportunity for psychologists to publicly participate in each educational institution in Japan and become particularly widely known as a "school counselor" was1995 Old from degreeMinistry of EducationIs a school counselor business started by[7].

The business is "School counselor utilization research consignment businessIt was started as ", starting with 154 schools nationwide in the starting year, eachPrefectures OfpublicSchool counselors have been assigned and dispatched to elementary schools, junior high schools, and high schools as psychological specialists. afterwards,2001 From the degree, the presentMinistry of educationBelow "School counselor utilization business assistanceThe business name was renewed, and it was institutionalized in earnest for placement and dispatch to all public junior high schools. Since the start of this project, the number of school counselors assigned and dispatched has exceeded 10,000 nationwide, especially2008 All from the degreePublic schoolPlacement and dispatch to[7].

Business for private schools

Not directly targeted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's school counselor businessprivate schoolHowever, if you wish to introduce a new school counselor, or if you want to continuously assign a school counselor,1975 Is being carried out for prefectures fromSubsidy for ordinary expenses such as private high schools * "High school, etc." refers to "high school," "secondary school," "junior high school," "elementary school," "kindergarten," and "special education schools."Can be used to receive indirect assistance from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[2].

The subsidy project was launched in the same year (1975).LegislatorEstablished as "Private School Promotion Grant ActBased on the legal basis, each prefectureprivate"High school" "Secondary school"Junior high school" "Elementary school" "Kindergarten""Special educationNecessary for maintaining and improving educational conditions in "schools"Expense OfGrantIf you are doing this, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will contact the prefecture.SubsidyIs to do[18].. That is, [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "Subsidy]] ⇒ [Prefectures "Grant] ⇒ [Private school "Expense]], The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology provides indirect subsidies to private schools, and expenses related to the introduction and maintenance of school counselors are covered by this subsidy project.[19], It is possible to consult with the prefecture side for subsidies.[2].

Also, clinical psychologyProfessional graduate schoolCertification evaluation bodyJapan Clinical Psychologist Qualification Certification AssociationIs eachPrefectural Clinical Psychologists AssociationWorking withPrivate school counselor support project"2010 We carry out from degree[20].

This project is a public school that has been directly targeted by the school counselor project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.AppointmentI have been in charge of my dutiesClinical psychologistThe practical knowledge of school clinical practice accumulated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is actually transferred to private schools that are not directly targeted by the school counselor project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.Psychological consultationThe purpose is to give back in the form of engaging in business[20].. Specifically, the Japan Clinical Psychologist Qualifications Association will provide almost all financial support to private schools that have not yet introduced a school counselor, providing an opportunity for private schools to introduce a school counselor at a low burden. is there. As a procedure, of the same businessAdmissionsAfter preparing the school counselor acceptance system in advance, we became the Japan Clinical Psychologist Qualification Certification Association.Application form(Example of filling out the same form) Is submitted, and if it passes the examination, financial support will be implemented.[20].

Common business

If all educational institutions, including elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, universities, etc., want to introduce a new school counselor, regardless of national, public or private, or if a successor school counselor is assigned, a clinical psychologistProfessional organizationIsJapan Clinical Psychologist AssociationOr eachPrefectural Clinical Psychologists AssociationBy contacting, you can request to inform registered member clinical psychologists of job information and to serve as a contact point for recommending clinical psychologists, and for complicated public relations and clerical work when introducing new or recruiting successors Part ofClinical Psychologists Association OfSecretariatCan be entrusted to[21].

Also involved in educational institutionsdisaster,ACCIDENTOr事件-crime-suicideIn case of an emergency such as, by contacting the Japan Clinical Psychologists Association or the relevant prefectural clinical psychologists association,Victim-victim OfMental careTherefore, it is possible to request the dispatch of a clinical psychologist as a school counselor for the site such as a school, the surrounding area, and those involved in the case.1989 Since its establishment, the Japan Clinical Psychologists Association has continuedMunicipalitiesWe have established a system for various support activities in cooperation with[21].

Great East Japan Earthquake Victim Support Project

2011 May 3Occurred inGreat East Japan EarthquakeAs part of measures to ensure the safety of children, students, and students, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)2010 After urgently utilizing the "comprehensive regional expert collaboration project to protect children's health" and dispatching clinical psychologists to the field, after the beginning of 2011,Disaster areaMeasures have been taken to expand the school counselor business so that all public schools in Japan can provide emergency psychological support for school counselors.[22][23].

