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👶 | Gusto's "Fami Drink" has started, which you can easily enjoy with your family or alone!


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Gusto's "Fami Drink" has started, which you can easily enjoy with your family or alone!

 
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You can enjoy the special red and white wines jointly developed with the representative winery of Puglia at a reasonable price.
 

Gust, operated by Skylark Restaurants, will expand its snacks and alcohol menu from October 10st (Thursday). → Continue reading

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White wine

White wine(Shiro wine) orWhite wineIt is,Straw color,Yellow-green, ま た はYellow goldhaveWineIs[1]..Of any color skinGrapeTo remove the uncolored flesh of the flesh usingAlcohol fermentationManufactured by letting.White wine has been around for at least 2500 years.

The wide variety of white wines used品種 ド ウ 品種, Winemaking methods, andsugarIt is derived from the fact that the ratio of the remaining amount of is diverse.White wine is mainlyChardonnay,Sauvignon,RieslingSuch,greenor黄色 OfwhiteMade from grapes.Also, it is not coloredfruit juiceYou can also make white wine from grapes with colored peels by using.For example, black grapesPinot NoirIs whiteChampagneIt is commonly used in the manufacture of.

Of the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common.Dry wine completely removes sugar in the juicefermentationMade by letting it have more or less aroma and stimulus.on the other hand,sweet wineIs allGlucose ethanolIt is produced by stopping fermentation before it is converted toFortified wineThere is a method called (mutage, France: mutage).As a way to increase the sugar content originally contained in the juice, overripening on the vines, raisins (pastariage),Noble rotThere is the use of sugar supplement.Mostly whitesparkling wineWas produced by fermentationcarbon dioxide gasIs dissolved in wine, and carbon dioxide gas foams when the bottle is opened.

White wine before mealsaperitif,DessertWith or during meals (Table wine) Is often drunk.White wine was the mainRed wineCompared to, both style and taste are considered refreshing and light.in addition,acidity,fragranceYou can soften the meat(English edition (Meatsoup stockIt is often used when cooking because it can be used as a cooking method to make sauce by adding wine to.

History

Ancient times

The traces of the oldest wine in the world are today(I.e.So, a record of 7500 years ago has been discovered[2]. But,archeologyEven as a result of the excavation, it was not possible to determine when wine production began.In epigraphy,Middle EastThe existence of wine is reported.Early wines were in the "plateau area" (AnatoliaアルメニアProduced at the mountain border), especially3000 BCFrom aroundMesopotamiaWas imported into.Hattusa OfClay plateFor wineHittiteWith the word "wiyana"SumerianIn "Gestin (GEŠTIN) ",AkkadianIn "Karanu (karânu) "Is devoted to the word[N 1]..Red (red wine)SA5 GEŠTIN[N 2], Light wine (probably white wine)KÙ.BAB BARGE ŠTIN, Good wineDUG.GAGE ŠTIN, Wine with honeyLÀ LGEŠTIN, New wineGIBIL, Sour wineGETIN EMSAExpressed as[3][4].

The Ancient GreekSo wineHippocratesWas born460 BCBy the time it was already in development and use, he frequently prescribed wine as a medicine to his patients. "White wine" and "bitter white wine" are used for his treatment[b 1], Shows the diversity of wine production at that time.

Ancient Roman era,GreekWine production was carried out for a long time, using the viticulture method cultivated by the company as an example, and the production included white wine.RichRoman aristocratThey held a grand banquet, saying that the cost of meals was a symbol of prestige.Wine was a typical example of expensive food.The richest citizensGulf of NaplesGorgeousVillaWas built, but it was a place where viticulture has been practiced since the Greeks brought it in.Sweet white wine made from the ancient grape aminuMulled wineMade to drink as.CurrentlyMadeira wineAlso similar[b 2].Roman EmpireAs the Romans conquered the northern region, the Romans increased viticulture and produced light, unsweetened wines.地中海Reaching the northern limit of varieties spurred the search for new wild varieties adapted to the northern regions.As an example, drinkable water was rarely available,Rhine RiverThanks to the vines planted on the banks ofRoman armyGot a safe drink.Wine was drunk cold in the summer and warm in the winter, but this practice is21st centuryIs still going on[b 3].

中 世

The wine merchantWestern Roman EmpireViticulture has plummeted, not surviving its destruction.Germanic ThebeerHe liked to drink and found no value in the wine trade.Viking 大西洋The decline in viticulture became more serious when the route was divided.In the southIslamPeopleHoly warAnd because they are attackingLanguedoc,Provence,South Italy,Douro ValleyThen the population has decreased.People areslaveThey were harassed or escaped from the threat.

Knowledge of viticulture cultureCatholic churchHas been protected by.WineMassNecessary for the celebration ofMonkPlants vines even in high latitudes,ConventThe territory of was increasing.Wine has long been consumed in production areas due to its difficulty in transportation and storage.The wine trade revived with the enrichment of aristocrats and high-ranking clergy, as the "art on the table" reflected the fame of the master, as did the Romans.[b 4].

River tradeWas very important in the development of the vineyards.Germanic countries with the RhineDanube river OfWater transportationI was able to export the products with the benefit of.Karl the GreatIs his code, which includes a set of rules regarding viticulture in all regions (British: Capitulare de villis) Was enacted to support this growth.Around this timeGermanyオーストリアIt was an era when the white wine culture developed significantly. ..Central EuropeVineyard is 10haReached1990 eraHad three and a half times the area of[a 1].13st centuryFrom, the merchants were "Vinum Francium", a wine for wealthy aristocrats vinum francium (FrankWine) and "Vinum Hannikam" drunk by the masses vinum hunicum (Huns(Wine) was distinguished.Late medievalRiesling[a 2]Silvaner[a 3] Was recognized as a variety.

Part of Europe's trade took place by sea along the Atlantic coast.Englishman,Dutch,andScandinavianFor people's wine demandBordeauxからLa RochelleGrape planting was prevalent in many areas.Very few dry white wines were produced for export from La Rochelle.[b 5]..On the other hand, in BordeauxGaronne riverIt mainly exported wine from the hinterland along the coast.17st centuryToCharente riverWinemaking was brought to the coast ofCharantWhite winecognacSpread as[5].. At the same time NetherlandsThe dry white wine that was popular inNantesAround the harbor,Loire Valley OfMuscadetAOCAnd Gro Plan AOC (formerlyVdqs) Was made.With the Loire ValleyFranceThe vineyards in the southwestLoire RiverGaronne riverThe sales network was built by the benefit of water transportation.

On the Mediterranean coastCrusaderWas in a rivalryヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アGenoaBoth republics have been greatly enriched.Due to the supply of the rich Frankish lord's army, these republicsGreeceProviding wine from the region.Exported a lot of white wineMonemvasiaThe harborMalvasiaThe name is left in the variety of[b 6]..CrusadersMuscatI also found the wine of.Upon returning to the country, royalty and wealthy aristocrats rushed to buy the sweet wines they enjoyed in the east.They areLanguedoc-Roussillon,スペインIt was made in the vineyard of.These winesAlcohol degreeIs highNorthern EuropeIt was easy to trade because it was well preserved even during the long journey to. ..

The early modern period

1453 ,Ottoman Empire TheConstantinopleThe position of the Venetian and Genoese deteriorated when they possessed.Wine trade in the eastern Mediterranean and northern Europe fell sharply[b 7]..At the same timeスペイン TheReconquistaWas completed, replacing Mediterranean wines with domestic ones, especially for British and Dutch consumers.Sanlucar de BarramedaAt the harbor, todaySherryA large amount of white wine, which is the source of the wine, has begun to be exported.This wine is called "sack" andEnglandIt was all the rage.High hostility between the two countries (1588 ToArmada naval battleDespite the fact that the British-Netherlands Allied Forces have defeated the Spanish Armada), trade continued and sometimes stolen goods were provided by pirates even if they could not be purchased.From the Spanish port, as many as 500-40,000 wines were exported to England and the Netherlands in 60,000 liter barrels each year.[b 8] This amount of 3000kL is equivalent to two-thirds of the current production.