In addition, for children, students, and students who have evacuated to remote areas throughout Japan,Transfer-TransferAt the previous educational institution,Psychological consultationIn addition to requesting each local government, each board of education, each educational institution, etc. nationwide to give special consideration such as, including emergency dispatch and continuous dispatch of school counselorsSupplementary budgetPlanCabinet decisionHowever, it was announced that the entire Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will work on a disaster victim support project centered on the mental care of children, students, and students.[22][23].

Appointment rules and qualification requirements

The contents of the appointment rules for the school counselor business of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology are shown below. The originalSchool counselor utilization business assistance[1]Advanced psychological profession that meets the "school counselor qualification requirements" inExpertConsidering the circumstances such as areas where there are few human resources, it is also possible to appoint "a person equivalent to a school counselor" if the reason is found to be rational.School counselor utilization project implementation guidelinesMaintenance based on2009 Since it has started from the beginning, the content of the appointment rules in this section will be based on that.[24].

School counselor

To become a school counselor
Psi2.pngSchool counselor
↑
Symbol flag of Tokyo.svgRecruitment requirements for each local government / board of education
↑
Go-shichi no kiri crest.svgAppointment rules and qualification requirements of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Clinical psychologistPsychiatristUniversity faculty
↑↑↑
Clinical psychologist qualificationObtain
Clinical psychologist qualification examinationPass
Doctor's licenseObtain
National Doctor ExamPass
Passed the recruitment requirements for each university faculty member
↑↑↑
Clinical psychologist designated graduate schoolCompletion
Clinical psychologysystemmaster's degreeObtain
UniversityFaculty of medicinegraduate
(University/Medical college)
Graduate SchoolsCompletion etc.
Bachelor of ScienceAcquisition /Research achievementsAnnouncement etc.

A person equivalent to a school counselor

  • Qualification requirements
    • Graduate SchoolsThose who have completed the master's course, regarding clinical psychology work or consultation work for children / studentsMore than 1 yearsThose who have experience of
    • DoctorSo, about clinical psychological work or consultation work for children / studentsMore than 1 yearsThose who have experience of
    • UniversityOrJunior collegeFor those who have graduated from, about clinical psychological work or consultation work for children / studentsMore than 5 yearsThose who have experience of

* This "person equivalent to a school counselor" is commonly referred to asAssociate school counselorAlso known as (quasi-school counselor). Mainly doctors other than psychiatrists and prospective clinical psychologists (Professional graduate schoolSuch asClinical psychologist designated graduate schoolApplicable to those who have completed the course. In addition, depending on the areaSchool psychologist,Clinical development psychologistsIs applicable

School advisor

Like a school counselor, become a psychological specialist engaged in psychological counseling work at an educational institutionSchool advisorThere is (SA)[25].

The school counselor is as mentioned aboveMinistry of educationIt was started as a core business, but each school advisorMunicipalities,Board of educationIt is carried out as a central business, and allPrefecturesNot always deployed in[26].. Qualification requirements are generally based on the school counselor, "Clinical psychologist""Psychiatrist""University facultyAdvanced psychological professionals such asAppointmentI am in charge of my duties[27][28].

In addition, because it is led by the local government, compared to the school counselor project led by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.budgetIs limited, and the activities of school advisors are basically limited to a short period of time. Therefore, although they are part-time, they share the same position as a psychological professional who engages in psychological counseling work, but their duties are somewhat different from those of school counselors who are involved in long-term work.[26].

IeSchool advisorIs a direct relationship with children / students who are supposed to be involved for a certain period of time.Psychological counselingIs not in charge in principle, but to faculty and staffPsychological consultationIs the main job content[26].

School social worker

Meanwhile, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology2008 For the business that started from the beginning, "School social worker utilization businessThere is[29].

Social worker(Case worker) Is mainlySocially vulnerableToWelfare consultationEngage in businessWelfareBeing an expertSchool social worker(SSW) is the person who holds the relevant position in the educational institution. Qualification requirements areSocial worker,Mental health workerIn addition to qualified personnel such as, there are various specialties of human resources, including those who have experience in activities in the fields of education and welfare in the past.[30].

Regarding the differences between school counselors and school advisors, both of them have in common that they are involved with children / students, parents, and faculty members through their specialized knowledge, but school counselors and school advisors have children / students, parents, etc. "Faculty and staff"IndividualSchool social workers are built by those individuals, while responding to problems that arise from the understanding ofEnvironmentRespond to problems that arise from the understanding of[30].

IeSchool social workerIt is,child consultation centerStarted withAdministrative agency,Social resourcesBuilding a collaborative environment between external institutions such as the educational institution, or parentseconomic situation,Working statusEspecially serious difficulties in life such aswelfareFor families with a recognized need for assistance社会 保障-WelfareIncluding offering etc.Independence supportConsultation becomes a specific job content[30].

However, of course, the duties and perspectives of school counselors and school advisors include "environment", while the duties and perspectives of school social workers are also "individual".careBecause they are included, the positions of both parties may overlap in performing their duties, and each other may be confused, and the staff at the site may be even more confused.[30].

If you trace the origin, in the first placeSchool counselor,School advisor,School social workerEt al.StaffIt is an externalized product after subdividing the work that has been dealt with only by itself, and after specializing each one, the purpose is to realize a more fulfilling educational consultation system and educational institution support system. .. Therefore, without confusion, clarify the duties of each position more than ever, and make sure that they are well known for effective use, and organic for each to function effectively as an expert resource. It is hoped that the education system will be further contributed by promoting such cooperation.[30][31].

Comparison between school counselors and school social workers

School counselorandSchool advisorWhen,School social workerRegarding the comparison of case correspondence with, "For children / students," which has been increasing in recent yearsAbuseTaking a fictitious case of "suspected" as an example, the main duties of both parties are summarized below and the differences are shown.[32].. However, each item example is just an overview, and the actual job content differs depending on the individual case.[33].

In the field of education, teachers say "unsanitary clothes and body", "unnatural trauma such as scratches and bruise", "attachment to meals such as school lunch", "deficiency of things prepared by home for classes and school events" "Extreme refusal to contact home / return home" "Extreme way to treat adults around" "Emotional / behavioral instability" "Increased problem behavior / delinquency tendency" "Increased late absence / school refusal tendency" When a school counselor, school adviser, or school social worker is requested to provide professional intervention by a managerial teacher such as a school principal or a teacher for a child or student who has a problem that applies to[34]
Differences between school counselors / school advisors and school social workers
School Counselor (SC) / School Advisor (SA)
* In principle, school advisors are only in charge of "main responses to faculty and staff."
【Certified psychologist/Clinical psychologist/Psychiatrist/University faculty】
School social worker (SSW)
【Social worker/Mental health workerOthers]
Main correspondence to children / students themselvesIn the home environmentHearing
Clinical psychology/PsychiatryAnalysis / consideration (psychological, developmental, etc.)
Psychological counseling(Abuse (suspicion), secondary problems, etc.)
Hearing of home environment
social welfareJudgment (life, economy, etc.)
* Psychological counseling is not specialized
Main response to parentsHearing of childcare situation
Psychological counseling (Parenting stress, Home problems, etc.)
Psychological consultation(Clinical psychology / psychiatric advice for childcare)
Hearing of childcare situation
Welfare life consultation(Economic status, employment status, etc.)
Independence supportConsultation (社会 保障,WelfareSuch)
Main response to faculty and staffPsychological consultation (clinical psychology / psychiatric advice to cases)Case meetingIntroduction of
Information from external organizationssharing
Main responses related to external organizationsBoard of educationCooperation with
child consultation centerCooperation with
SpecialtyMedical institutionPromotion of consultation
Cooperation and mediation with the Board of Education
Cooperation and mediation with child guidance center
SpecialtySocial resourcesCooperation and mediation with (including medical care)
SC[1][2], SA[25][26], SSW[29]

In addition, as aboveWhen you come into contact with a case of suspected abuse, Faculty, school counselors, school advisors, school social workers, etc.Act on Prevention of Child Abuse(Child Abuse Prevention Law) "Article 6"Notification of child abusePromptly based on paragraph 1.Welfare officeOrchild consultation centerMust be notified to[32][34][35].. However, the definition of "child" in the law is "persons under the age of 18".[35]Therefore, if the damage of a person over 18 years old is clearly suspected,injuryAs usual as an incidentPolicemenMake a report to[36].