16st centuryFor the first time inEuropean grapeWas brought to the Americasメキシコ,ペルー,ボリビア,アルゼンチン[6],チリWas planted in.In addition to this, there were indigenous grapes cultivated in Mexico, but thisPre-Columbian periodThe grapes were so sour that they were not suitable for wine production and were used to make a fruit and honey sweetened drink called achachul.[7].

Little Ice AgeWas, so to speak, a precursor to ruin for viticulture in the north.GrapesGermanyNorthern andBadenThe altitude of the limit of viticulture has dropped to 220 meters.Hans-Jürgen Otto said, "All vineyards have suffered and the vineyards have diminished."[8]..Viticulture is no longer seen in England[9]..Black grapes are not fully colored when immature and immatureTanninWhite grapes are preferred in vineyards where the grapes ripen slowly, as white grapes are a wine that can be drunk with a little acidity, even if they are not fully ripe. Was cultivated in.Fermentation may stop prematurely in the cold winter, from thereChampagneThe process of secondary fermentation was discovered[10].

Rare wines became popular as part of the masses became richer.Such a phenomenon occurs in EnglandSherryThe same thing happened in Central Europe, as was seen in the development of.In white grapesNoble rotHas a positive effect around 1650ハンガリーFound inTokaji wineBecame a factor in the development of[b 9]..Of wine criticsHugh Johnson"Three centuries ago Tokaji was one of the sweetest wines in the world. It has been passed down through many years of winemaking tradition.[b 10].. ".The use of specially overripe grapes is a trade secretWineryUndergroundCellarAging in the area also contributed to the improvement of quality, but the period was also kept secret.Tokaji wineHabsburg houseI was able to trade on favorable terms, partly because I was praised by.Attempts to imitate were all wasted, and the use of noble rot was kept secret. 120 years later, on the steep banks of the Rhine, a very late harvest method was used.SauternesBut,1836 To(English editionIt was shown that sweet wine can be made in the same way.These very late-picked grapes produced very expensive wines that had been barrel-aged for years at the time.[b 11].

In other areas, profitable discoveries have been made.That is, the discovery by Dom Pérignon, the founder of the legendary champagne.[b 12]..In the northern vineyards, he made great wines, even though it was thought that the vines would not ripen or color enough, as he caused an enthusiasm for wines made in the land of Champagne. is there.

The trend of drinking cheap dry white wine18st centuryToParisIt started with.The people of Parisconsumption taxIt was customary to go outside the city walls and drink wine on the producer's premises to avoid the problems.A store like an izakaya opened along the riverGuinguetteIt was called (France: Guinguettes).For this reason, the wines served there have also come to be called "guinguet".this isSeine river,Marne RiverIt was a wine made in the hills along the coast and had a strong acidity, but it could not be transported to other areas due to the transportation environment at that time.[11].

modern

18st centuryMade inChampagneSpread worldwide in the next century.ChampagnebottleAlthough it had to be placed in the wine and became extremely expensive, European royalty used this wine as a fashionable rendition of their court.Wine critic Hugh Johnson admits that champagne played an important diplomatic role[b 13].Talelan TheVienna conferenceI prepared this wine at the negotiation table so that I could relax my negotiating partner during the discussion.1815 OfRussian armybyChampagneSparkling wine due to local occupationロシアSpread to the aristocrats of.Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin (Veuve means widow) said, "I'll pay tomorrow for what they drank today," and booked her wine for the guests.[b 14].

ガ ラ スIndustry, especiallycoalProgressed by the use ofGlass bottleThe use of has become popular.Sparkling wine production has increased dramatically,AmericaSpread to.Sparkling wine is now produced industrially,ChampagneAlthough it was booming in other areas, champagne's reputation was no longer good.What made champagne a commercial leapIndustrial revolutionThis is a gift ofMiddle classBecame wealthy and able to buy champagne[b 15].

19st century,PhylloxeraIt was the golden age of wine before it became widespread.The middle class, enriched by the Industrial Revolution, became customers of high-quality wines, creating a huge market for cheap wines mass-produced by factory workers migrating from rural areas.A famous example of white wine is German viticulture.French First EmpireGerman winemakers were experiencing freedom under the French occupation of the country, and even after that貴族,clergymanCould not regain the vineyard that was robbed[b 16]..The late harvest method was widespread, with more or less sweet wines to balance the strong acidity. In 1872, the Geisenheim University Grape Breeding Institute was founded, where mating was attempted in a wide variety of combinations and became the source of new varieties.The most well-known varieties born here areMüller ThurgauIs[b 17]..At the same timeスイス TheLake lemanVineyards that mainly produce white wine have been cultivated along the coast.

20st centuryViticulture was booming in a country where winemaking was previously unknown.However, when the temperature during fermentation was high, the wine quality became unstable.[b 18]..Using a larger fermenter causes problems during fermentation.yeastGenerates heat, so in a large fermenter where heat does not easily escapemicroorganismThe temperature exceeds 35 ° C, which reduces the activity of.Then fermentation slows down and at worst stops.In that case, after cooling the wine, it is necessary to add new yeast to resume fermentation, which not only adversely affects the aroma of the wine, but alsoLactic acid bacteriaThere is also a risk of contamination.CaliforniaThen, the temperature control technology during fermentation has been developed.This technique was revolutionary in the production of white wine.European wines at the time were simply made by crushing grapes[b 19]On the contrary, the wines made using this technique have become very fruity, refreshing and lively.1960 から1990 In the meantime, these winemaking methods were also brought to Europe, and the use of refrigeration equipment is now widely used in most regions where white wine is produced.

Japanese History

JapanThe first record of wine being introduced toGohoin"so,1483 (文明15 years),KanpakuKonoe FamilyThere is a description that the person drank wine, which is probably the oldest record, but it is unknown whether it is white or red.The first record of winemaking in Japan isEdo PeriodEarly1628 ,BuzenOgura domainLord'sTadatoshi HosokawaIs a description that ordered the vassal Taroemon Ueda to make wine.[12]..In recent research, it was native to JapanYama grapeHowever, it is known that black soybeans with yeast attached were added because the sugar content was low.[13] However, it is unknown whether this wine was white or red.But thenIsolationThe culture of winemaking did not take root in Japan due to policies.

It was in Japan that wine production began in earnest.Meiji EraTo enter the,CivilizationThis is due to the fact that Western-style culture has been actively adopted in response.Prior to thisYamanashi(OldKai country) Then already in the latter half of the Edo periodKatsunuma Village(KoshuIn some areas of Katsunuma Town)Commodity cropAsKoshu grapesWas cultivated mainly for raw consumption.Based on these at the end of the Edo periodKofuIt is said that the pioneering of modern Japanese winemaking was the joint investment of two people, Takuma Yamada and Norihisa Takuma, who live in Japan.[14]..Koshu is a grape variety for white wine, and is currently considered to be the oldest record of white wine production in Japan.

after that,Aquaculture industryWinemaking is encouraged in Yamanashi Prefecture as part of the policy1877 (Meiji 10) "Dainippon Yamanashi Wine Company" was established.Initially, American grape varieties centered on Yamanashi (mainly as white wine varieties)DelawareAnd, as a red wine variety), it was mainly cultivated, but after that, European varieties with better taste were introduced nationwide by national policy.However, the introduction of European varieties caused the devastation of farmland due to the parasitized phylloxera infection, and in 1885 (Meiji 18), the history of Japanese wine production was destroyed.Only Yamanashi Prefecture, which was based on American species at the time, was able to escape from this disaster, which is the cornerstone of today's growth into the most rooted region of winemaking culture. In March 1939 (Showa 14)Excise taxHowever, on March 1940, 15 (Showa 3)Liquor tax law (Enforcement rules for fruit wine) was promulgated, and the control of sake brewing gradually advanced.Homebrewing without notification / approval is "dark sake (Moonshine) ”And became obsolete[14].

After the war, winemaking of a certain scale was resumed for consumer use in areas suitable for production, but imported juice andImported wineDomestic wine was said to be developing, and its reputation was low, with many parts relying on it and domestic demand not growing.At first, the sourness and astringency of wine were not accepted at all as a Japanese preference, and for a long time sweet wine with added sugar such as honey was the mainstream.Suntoryof"Akadama Port WineIt was a sweet fruit liquor such as "Hachibudo liquor".

Then in 1964Tokyo Olympics And 1970Osaka Expo As a result, public awareness of authentic wine increased and consumption increased.Domestic wineries have adopted a hedge-type cultivation method that follows Europe, and have begun cultivating new European grape varieties that are resistant to pests. Until the early 1990s, the astringency of red wine was not accepted by the Japanese, so the proportion of white wine accounted for two to three times that of red wine, but in 2, the health benefits of wine polyphenols became a hot topic. The red wine boom occurred, and in 3 there was a double difference in consumption, with 1997% red wine and 1998% white wine.[15]..After that, the ratio of white wine and rosé wine increased, and now the ratio of white and red has returned to almost the same level.[16].. OtherWineImportTariffDemand for wine continues to grow, although there is a temporary increase and decrease due to factors such as the easing of wine and the boom due to the diversification of food culture.[16].

In recent years, wine grown purely in Japan has also been produced, and its international reputation is increasing. From 2002, Yamanashi Prefecture will take the lead in targeting "Japanese wine made using 100% domestic grapes".Domestic wine competition(Renamed to Japan Wine Competition from 2015) has begun.

Geographical distribution

製造

Climatic zone

White wines are produced in many wine-producing countries, but since white grapes do not extract tannins during squeezing, tannin maturity does not matter and requires less heat to ripen than red grapes. I'm done.In addition, the balance of taste is based on the remarkable freshness due to the acidity.The grapes for the production of dry white wine are harvested shortly before they are fully ripe.Due to these conditions, dry white wines can also be produced in more northern or mountainous vineyards.

In Europe, Swiss vineyards (more than 50% of the production area is white vines),LuxembourgVineyards (93% of production areas are white[17]), German vineyards (2006 63.1% of the production area of[18]), Mainly white wine production.FranceSo most white wines are in the northern half (Alsace,Jura, Champagne, Loire Valley).スペインSo in contrastCastile-La ManchaOccupies 50% of the Spanish vineyards, but this hot and vast area mainly produces white wine.CataloniaMany white grapes are produced in rural areasHippoIt transforms into a sparkling wine called.The production area of ​​hippopotamus is 65,600ha in total production area in Catalonia.[19] Of 45,000ha[20] Occupy

Both white and red wines are developing in the Americas, some of which are now recognized worldwide.カナダIs clearly a disadvantageous climate for wine production,Ice wineAs for it, excellent things are produced.Canada is the largest ice wine producer in the world[21].

White wine is also produced in the warm southern regions, but the production rate is low.Also made around the MediterraneanMusca,Madeira,MarsalaAnd so on, Van de Liqueur and Van Do Naturel[N 3] Fortified wine (English: fortified wine, French: vin muté)[22] Is common.

Geological zone

AgronomistClaude & Lydia Bourguignon[23] According to red wineLimestoneWhite wine is well suited for soils based onMetamorphic rocks(Alsace,Mosel,Anjou) AndVolcanic rock(With HungaryEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe highest quality soil is produced in Tokaji.

In addition, white wine is available in the white wine region of Champagne.Chassagne-Montrachet OfDiatomaceous earthAlso produced on land with calcareous soil, such as soil with limestone beneath the topsoil of[24], These are among the most famous wines in the world.

消费

Per capita ratio of white wine in countries that consume more than 7 liters of wine per year
Countryratio(%)
World average40.6%[25]
Australian flag Australia60%
Czech flag チ ェ コ60%
New Zealand flag New Zealand56%
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg53%
Finnish flag フィンランド50%
British flag The United Kingdom47%
Austrian flag オーストリア46.9%
Irish flag アイルランド44%
United States flag America40%
German flag Germany39.8%
Argentina flag アルゼンチン39%
Italian flag イタリア37%
Swedish flag スウェーデン36%
Canadian flag カナダ35.1%
Swiss flag スイス31%
Dutch flag  Netherlands30%
Russian flag ロシア30%
Belgian flag ベルギー28.4%
Spanish flag スペイン28%
Danish flag デンマーク27%
Norway flag ノルウェー25.1%
Chilean flag チリ25%
Portugal flag Portugal25%
French flag France21%[26]
Japanese flag Japan46%[16]

* Annual consumption per capita in Japan is 3.2L[27].

品種 ド ウ 品種

World white wine grape varieties

Many varieties of grape varieties are used to develop white wines.Some of them have been well received, partly due to marketing efforts.In particular, the following three types are "three major white wine grape varieties"[28][29] Sometimes called.

  • Chardonnay :BurgundyIt is a native variety, and for a long time here, the village name AOC and Premier Cru (first-class field),Grand CruIt has been sold under names such as (Limited Express Field).At the same time, it has expanded to new production areas, and wine is sold under the name of the grape variety.Used for both sparkling and still wines.Typically, it has a richer, richer citrus flavor compared to other white wines.What is this wine?FishCooking家禽It is common to combine it with food.It's from France to the United States,Australia,South AfricaSince high quality wines can be produced in regions with a very wide range of climates and geology, including Japan, the distribution is widespread all over the world.[30].
  • Sauvignon Blanc : From central FranceBordeauxIt is the birthplace of the vineyards and extends from the southwest to the Loire Valley.Anglo-SaxonDue to the attention of consumers in the United States, this varietyAustralia,New Zealand, Has also been cultivated in South Africa.Characterized by the aroma of vegetables and minerals[a 4]It tends to be a little flat and lack fruity.As a remarkable scent,Green apple,Pear,Goose berryFrom sour blue fruits such asmelon,mango,BlackcurrantSuch astropical fruitsThere are various things up to.Typically,seafood, Poultry dishes, paired with salads.
  • Riesling : A variety originating in the region that spans Germany, Alsace and Switzerland.Reduce yield,Continental climateCan be cultivated in various soils to produce high quality wines.[a 5]..This variety is much lighter than other white wines and is typicallyGreen appleHas the aroma of.The dishes that are generally considered to be compatible with Riesling are fish, chicken and pork.[31].

In addition, typical varieties are as follows.