In addition, those involved in educational institutions, including faculty and staff,Child abuseWhile being in a position to easily discover, legallyconfidentialityNormally, you must not divulge any secrets that you have learned in the course of your duties. Must not be interpreted as[35]There is a statement thatNotification of child abuse is not guilty of breach of confidentiality[37].. further,"Law concerning the protection of personal information(Personal Information Protection Law) "Article 23"Restrictions on third-party provisionParagraph 1, Item 3 states, "When it is particularly necessary to promote the sound development of children and it is difficult to obtain the consent of the person."[38]] Is specified to be excluded,Not charged with violating the Personal Information Protection Law[37].. In addition, based on Article 7 of the above-mentioned "Act on Prevention of Child Abuse (Child Abuse Prevention Act)"The person who made the notification is not identified[37][39].

Current situation and problems

Current status of mental care at each educational institution

1970 The legal system has already been put in place in the generation, and a psychological expert "school psychologistUnlike the United States, in which "" participated, in Japan, for a long time, various cases at an educational institution belong to the educational institution.StaffHas responded centrally. But,Showa period,20st centuryCompared toSchool refusalIncrease in the number of children[40], Between faculty and studentsViolenceIncreasing number of incidents[41]In addition to known social issues such as, publiclyCausal relationshipAlthough it has not been determined, the background is on-campus / on-campus.BullyingOf children, students, and students whose existence and possibility of being related to bullying are discussedsuicideNot only is there no end[42],1998 Has continued to exceed 30,000 people per year sinceSuicideOf whichAttending schoolAmong those who were of age (those under 19 years old)depressionThe current situation is that those who have the cause and motive of suicide due to the worries of "health problems" and daily "school problems" occupy the first and second places.[43].. Also, by agecause of deathBut,pubertySince then (15 to 19 years old), the top cause of death has become "suicide", and the enhancement of specialized mental care for school-aged people at educational institutions in Japan is still in the process of being enhanced.[44].

In addition,2004 Revised and enforced inChild Abuse Prevention LawAs mentioned aboveAbuseTo the child guidance center when you come in contact with a suspected casenoticeIs the peopleLegal obligationsBy being imposed as[35]In particular, at each educational institution, in finding, notifying, and responding to cases of suspected abuse, in addition to consideration for the child / student concerned, consideration for other children / students, cooperation between faculty and staff, and protection against parents For children, students, and students, such as the fact that the faculty and staff in charge are now required to have a certain level of knowledge regarding consideration for consideration and cooperation with child guidance centers.mental healthMeasures have become an urgent issue for each educational institution from a legal point of view.[37].

On the other hand, on the faculty and staff sidemental healthHas become a problem in recent years[45].. Currently, the main work performed by faculty and staff is the usual subjects of each subject.Lesson,Home roomIn addition,Division of school dutiesAssigned bySchool affairsAfter school, in addition to class and exam preparation and school affairs,Extracurricular activities,Children's association-Student council activities,Committee activityEtc., eachSpecial activityIt is necessary to act as an advisor / guidance for. further,Entrance ceremony,Graduation ceremony,Opening ceremony,Closing ceremony,Completion ceremony,Classroom visitation,Sports day-sports festival,Cultural Festival,School excursionVarious regularly in each semesterschool eventBecause of this, preparation and post-processing must be done in parallel.[45].. Moreover,Life guidance,Student guidance,Career guidance,Tripartite meetingIn addition to the need to provide individual guidance for each child, student, and student at the same time, these days,Class collapse,Small 1 problem,Medium 1 gap,Monster Children,Monster ParentWith traditional teaching experience, it is difficult to deal with it, and in some casesDevelopmental disorders,Personality disorderThe work of faculty and staff is extremely busy and difficult, such as being forced to respond to problems that require basic knowledge such as[46].. In this way, in the field of education facing various issues, faculty and staffsickThe number of employees on leave is increasing year by year[47], Of whichdepression,Adjustment disorderSuch asMental illnessBecause of the onset of illnessLeaveWho1990 In the latter half of the generation, the ratio was about 30% to 40%,2002 Over 50%,2009 In addition to 63.3% of the total number of students nationwide reaching about 5,500, suicides by school principals and other faculty members have also occurred.[47].