  • Muscat : A group of varieties with a unique scent (writer Pierre Galet)[32] According to 150 or more).It is typically cultivated in Italy and Austria and has a sweet and fruity taste.It is said that it is best to drink only wine, not with meals.
  • Chenin Blanc : FrenchLoire ValleyThe grapes are also cultivated in South Africa.Depending on the soil, it produces a variety of wines, from very fruity wines to sometimes mineral wines, from dry wines to sweet wines.It is a variety suitable for long-term aging and can also be used for noble rot wine.[a 6].
  • Semillon : Bordeaux vineyard origin, Bordeaux and because of its fragile natureBergeracUsed as a major variety in sweet wines[a 7].FIGHas a strong scent characteristic likeBerryOften combined with Sauvignon Blanc to create a flavor like[33].
  • Trebbiano BiancoOrUni Blanc : It is an Italian grape variety and becomes a neutral wine.Usually in FrancedistillationAnd cognacArmagnacWines of this variety are used to produce[a 8].
  • Viognier : FrenchRhone ValleyWith grapes2000 eraIs planted in California.Produces very fruity and complex wines[a 9].
  • Muscadet: Also known as Melon de Bourgogne, native to Burgundy, it is now cultivated exclusively in the Nante region of the lower Loire basin.The sur-lee method of aging with starch is often used, resulting in a light white wine.[28].
  • (English edition: Cultivated in Burgundy,BouzeronNot designated as an AOC outside the village[34]..It is a variety with extremely strong acidity.[35],Cocktails OfkeelOften used for[28].
  • Silvaner: In addition to being widely cultivated in Germany, it is also cultivated under the name Silvaner in the Alsace region of France.[35]..It is said to have a smoky scent[28].
  • Albarinho: Cultivated in the western coastal areas of Spain and Portugal.Produces a light and dry wine with citrus and iodine aromas[35].

In addition, some white wine varieties have a lightly colored skin.

  • Gewürztraminer : This grapepinkIt has a colored rind, but the wine brewed is white.Typically with pink flowersLycheeA very aromatic grape with an aroma reminiscent of[36].Japan AlpsIt is cultivated everywhere.French varietiesTraminerIs a cultivar with a rich fragrance (GermanAnd gewürzt said "spices"Meaning).
  • Pinot Gris OrPino Grigio: Italianヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アIt is widely planted in rural areas.The color of the grapesbrassThere is variation from color to light pink.In Italy, it typically has a refreshing and fruity flavor and can be paired with a variety of meals.In contrast, many wines from Alsace, France, are full-bodied and complex.[28].
  • Pinot Noir : Black grapes commonly used for brewing red wine, but may be used for white wine in sparkling wines such as champagne, Italian Franciacorta and Spanish hippopotamus.In Champagne it is a variant of Pinot Noir(English editionIs also used[34][37].

Japanese white wine grape varieties

In Japan, white wine is produced in several varieties, including those endemic to Japan. ::

  • Koshu : European grapeIt belongs to, but it is unknown when it was introduced to Japan.It is a variety unique to Yamanashi prefecture, and more than 95% is produced in Yamanashi prefecture.[16]..It is a gray grape with a mauve to shrimp brown skin.Originally for raw consumption, it has come to be used for brewing with the development of Japanese winemaking.It is a slightly pink liquid color with no distinctive acidity and aroma.
  • Niagara  : A grape variety native to the United States.1893 It was introduced to Japan in (Meiji 26).Mostly edible raw, produced in Nagano, Hokkaido, Yamagata, etc.[16]..Strong Foxy flavor[38]..Small grains, rich in juice and tasty[39].
  • Delaware : A grape variety native to the United States.1872 It was introduced to Japan in (Meiji 5).Mainly produced in Yamagata and Yamanashi prefectures[16]..The grains are small and the aroma is modest, but because of the rich juice and high sugar content[39]Suitable for sweet and young wines[38].

Ingredients of grapes and must

stem

Stems are herbaceous branches that support the fruits of grapes.It contains about 80% water and is 3% solublemineral (Half of thempotassium)andPolyphenolEtc.Polyphenols are mainly tannins,Bitternessastringency (Astringent) Causes[40]..In the production of white wine, the stems do not contain useful parts.MoistureMust[N 4] This is because the presence of tannins is not desirable as well as diluting.For this reason, the stems are removed by shaking or squeezing the grapes immediately after harvesting.[41].

Grape fruit

The fruit of the grape is the skin, the pulp,seedConsists of.Seeds are hard and make up 2-5% of the total fruit weight.Seeds are 25-45% water, 34-36%carbohydrate, 13-20%fat (Grape seed oil), 4-6% tannins, 4-6.5%protein, 2-4% minerals, and 1%fatty acidincluding[42]..Since the seeds are removed during pressing, they play no particular role in the brewing of white wine.Nor is there enough pressure to extract the seed components during squeezing.

The skin accounts for 6-12% by weight of the whole fruit.The rind is a waxy protective substance containing yeast that gives a matting effect to the color of grapes and is a factor in fermentation.ブ ル ー ムThe surface is coated with.Grape skins also contain volatile compounds.These are the causative agents of the aroma of grapes and are called "precursors of aroma" because they change to the aroma components of wine during fermentation.In red grapes, this layer contains anthocyanins or bright to magenta pigments.To produce white wine from red grapes, it is necessary to avoid maceration (soaking) or squeezing the harvest too hard to avoid elution of anthocyanins in the grape juice.On the skincellulose, InsolublePectin,protein,Organic acid (citric acid,Malic acid,Tartaric acid) Is included a lot.Sauvignon Blanc B grape skinpHIt shows about 4.15.It also contains 2-3% tannins[42].

The pulp of grapes is the most important part of winemaking, accounting for 75-85% of the total weight of the fruit.The pulp is a major component of wine and is the part with the highest proportion of liquid.The scent component is much less than the skin.The flesh is very thinCell wallIt consists of large polygonal cells with, and the juice inside leaks out of the cells with a small pressure.Most of the pulp of grapes is water.Organic components are fermentation-related sugars (1-170 g per liter for dry wine, 230-1 g or more per liter for sweet wine) and organic acids, especially malic acid and tartaric acid.[42]..Acids are more abundant in the center of the fruit, while sugars are present in higher concentrations on the outside.The location-specific distribution of sugars, acids and inorganic compounds in the fruit is utilized during squeezing, especially in the production of champagne.In the squeezing process, the juice obtained first is cuvee, then the first and second tailles, and finally the rebeches, which are of insufficient quality to produce AOC wines. ) Is separated.

fruit juice

In the case of white winemaking, the juice used is simply grapes squeezed by pressure.juice.

Sugar

SugarsphotosynthesisIt is a carbohydrate derived from.sucroseIs made in the leaves and flows into the body of the plant, whereglucoseFructoseDisassembled into[43]..And as the grapes mature, they accumulate in the fruit.Many different sugars coexist, but the most common are glucose and fructose, which are converted to alcohol during anaerobic fermentation of yeast.These two sugars are present in exactly the same amount[42]..To confirm the completion of fermentation, chemical analysis (glucose and fructoseReducing sugarBecauseFehling's reagentReacts with an alkaline copper solution called),酵素Law, orInfrared spectroscopyThere is a method of quantitative analysis.

Other sugars are not fermentable at all.Non-fermentable sugars after yeast consumes sugar during fermentation (not used by yeast for fermentationArabinoseandXylose)) The amount is 0.5-1.7 g / L.Sugars play a role in balancing taste, such as reducing irritation caused by acids and alcohol.[44].

Organic acid

The organic acids contained in wine are mainly malic acid and tartaric acid.Tartaric acid is a characteristic derived from grapes.The content in the leaves is 5-7 g / L.Malic acid is found in immature green grapes, the content of which decreases with maturity and is 2-7 g / L at harvest.The content varies widely depending on the variety and soil, and the content is low in hot climates because decomposition proceeds at high temperatures.[45].. Other,citric acid,Ascorbic acid,α-ketoglutaric acid,Fumaric acid,Galacturonic acid,Coumaric acidIt contains a small amount of many acids such as.Fluctuations in these amounts change the pH of the juice.Of white wineMustIs generally more acidic than red grape must because the grapes are not very mature.

vitamin

Vitamin C(Ascorbic acid) is present in grapes and is contained in 1 mg per liter of must.Vitamin C has the effect of preventing the oxidation of fruit juice.Hydrogen peroxide is produced in the presence of oxygen, but this reaction deprives the enzymes in the juice of oxygen, which prevents the wine from oxidizing.1962 Since then, the addition of vitamin C during bottling for the purpose of stabilizing wine has been permitted up to a maximum of 15 g / hL. Experiments in the late 2000s attempted to establish a method for adding vitamin C to fresh grape fruits and juices.[46].