On the other hand,Lack of leadershipExistence ofMoralBy the lack of faculty and staffcorporal punishment,Obscene acts,Child prostitutionな ど[48][49][50][51], The faculty and staff who are originally in a position to protect children, students, and students, on the contraryPerpetratorBecome事件-ScandalIs also reported intermittently[52]As a result, there are some cases where children, students, students and parents feel distrust of faculty and staff and become psychologically unstable.[53][54]. Also,Kobe serial child killing case,Attached Ikeda small case,Sasebo small 6 girl classmate murder case,Chuo University professor stabbed case,Toride station street magic caseStarting with school sitesSchool zoneIs involved or intentionally targetedcrimeIs also occurring[55][56]In such an emergency, children / students / students, parents and faculty members, as well as those involved in the case, including local residentsAcute stress disorder,PTSD,Psychosomatic disorderEtc. may develop[57][58]It has been pointed out that especially responsive and polite mental care is required.[57][58].

Due to this social situation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology2007 , In various fieldsExpertConsists ofCouncilAt the "Conference of Research Collaborators on Educational Counseling, etc."Enhancing educational counseling for students-Creating a counseling system to raise lively children-[59]WithReportsAs aboveschool educationBased on the above issues and the current situation where problems related to children, students and students are diversifying and becoming more serious[59], Children / Students / StudentsTrouble,相 談Participation utilization of school counselor as an expert corresponding to[7]And gradually expand the school counselor business[7]We proposed again, and advocated further enhancement of mental care at each educational institution.[59].. In addition, in the same report, the duties of the school counselor are described in the past.Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Appointment RegulationsIn addition to "Psychological counseling with children / students" and "Psychological counseling for parents / faculty / staff advice / assistance" listed inACCIDENT-事件Of children / students / students and parents due to outbreaksPTSD"Emergency mental care" to prevent[7][57][58]Orstress"Mental health care for faculty and staff" to prevent employees from taking leave or scandals[7][47][48][54]It is stated that it is also expected to play a role as a bearer of[59].. In response to this, some local governments have installedDoctor,Lawyer,Clinical psychologist,Police officerParticipation of the local government school counselor along with alumni[60], The report is a guideline for future efforts when educators such as the national government, boards of education, and educational institutions utilize school counselors.[59].

Current status of effects / evaluation and utilization / placement

About the effect and evaluation after the introduction of the school counselor, and the status of utilization and placement of the school counselorCentral government agencyIs conducting various investigations. For example2005 Every timeMinistry of educationSummarized by "Survey on various problems in student guidance such as problem behaviors of students[61][62][63]According to "School counselors, etc." Was professionally instructed[61]Most of the schools answered, and the effect on school refusal was reported.[61].. In response to "Institutions where school refusal children received consultation, guidance, treatment, etc.", "Professional consultation by school counselors, etc."[62]Is the most common, and you can consult for free at each school you usually go to.hospital,child consultation centerThe school counselor was positioned as a more familiar expert[62].. In addition, in terms of the number of violent acts, the number of school refusal children, and the number of bullying cases, the number of schools with school counselors continuously assigned for two years or more is lower than the national average.[63], The preventive effect of continuous medium- to long-term involvement was reported[63].. These composition ratios are2010 The same survey announced[64]The same tabulation results were obtained in, and it was reported that the effect was established by a follow-up survey after the introduction of the school counselor.[61][62][63][64].

on the other hand,2004 Every timeMinistry of FinanceIssued by "Summary questionnaire[65]"according to,"Clinical psychologist""Psychiatrist""University faculty"" Is a qualification requirement(Regular) school counselor"Mainly doctors other than psychiatrists and prospective clinical psychologists (Professional graduate schoolSuch asClinical psychologist designated graduate school"Completed" is a qualification requirementA person equivalent to a school counselor(Associate school counselor) ”, focusing only on“ number of problem behaviors ”[65], When a "(regular) school counselor" is assigned, the occurrence situation is lower than the national average, and then a "school counselor equivalent (quasi-school counselor)" is also assigned. Points out that there are examples of municipalities with even lower outbreaks.[65].. In addition, the same questionnaire for 2010[66]Among the local governments, the local government does not clearly inform the school of the placement destination whether the person who is assigned is a "(regular) school counselor" or a "person equivalent to a school counselor (quasi-school counselor)". Pointed out that about 4%[66]In connection with this, it is also reported that about 6% of local governments think that "people who are equivalent to school counselors (quasi-school counselors)" can carry out activities equivalent to "(regular) school counselors".[66], Proposing positive utilization while clearly disseminating the distinction between "(regular) school counselor" and "similar to school counselor (quasi-school counselor)"[65][66].

In this way, the evaluation of the appropriate effect recognized by the utilization and placement of school counselors, and the major premise for that, "Ensuring third-party and externalitiesThe importance of "" is common to both ministries.[61][62][63][64][65][66], The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, which is in charge of each educational institution in the field,ethicsWhile the basic policy is to utilize "(regular) school counselors" who are more specialized from a technical point of view.[2][7],budgetThe Ministry of Finance, which has jurisdiction overPersonnel expensesWe are also proposing to use a cheap "school counselor equivalent (quasi-school counselor)" together.[66][67], There are some differences in the policies and views of the two ministries due to differences in their positions and philosophies.[2][7][66][67].

On the other hand, among the surveys on school counselors, a nationwide field survey conducted to further enhance educational counseling and student guidance was conducted.Questionnaire about educational consultation, etc.[68]There is. The questionnaire survey2006 Every time~2007 It has been implemented and compiled over time, and has 62 nationwide.Prefectures-Government-designated cityFor elementary schools, junior high schools, high schools, and boards of education (universities are hired independently)[68], Effects and evaluations after the introduction of school counselors, and soliciting answers from the status of school counselor utilization and placement to future requests, etc.needsA nationwide scale that attempted a comprehensive understanding and consideration ofMeasureThis is a reference questionnaire survey[68].. The answers and composition ratios for each question in the questionnaire survey are summarized below and shown in the table.[68].

Breakdown of survey results

Table 1: What was the percentage of consultations you received with your school counselor?
primary schoolJunior high schoolhigh school
Consultation from children / studentsR10.pngR10.pngR01.pngR01.png 21.9%G30.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png 44.4%B50 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 50.7%
Consultation from parentsR10.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.png 28.3%G10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 19.2%B10-PD.pngB03.png 12.8%
Consultation from faculty and staffR30.pngR10.pngR03.png 43.0%G30.pngG01.png 31.4%B30.pngB05.png 34.5%
Others (emergency support related to incidents, interviews with sick leave teachers, etc.)R05.pngR01.pngR01.png 6.5%G05.png 4.6%B01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 1.8%
Table 2: How do you perceive school counselors? (Select one)
primary schoolJunior high schoolhigh school
We recognize that it plays a central role in the school's counseling system.R10.pngR03.pngR01.png 13.6%G10.pngG03.pngG01.png 14.1%B10-PD.pngB10-PD.pngB03.png 22.8%
I feel that it is necessary for students and parents to easily confide their concerns.R30.pngR01.pngR01.png 31.8%G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 27.8%B10-PD.pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 14.0%
I feel that it is effective because it is positioned as an outside expert who has a different perspective from the faculty member.R30.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.png 47.7%G50.pngG03.png 53.3%B50 (1) .pngB10-PD.png 59.6%
Due to lack of communication with the school counselor
As a school, it is not always used effectively
R05.png 4.5%G01.pngG01.png 1.9%0%
Not many students consult with school counselors, etc.
I have doubts about the use of school counselors as a school
0%0%0%
More need to utilize outside experts and human resources other than school counselors0%G01.png 0.9%B01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 1.8%
OtherR01.pngR01.png 2.3%G01.pngG01.png 2.0%B01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 1.8%
Table 3: How do you think the school's educational counseling system should be enhanced? (Multiple selection)
primary schoolJunior high schoolhigh school