Vitamin B1(Thiamine) is present at a concentration of 0.2-0.5 mg / L.This vitamin is essential for reliable alcoholic fermentation by maintaining proper yeast growth.In healthy grape juice, naturally occurring amounts are sufficient for yeast.On the other hand, when the crop is unhealthy due to Botrytis cinerea, this vitamin is decomposed, and wine producers often add thiamine to ensure that the juice is fermented without problems.The addition of thiamine helps to complete the fermentation properly, as yeast works only in a limited range when the juice is very clear or the fermentation temperature is low.In France, the amount added is limited to 30 mg / hL by law[47].

mineral

The juice also contains minerals.sodium,potassium,magnesiumIs the most common.Potassium andcalciumMay form salts with tartaric acid, depending on the pH of the winePotassium tartrateAnd neutralCalcium tartrateTo form.Therefore, if these solubilities are exceeded, precipitation will occur and the acidity of the juice will decrease.[48]..In warmer southern regions, which tend to be acid deficient, it can also cause an extra decrease in acidity.

Winemaking

White wine is made from white or black grapes (however, the color of the flesh must be white, and grapes called Teinturier (French: Teinturier, meaning colored juice) with colored flesh cannot be used) ..Once harvested, the grapes are squeezed and only the juice is extracted.The juice is placed in a tank for fermentation, where the yeast present in the grapes converts the sugars into alcohol.

Grape harvest

How mature the grapes are depends on what the final product, the wine, looks like.For sweet white wines, sugar content is an important criterion, whether fortified or not.For dry white wines, the ripeness is technically calculated and the fruits are harvested just before the sugar content is fully ripe (usually 8 days before).[49]..Harvesting at this point optimizes the balance between sugar content and acidity.Moreover, if the acidity is low, the resulting wine will be too alcoholic and dull.The scent also loses its freshness and vividness.

Traditionally hand-picked whole bunches are not always of good quality, but for economic reasons there are more and more cases of doing the same with grape harvesters.[49]..Grapes are perishable and can be quickly shipped to the brewery[49]Or, it is necessary to prevent oxidation.If the transportation time between the vineyard and the brewery is long, refrigerate the harvest andnitrogenordry iceTreatments that prevent oxygen from being exposed may also be performed using[50].

On the other hand, with sweet wines, in order to achieve the optimum harvest, only the bunches where the fruits have reached the optimum ripeness or are affected by the noble rot must be picked, and hand-picking is possible. It is necessary and skill is required for the picker ((English editionin the case of).Hand-picking is recommended for sparkling wines and is essential when making white wines from grapes with colored peels.[49].

Pre-fermentation adjustment

The first step in processing grapes at a winery is to separate the juice needed for brewing from the unwanted parts.[49]..The process that continues from here greatly affects the quality of the resulting wine.The bunch of grapes is usually shaken and crushed.Moderate crushing causes the fruit to burst and release juice and pulp (when producing white wine from black grapes, premature crushing of the fruit causes the must to color, so this step can be used. Absent).Separating the stem from the bunch of grapes by shaking or de-stemming can prevent the wine from smelling grass during squeezing.The skin is not crushed and the juice remains clear yellow.

If the quality of the grapes is good, soak the white grape skin in the juice (skin contact)[51] It can be performed.When maceration is performed before fermentation, temperature control is generally performed to delay the start of fermentation.Maceration is mainly performed to extract more aromas and their precursors that are unique to the grape varieties contained in the skin.colloid(bigPectinThe lower the proportion of the type molecule and the potential for wine aging, the lower the acidity.For optimal execution of maceration, complete de-stemming, gentle crushing, and prevention of juice oxidationSulfurous acidIt is necessary to add salt.The time of maceration depends on the grape variety, maceration temperature, grape maturity, and soil properties.[52] But typically at 18 ° C for 5-18 hours[53]..Wine produced using this methodSkin contact wineSometimes called.

The crushed and de-stemmed harvest is then squeezed.The method of squeezing also potentially affects the quality of the wine.1980 eraSince then, pneumatic squeezing has been improved, working in an airtight state and finely controlling the pressure so that the juice can be extracted without damaging the grapes.[54].moût de goutte (Mu de Gut, Must's Drop) refers to the juice that naturally flows from the crushed fruit before it is squeezed (while heading for squeezing) under its own weight.By crushing the grapes in advance, the ratio of Mu de Gut increases, and by applying a load stronger than the weight of the grapes, higher quality juice can be obtained.moût de presse(Mu de Press, meaning squeezed must) refers to the juice that flows out when the grapes are pressed harder.This will concentrate the good and the bad of the grapes.Aroma, colloid, orPhenolRich in compounds, but due to the musty odor of damaged grapes and immature grapesVegetablesA strange odor such as the odor of is also noticeable.Whether or not a blend of Mu de Gut and Mu de Press is used depends on the health of the grapes, the method of squeezing and the style of wine being made.Manipulating the grapes before squeezing increases the amount of pomace and complicates the press.No mud press is used to make high quality wines, or only a very limited amount is used[53].

Settling (clarification before fermentation)

Settling or deburbage (English: settling, French: débourbage) is performed for the purpose of removing starch from the juice to obtain a clear juice.The starch contains colloids in suspension, debris from the peel or pulp, and extrinsic debris (such as soil).

Static sedimentation consists of sedimenting debris and removing it from the must.After pressing, the must is placed in a tank so that it does not come into contact with the air.The suspended particles settle to the bottom of the tank.this is,PectinDecomposes long-chain organic compounds that make up compoundsPectin degrading enzymeIs promoted by the addition of.Since pectin increases the viscosity of the juice, the pectin suspended by the pectin-degrading enzyme is cleaved into shorter chains to reduce the viscosity and accelerate precipitation.If fermentation begins, carbon dioxide bubbles are released, spreading the particles suspended in the juice and interfering with the precipitation, so the juice needs to be cooled.After the juice is clarified, only the supernatant is used for fermentation[55].

Dynamic sedimentation refers to accelerating the separation of juice and starch using a machine.Centrifuges can remove large particles, but do not provide a high level of transparency.

Froth flotationSettling by introduces gas from the bottom of the tank to form bubbles, causing the particles to rise to the liquid level.ScraperIt is a technique to remove by.Filtration with a rotary vacuum filter is relatively slow but effective.It is often used to reclaim juice from centrifuge starch.[55].

Further by enzyme treatment(English editionIt is possible to improve the efficiency of clarification. ..BentoniteActs as a mechanical weight to settle colloids, accelerating the settling rate[56]. Also,gelatinIs used to agglutinate suspended tannins extracted by pressing.Since tannins cause bitterness, their removal is generally beneficial for white wines.[57].Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) isPolyphenolCan be fixed and removed.These molecules are involved in the browning of wine, and removing them increases the stability of the resulting wine.[58].

In "stabilization of starch" (liquid cooling stabilization), brewers usually leave the suspended starch for several days, so clarification does not proceed immediately.After that, the process proceeds to the conventional sedimentation step as described above.With this technology, it is highly soluble.Thiol"precursor (passion fruit,TangerineIt is possible to increase the concentration in fruit juice.Especially Sauvignon Blanc(English editionSuitable for some varieties such as. In "immersion of starch", the sediment settled by static sedimentation is collected in a refrigerator tank and stirred for several days.After filtration and fermentation, a thiol-rich white wine is obtained.Acceleration of sedimentation by cooling is also used to remove tartaric acid, which causes astringent taste.By cooling, tartaric acid binds to minerals and the like and easily precipitates, and precipitates.