Establish an Education Counseling Department centered on the Education Counseling Officer (tentative name) as the same position as the Student Guidance DepartmentR10.pngR03.png 12.5%G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 28.9%B10-PD.pngB10-PD.pngB05.pngB01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 26.8%
Place a person who will play a central role in educational counseling, such as an educational counselorR50.pngR05.png 55.0%G30.pngG10.pngG05.png 45.0%B50 (1) .png 50.0%
Strengthen cooperation between teachers so that the school can work together.
As a result, information obtained through educational consultation will be shared among faculty members.
R50.pngR10.pngR05.png 65.0%G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 76.9%B50 (1) .pngB10-PD.pngB10-PD.pngB05.png 75.0%
Place or enhance school counselorsR50.pngR30.pngR03.png 82.5%G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 66.8%B50 (1) .pngB30.pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 83.9%
Collaborate with outside experts other than school counselorsR10.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.png 27.5%G10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 18.5%B10-PD.pngB05.pngB03.png 17.9%
Enhancing cooperation with the community and parents, enabling more detailed support for studentsR30.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.png 47.5%G30.pngG10.png 39.5%B10-PD.pngB10-PD.pngB05.pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 28.6%
OtherR03.png 2.5%G05.png 4.6%B05.pngB01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 7.1%
Table 4: Current work styles of school counselors
primary schoolJunior high schoolhigh school
1 times a weekR30.pngR10.pngR01.png 41.0%G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 68.1%B30.pngB05.pngB03.png 37.5%
2 times a week0%G10.pngG03.pngG01.png 13.6%B05.pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 8.9%
Others (twice or three times a month, etc.)R50.pngR05.pngR03.pngR01.png 59.0%G10.pngG05.pngG03.png 18.2%B50 (1) .pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 53.6%
Table 5: What are your thoughts on using school counselors? (Select one)
primary schoolJunior high schoolhigh schoolPrefectures / designated cities
Board of education
Working every day is desirableR10.pngR10.png 20.0%G10.pngG10.pngG05.png 25.4%B10-PD.pngB03.png 13.0%Cold10.pngC05 (1) .pngC03 (1) .pngC01 (1) .png 19.4%
Like 2 or 3 days a week, not every day
It is desirable to work multiple days a week
R50.png 50.0%G30.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 49.3%B50 (1) .png 50.0%Cold50.pngC05 (1) .png 54.8%
It is desirable to increase the working hours per day rather than the number of working daysR05.png 5.0%G05.pngG01.pngG01.png 6.9%B10-PD.pngB05.png 14.8%Cold10.pngC05 (1) .png 14.5%
Current working style is generally appropriateR10.pngR10.png 20.0%G10.pngG03.pngG01.png 14.1%B10-PD.pngB01 (1) .png 11.1%C05 (1) .png 4.8%
The consultation effect is not so much seen, and I do not feel the need so much0%G01.png 0.2%B01 (1) .pngB01 (1) .png 1.9%0%
OtherR05.png 5.0%G03.pngG01.png 4.2%B05.pngB03.pngB01 (1) .png 9.3%C05 (1) .pngC01 (1) .pngC01 (1) .png 6.5%
Table 6: What are your thoughts on the placement of school counselors? (Multiple selection)
Prefectures / designated cities
Board of education
Placed mainly in junior high schools as it is now. It is desirable to assign one person to each school as much as possibleC30 (1) .pngCold10.png 40.3%
Placed mainly in junior high schools as it is now. It is desirable to place it in an education center or base school, and one person is in charge of multiple schools.C05 (1) .pngC03 (1) .png 8.1%
As with junior high school, it is desirable to place it in elementary school as much as possible.Cold50.pngCold10.pngCold10.pngC03 (1) .png 72.6%
As with junior high school, it is desirable to place it in high school as much as possible.Cold50.pngCold10.png 59.7%
It is desirable to respond flexibly to where and how to place it in elementary school, junior high school, and high school.Cold10.pngCold10.pngC05 (1) .pngC01 (1) .png 25.8%
It is desirable to reduce the placement than the current situationC01 (1) .pngC01 (1) .png 1.6%
OtherCold10.png 9.7%

As shown in the table above, all prefectures in JapanCabinet OrderResults of on-site questionnaire survey on school counselors at each educational institution and each board of education in designated cities[68]According to the report, "consultation from faculty and staff" at the elementary school stage, and "consultation from the children / students themselves" at the junior high school / high school stage (Table 1).[68]), And functions as an "external expert with a different perspective from existing faculty and staff" (Table 2).[68]), More than 80% of the respondents requested "continuous placement" and "enhancement by expansion" in the future (Table 3).[68]),1995 Nowadays, more than 10 years have passed since the start of the business, and school counselors have become established, a certain evaluation is taken as a real feeling in the field.[68].

On the other hand, the current work styles of school counselors are "once a week", "twice a month, three times, etc.", accounting for about 1% (Table 2).[68]), Since the frequency of visits to the school is still low, "working every day" and "working multiple days a week, such as 2 days a week and 3 days a week" are desirable, and the current work style is further increased and expanded. A total of more than 1% of the respondents requested that they be asked (Table 70).[68]). In addition to the current "priority placement of junior high schools", about 60% to 70% or more of the boards of education want to place them in elementary and high schools as well as junior high schools. (Table 6[68]).

Unstable work style

The instability of the working style of school counselors as it is now has problems not only from the influence on users such as children / students / students, parents, faculty and staff, but also from the viewpoint of treatment of school counselor appointments. Deficiencies have been pointed out as being[7].. For example, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyAdvisory bodyResearch and research compiled by the "Survey and Research Collaborators' Meeting on Educational Counseling, etc."[69]According to, sometimes in educational clinical settingssuicide,Self-harm,AbuseThere are complaints of cases such aspubertySensitive back and forthDevelopmental stageOf users inlife-身体-精神-LifeIn addition to making daily work related to the core of the school, we also provide advice and assistance to parents with various values ​​and faculty and staff with various beliefs, as well as emergency mental care and preventive mental health care. Average number of school counselors included in the scope of workHourly wageIs around 5000 yen nationwide[69]At first glance, it seems that the salary is high in proportion to the high degree of specialization required.Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Appointment RegulationsOf the "8-12 hours a week" work style listed in, some local governments are still behind in the development of the utilization system, so the actual average work style is limited to "4-8 hours a week". There is a current situation[7].

Therefore, the averageMonthly salaryWhen converted, it is only about "8 to 16 yen", and for "part-time",Insurance fee-pensionSuch asEmployee Welfare,Travel expensesEtc.Expense,Sick leave-Injury and sickness allowanceSuch as社会 保障Is often not recognized[7].. Moreover,spring vacation,Summer Vacation,Winter vacationEtc. of educational institutionslong vacationAs it is impossible to work insideRemunerationIs often not paid,BonusSince there is no such thing, the total actual work is estimated to be around "35 weeks a year".[69].. That is, the average school counselorannual incomeIs "140 million yen (minimum 70 yen-maximum 210 million yen)"[7][69]In the current situationClinical psychologysystemmaster's degree,Doctor's licenseTo a job at a level where acquisition ofAppointmentin spite of,incomeIs so-calledWorking poorlevel[7][69]Therefore, it is difficult to lead a stable life just by working at one educational institution, so you may have multiple educational institutions or another.Medical institution-research InstituteAlso belong to, or private clinic / counseling roomOpeningIn parallel with this, there are many specialists who are active as school counselors.

However, the fact that the unstable work style has been successful is that the frequency of visits to the school is low, which makes it difficult for users such as children, students, students, parents, and other faculty members to become familiar with each other. "Ensuring third-party and externalitiesBecause there is an aspect that supports[7], When increasing / expanding work styles or making full-time employees, instead of simply doing them mechanically,Third party""ExternalityWith business considerations and other faculty and staff so that we can continue to secureCommon understandingIs especially needed[7].

Confusion over the name

School counselorBecause of the name, "School"" PartDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularTranslated into Japanese, "Our TeamFrom the part of "Psychologist", And combine the two with"School counselor"= May be misunderstood as" school psychologist ". surely"School psychologistThe qualification itself exists in Japan and is highly specialized, including the completion of graduate school courses as part of the requirements.Psychologist qualificationIn Although,Education staff licenseOwned orStaffDue to the qualification acquisition conditions that require activity experience, for qualified school psychologistsTeacherIncumbents and faculty membersOBIn the first place, it is different from the existing staff membersThird party""ExternalityBeing a psychologist with ""Ensuring third-party and externalitiesAsethicsIs considered to be a major premiseMinistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Appointment RegulationsIn, school psychologists are positioned as one of the "similar to school counselors (quasi-school counselors)".[24].. In addition, "a person equivalent to a school counselor (quasi-school counselor)" is a regularSchool counselor qualification requirementsAdvanced psychology to meetExpertIt may be appointed when rationality is recognized for reasons such as in areas where there are few human resources.[24], "A person equivalent to a school counselor (quasi-school counselor)" may also refer to himself as a school counselor in a broad sense for convenience.

In addition, Japanese school counselors said in the United States, "school psychologistCorresponds to. Also in Americaschool counselorThere is a job type, but the work is done in Japan.Career counselorClose to. On the other hand, the above "school psychologist" qualificationEnglishNotation is "school psychologist[70]It is easy to be confused.

In addition, cases in the United States etc. are for the general public in JapanNews report-引用When it is done, the name "school counselor" is used as a general translation of "school psychologist," "school counselor," "guidance counselor," etc.[71][72].. For example, an American pop singerLady Gaga Born this way foundationIt became an opportunity to establishJamey RodemeyerIn the case of suicide, "guidance counselor" was reported as a "school counselor" in line with the Japanese system.[71][72][73][74].

footnote

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