Wine preparation

The juice is then placed in a tank for fermentation.These fermentation tanksオ ー クMade byEpoxy resinCoated withcement,Stainless steelOr there are types such as enamel steel or epoxy resin[59]..For large tanks, the temperature generally needs to be controlled to about 18 ° C, which is slightly lower than red wine.[53]..Aromatic component (of alcoholAcetic acid esterandfatty acidMost of the ethyl ester) is synthesized by yeast during fermentation in the upper part of the juice controlled below 18 ° C.However, the clearness of the juice and the low temperature are also factors that delay fermentation.[49]..For brewing under harsh conditions for yeast, it is important to select and add carefully scrutinized yeast.In contrast, some producersOrganicorBiodynamic agricultureSince the grapes are grown in the wine and the starch components are of good quality and do not contain synthetic chemicals harmful to yeast, they may be left in the wine.Must turbidity nourishes the yeast and has a positive effect on fermentation in small tanks and barrels, eliminating the need to withstand low temperatures.

Fermentation begins naturally by the action of wild yeast attached to the grapes.Brewers use commercially available dry yeast to obtain stable quality wines.For dry white wines, continue fermentation until sugar is depleted.Wine is usually decanted to remove starch.When fermentation takes place in barrels, the temperature often exceeds 20 ° C, sometimes even above 25 ° C.[53].

For wine after fermentation(English edition (FML) may be performed.In this second fermentation, there are twoCarboxyl groupDeoxidizes malic acid with lactic acid and converts it to lactic acid.This operation has the effect of reducing the sharp acidity of the wine, but it is not always desirable and is not always performed.In warmer regions, the acidity is carefully preserved to make the wine a lively and refreshing wine with a clean aroma.During the fermentation of the grapes, aging in oak barrels increases the roundness and volume of the wine in the mouth, but reduces the aroma peculiar to the grape variety.In champagne etc., malolactic fermentation improves microbiological stability[53].

In the case of Van Do Naturel (sweet fortified wine), fermentation is stopped with some sugar remaining.this is(English editionIt is called (fortified wine).FermentationSulfur dioxide (SO2) By wineSterilizationIt can be stopped by stopping the yeast from working by rapid cooling, filtering the yeast with a very fine mesh filter, or combining some of these methods.[53]..A rough guideline for determining the timing of fortified wine that can optimally balance the alcohol obtained by fermentation with the residual sugar is to leave the remaining sugar without alcohol fermentation when the alcohol content exceeds 10%. Is[N 5]..In sweeter dessert wines, fermentation is spontaneously stopped by excess sugar and alcohol.This is because alcohol is a waste product for yeast and is poisonous in large quantities.In the case of sweet wine, the increase in alcohol content of the wine itself stops fermentation.Malolactic fermentation is not performed on sweet wines, because the added lactic acid bacteria preferentially consume sugars, resulting in a wine with a strong acidity as well as sweetness.In addition, the balance of acids and sugars in the wine makes the wine sticky.

Winemaking techniques called "reduction" or "technology" have been developed.Although very popular in Australia and New Zealand, this technology seeks to produce very aromatic white wines with very interesting results for fragrant varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc B, Colombard B and Riesling B. Connected, but not very attractive with varieties such as Chardonnay B.This method limits the unexpected oxidation of must and wine at all stages of brewing.carbon dioxide (CO2)likeInert gasIsolates the grapes from oxygen in the air, and cooling partially inhibits the action of oxidases in the must.Natural in grapes酵素IsTyrosinaseAnd an enzyme derived from Botrytis cinereaLaccaseHas a very strong oxidizing action.Laccase can be eliminated by sorting the grapes.Another technique is to reduce the time from harvest to press in the wine.PolyphenolThere is also a method to make a very light wine that does not turn yellow by suppressing the amount of wine to a small amount.[60].

Aging

After fermentation, the wine needs to be constantly managed until it is in a suitable condition for drinking.These steps before bottling are known as "ervage" or "aging".[61].

Aging may be done in a vat.Wine clarification and packaging (Bottlingor(English edition) Takes very little time, but this step may be lengthened to age with the starch.This type of aging involves the regular suspension of fine starch in the wine.Dead yeast has the effect of digesting itself (Autolysis) Makes finer starch, giving volume and body feeling that supports fruitiness.This operation is called Bâtonnage, and traditionally the operation of stirring the starch at the bottom of the barrel with a stick is performed.[62]..If this process is not done in a tightly controlled manner, it will be derived from yeast.Sulfite reductaseGoo de redue (decrease in taste) can occur due to the activity of[63]..This process is done in large barrels like Muscadet, in barrels like in Burgundy and many Chardonnays, or in bottles like champagne.[63].

Like Chardonnay above, aging may also take place in barrels.Wine may be placed in barrels after fermentation, or the fermentation itself may be done in barrels.The barrel has two roles, one is to give the wine the aroma of toast, butter and vanilla, and the other is to help ripening by slowly supplying a very small amount of oxygen through the wooden wall. That is.This oxygen is a component of winepolymerizationIt helps to make the wine taste mild and balanced.

Blending

Blending is the mixing of different wines to obtain the intended final blended wine.[64] Blend with different varieties (Bordeaux wine)[65] orLanguedoc-Roussillon wine(In the case of Champagne), or blend different production years as well as varieties (in the case of Champagne).

In some cases, the blends are purely uniform, so different vintage wines are blended to the required amount.Aiming for quality effects, the taster's individual or team (seller manager, brewer, farm owner, etc.) decides how much to blend each wine to ensure the highest quality of the resulting wine. To do.Winemaking blending is always a rule of thumb, and it is extremely difficult to predict what a wine will look like when two or more vintages are combined.The only sure thing is the analyzable values ​​such as alcohol content, acidity, pH, etc.[66][67].

Clarification

Clarification[N 6] Is to remove suspended insoluble particles from the wine or water-alcohol solution, and stabilization is to maintain the solubility of the components dissolved in the wine until it is stored in a bottle and finally drunk. Is.

Clarification of wine requires waiting for particles to settle on the bottom of the container, which is accelerated by the use of oenological binders.These additives bind to the insoluble particles and make them easier to fall to the bottom.

Tannic acid(Or galotanic acid)C76H52O46Is removed in the clarification of white wine, but for thiscasein,gelatin, ま た はIsinglassIs used.

Stabilization

Most of the wine's ingredients are soluble in the wine, but some ingredients can become insoluble during wine aging and storage.For example, in the case of tartaric acid.Potassium tartrate, a salt containing potassium, is on the bottom of the bottle.crystalExists in the form of.This is a natural phenomenon, but many producers try to remove it because the crystals are perceived as defective by distributors and unskilled consumers.Since the solubility of salt decreases at low temperatures, storage at low temperatures causes crystallization or accelerates crystallization.This problem is especially likely to occur because white wine is drunk chilled.

There are several ways to stabilize the wine.The first method is to cool the wine below freezing for several weeks to the point of freezing.[N 7]..Potassium tartrate precipitates as crystals and can be removed by filtration before packing in bottles or bag-in-boxes.This technique is costly in terms of energy for cooling and can adversely affect the quality of the wine. The second solution is to add metatartaric acid, a dimer of tartaric acid, to the wine.The mechanism of action is unknown, but it has the effect of inhibiting the growth of microcrystals.However, when it is warmHydrolysisThis effect does not last for a long time, but for 6-18 months.The third method is electrodialysis. Due to the current between the two electrode plates, in the wineionIs attracted and removed.However, this solution acts not only on tartaric acid, but also on other compounds, especially potassium, which is involved in the formation of insoluble tartaric acid, which changes the taste.On the other hand, this method allows decisive stabilization.A study of the stability of tartaric acid in white wines aged with starch has led to research in this area.The protein produced by the hydrolysis of yeast (mannoprotein) keeps tartrate insoluble.Good quality stabilization is possible by industrially adding this protein.This method is the cheapest because it does not require energy or refrigeration equipment, and it is said that the aroma of wine does not change.[68]..Nonetheless, studies conducted by the Languedoc-Roussillon Wine Cooperative Institute did not show definitive efficacy.[69]..Another method has been implemented in recent yearscelluloseGum orCarboxymethyl cellulose Study on addition of (CMC)[70] 2009 Approved by (ECRegulation 606/2009[71]).

Some producers who sell their products directly to consumers explain these natural phenomena to their customers and quietly serve wine to prevent crystals from fluttering in the bottom of the bottle. ..

The presence of unstable proteins that cause the visual problem of wine (proteolysis) is also a factor requiring stabilization.Bentonite treatment facilitates precipitation of unstable proteins, which can then be removed by filtration and extraction.[72]..The protein may also react with metatartaric acid added to the wine to prevent precipitation of tartaric acid.When that happens, the wine loses its brilliance andWheyIt becomes milky white like.Some varieties are naturally high in protein (such as Muscat), but the degree depends on the vintage and the degree of aging.

Finally, some white wines can become pink.This is a phenomenon in which the liquid color of wine turns into a bright rose color, which is apparently present in red wine.AnthocyaninLooks colored by.However, the cause of this phenomenon is different, and normally colorless and transparent soluble proteins turn pink due to oxidation.Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone By adding (PVPP), the substrate for oxidation can generally be removed.Some varieties, such as Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier and Grenache Blanc, are particularly prone to pinking.

Use of sulfur dioxide

SO2(Sulfur dioxide) from harvestBottlingUsed in all winemaking processes up to.SulfiteIt is added in the form of and decomposes into sulfur dioxide and water in wine.It is the antioxidant of wine,OxidaseInhibits (enzyme that oxidizes polyphenols in wine) and has bactericidal action (preservative effect)[73].

SO2The maximum amount of sugar added is regulated in each country and depends on the amount of sugar contained in the wine.This is because if sugar remains, it is easy to cause the resumption of fermentation due to microbial contamination.In France, the maximum amount added isVin de pays150 mg / L for sparkling wine, 185 mg / L for fortified wine, 200 mg / L for dry white wine, semi-sweet white wine with residual sugar content of 200 g / L or more (Moelleux)・ 5 mg / L for wine) and 250 mg / L for sweet wine[73].

In Japan, there is no clear regulation on the manufacturing method and ingredients of wine, and it is stipulated that it is within the standard according to the standard of food additives of the Food Sanitation Law, and Ministry of Health and Welfare Notification No. 370 "Food, Additives, etc. According to the "Standards", the standard for using sulfites for the purpose of antioxidant is 350 mg / kg.[74]..There is no distinction by type of wine.

Filtration and adjustment

Wine is filtered and adjusted as needed for sale to individuals or restaurants.Filtration is for capturing fine particles suspended in winefilterIt is done by passing wine through.Fine soil (Diatomaceous earth),CardboardSheet,MembraneFilters may be used or cross-flow filtration may be performed.

Packaging is the process of putting wine in a container for sale.In the past, wine was stored in barrels, and customers had their sellers put them in their pitchers and bottles.Glass bottleHas revolutionized the world of wine.By eliminating the contact with oxygen in the air due to the transfer, the quality of the wine was greatly improved.afterwards,Tetra PakDerived fromBrick pack,Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (PET bottles), Beveragecan, Back-in boxes and other containers have emerged.These advantages are that they are chemically inert to wine and are impervious to oxygen.

Wine bottleIs shaped exclusively for wine.The most distinctive is the bottle of sparkling wine, which is made of fairly thick glass to withstand internal pressure.This shape is used in white wine bottles in many countries and is more rational than red wine bottles.

Wine tasting

Color tone

The colors of white wine are as diverse as the types of wine.The most commonly used expression is yellow, but thanks to its rich vocabulary, there is room for visual analysis between actual colors and hues.The shade may differ at the point of contact between the wine itself and the glass.

At the end of the 20th century, the ingredients that underlie the color of wine had not yet been clearly identified.For many years, the flavones in grapes have been thought to be the cause of yellowing, but only for short periods of time.FlavoneSolubility in wine is extremely low.This led to the search for other molecules that are the causative agents of yellow.1995 Biau's dissertation[75] Then,Polysaccharide, Protein, and some phenolic acids have been suggested.

(English editionThen, it is stipulated as follows. "If it looks very bright and full of light reflections, the term" gold "is used in light of the various nuances peculiar to metals .... It's clear and the wine shines brightly. If it doesn't seem to reflect, just say "yellow"[75]. 'Color scaleThen, it can be said that white wine is almost colorless white.When the wine is young, it usually has a pale green or pale yellowish tint.As it ages, it becomes darker yellow and turns golden, copper, and finally amber.As one of the darkest shades of wine made from white grapes in the world(English editionThere is[75][N 8]..The sugar content also affects the color of the wine, and abundant sugar enhances the color persistence and also depends on the nature of the grape variety. ..Sauvignon Blanc in BordeauxLoire OfMuscadetIs greenish, but Chardonnay andTraminerTurns yellow even when cultivated under the same conditions[75].

Fragrance (aroma)

The aroma of white wine contains almost all of the elements of the aroma of wine.

For the scent of fruitsLemon,grapefruitCitrus fruits such as apples,Quince,Peach,apricotWhite fruits, such asWalnut,HazelnutSuch asnutContains the scent of.pineapple,mango,LycheelikeexoticThere are also some fruits.In addition, a list of wine aromas called aroma palettescompote,jam, FruitCandiedThe aroma of cooked fruits such as is also included.Also, white wineacacia,Honeysuckle,Verbena,VioletIt is sometimes expressed by the scent of flowers such as, and it is also said that it has the scent of honey from that flower.

Aging also brings another flavor to the wine.Barrel aging isvanilla,バ タ ー,Brioche,Toast,caramelCreate a scent such as.Vin jaune,SherryIn long-term aging wines such as, typically raw walnutsAlmondYou can feel the scent of hazelnuts[76][77].

Depending on the soil, a scent peculiar to the cultivation area may be produced.That is, Chardonnay[78] And Sauvignon Blanc[79] Then.FlintAged with mineral aromas such as (smell of flint and flint)AlsaceRiesling is typicallyoilExpressed as the aroma of[80].

White wines can also have aromas that are thought to be unique to red wines.This is especially seen in some champagne made from black grapes,Strawberry,raspberry[81],blueberry[82],Goose berry[81] Red fruits such as[83][84] Reminiscent of a scent.

taste

Since white wine has tannins removed, the balance when put in the mouth is different from that of red wine.The balance of taste is no longer based solely on alcohol and acidity, which is one of the factors that make white wine difficult.

In the case of sweet wines and white fortified wines, sugar is also an element that should be balanced with alcohol and acidity.

Barrel aging gives the wine a woody nuance, and the tannins from the oak give the wine a solid skeleton.SauternesGrand Cru (for exampleChateau d'Yquem[85]), The longest ripe wines are even better when aged in new barrels.

Glass for white wine

Since the advent of glass containers, specialized glasses have been made for each type of wine.Various glasses specializing in white wine exist in many wine-producing regions[86]..To get the correct color of the wine, the glass must be completely colorless and transparent.However, designers and tableware makers make glasses for white wine with green or blue feet.This color makes the wine look better.In other words, the shadows are artificially colored, and the reflection is prevented so that the glass and the wine look clearly separated, which makes the wine look youthful.

Sparkling wine is served in special glasses such as flutes and coups.Flute glass is preferred by professional tasters because it has a shape in which the scent gathers at the nose and the height allows you to see the rising bubbles.Coups, on the other hand, are not currently recommended because they are so widespread that they cannot preserve the foam layer and allow carbon dioxide and scent to escape.[87]..According to one theory, the shape of this coup isMadame de Pompadour OfbreastIt is said that it was made based on the shape of[88]..Coups have been used since the days when wines were sweet and had a weak aroma.1930 eraSince then, dryer sparkling wines have become popular and flutes have been replaced by coups.[87]..Coups are used for carbonated cocktails with olives and for the spectacular champagne pyramids (champagne towers) at royal festivals.

In addition to these glasses, the INAO glasses were established in 1970 by a team of tasters, including Jules Chauvet of the French INAO (Committee for Name of Origin).[89]..The glass is thin and has a curved curve that allows you to taste any kind of wine.This glass is, above allPlace of origin designation control(AOC) Used for tasting at the time of approval.This is the gateway for wine to earn the French AOC title.This simple and elegant glass can of course be used when drinking wine at the table.

Wine type

Dry white wine

Dry white wine is sugar-free wine (sugar content is 4 g / L or less).Dry white wine is very difficult to make because the balance of the wine is determined by only two factors (acid and alcohol content).On the other hand, it can be said that consumers can talk about this wine without detailed information.

1950 eraUntil then, traditional European wines were made in small containers so that the temperature did not get too hot and interfered with fermentation.This brewing method creates a skeleton and roundness in the wine, but the aroma is weak.[b 19]..In California and Australia, grapes and wine need to be cooled during fermentation, and brewers have cellars install refrigeration equipment, piping to circulate liquid refrigerant, and temperature-controlled tanks (coils on the walls of the containers). , A flat plate-like thin welded plate with high heat exchange capacity is used).

At the same time in Europe, such a mode of production was devised, which is a new technology for the treatment of must (acceleration of settling, use of selected yeast, addition of glue and yeast-derived enzymes, execution of maceration). It was a part.

In the world of wine, wines made in this way are implicitly considered "technical wines".It is very fragrant, has a refreshing taste and does not require aging. Some of the "old" types of European white wines are suitable for this mode of production.An example of this was Sauvignon Blanc, the first variety to which this technique was used, which was used for blending with Semillon.In addition, the viticulture area has decreased in the last 30 years.Using this technique in Burgundy,(English editionPhenomenon may occur[90]..Chardonnay is typical of varieties that can make great wines in the old fashioned way.

The photo below compares the shades of the two Chenin Blancs and shows the visual difference between the "technical" wines of South Africa and the "classical" French wines of the Loire Valley.

Sweet white wine

There are a wide variety of sweet wines, from slightly sweet to fortified wines with syrup-like concentrations.

Sugar is derived from grapes and is made by stopping fermentation before the sugar runs out.In some areasSugar supplementDue to the spread of wine, the way wine is made has changed.There are various methods for increasing the sugar content of grapes.

  • On the tree(French versionOrLate harvestConsists of leaving the vines alive on the vines and exposing them to the sun.Once fully ripe, it will not accumulate any further for the time being, but the evaporation of water will reduce the yield but increase the sugar concentration.This is the oldest and most common method.In this method, efficiency can be expected by plucking the stem.By preventing the sap from reaching the bunches, the fruits can be dried faster.As a skilled technique, if you make a circular cut and remove the bark in a ring below the tuft, the sweet sap cannot fall and concentrates on the grapes, while the moist sap is above. Continues to be supplied to the branches.Another convenient method is to cut off a part of the stem.The grapes on the tip side of the cut part are dry, but the growth of the grapes near the root remains.Blending these two grapes in barrels or squeezing them at the same time improves the quality of the resulting wine.[91].
  • After harvestPasuriageIs a method of concentrating grapes before squeezing.The grapes are hung in the attic or tray and over time evaporate some of the water they contain.Straw wineRaw materials are made in this way.
  • Noble rotIs a climatically dependent enrichment method.Botrytis cinerea (known as a noble rot)Botrytis cinerea) Makes fine holes in the grape skin, from which water evaporates, but other components do not flow out.In addition, due to the action of noble rot, the chemical reaction that occurs in the fruit causes the grapes to have an unusual flavor.Precocious vines and weak vines due to the varieties and characteristics of the land are favorable conditions for noble rot.Botrytis cinereaHelps prevent[92][N 9]..This type of grape is Hungarian Tokaji,AquitaineDessert wine (Sauternes,Balsac,Loupiac,Monbazillac, Etc.), Selection de Grand Noble in Alsace, Trockenbeerenauslese in Germany, etc. are known.
  • Freezing and cold pressing of grapes is used to squeeze the extract portion of the fruit.Frozen water, or ice, remains when squeezed and only sweet juice flows out[93]. This isIce wineIs the principle of.Ice fruit preparation (Clio Extraxion)Is a recent technique invented to reproduce ice wine even in areas where the cold is not sufficient.The grapes are artificially frozen before being squeezed.This method allows you to overcome climatic restrictions and harvest grapes without waiting for them to freeze (weather accidents andSparrowIt avoids the risk of grape loss due to feeding damage), but it does not give the exact same flavor as ice wine because it takes less time for the grapes to mature.

sparkling wine

ChampagneDue to the influence of this, it is a sparkling wine that has a high-class image as a wine for festivals, but the manufacturing method is very different from other wines.In contrast to sparkling wine, bubble-free wine is called "still wine".

Most sparkling wines are white wines and contain fermentation gas (carbon dioxide).The appearance of sparkling wine dates back to the earliest winemaking.In all wines, yeast produces carbon dioxide during alcoholic fermentation, so all wines foam during fermentation.In most cases, the gas escapes and does not dissolve.Therefore, the method of producing sparkling wine is a CO that causes foaming.2Intended to remain dissolved in wine[94].

  • Traditional methodOrChampagne methodNow, first make white wine or rosé wine as still wine. ..Add liqueur de tilage (an additive added during bottling, consisting of sugar and yeast) to the wine and seal the bottle.The added yeast and sugar then cause a secondary fermentation in the bottle.The wine is then degorgeed and added with liqueur dexpedition (meaning liqueur at the beginning, consisting of sugar and wine).The degree of sweetness of liqueur dexpedition varies depending on how sweet and spicy the finished product is.There is a distinction between brut (dry), dumisec (semi-sweet), doo (sweet), etc.[34].
  • Method RuralOrCountry methodIs a manufacturing method that used to stop fermentation due to the cold when winter came.The remaining sugar is fermented in the bottle, and the carbon dioxide generated at that time dissolves.this isGaillacAOC[95] And Blanket de Limoux[96] It is a method developed in.
  • Transfer manufacturing methodFollows the traditional Champagne process, but after secondary fermentation, the bottle is opened and the wine is blended in a closed pressure vessel.It is then filtered and then returned to the bottle.There is an advantage that the removal of starch can be done at once.[34].
  • Dioise manufacturing method After fermentation with standard method rural, the wines are collectively filtered in a tank as in the transfer process.
  • Sharma methodorSealed tank methodThen, the secondary fermentation is carried out in a sealed tank.Wine is filtered and then bottled under pressure[97].
  • Fermentation continuous manufacturing methodOrRussian manufacturing methodNow the wine is transferred from one closed tank to another.Previously, yeast was fixed to oak chips.After filtration, the wine is bottled under pressure.
  • Carbon dioxide injection manufacturing methodAdds liqueur dexpedition to the wine and injects carbon dioxide into the tank.Wine is bottled under pressure.It's a way to make fragrant sparkling wine.
Top 10 Sparkling Wine Producers in the World(Source[98]
Country× XNUMX million barrels
French flag France480-510
German flag Germany400-430
Spanish flag スペイン190-220
Italian flag イタリア180-210
Russian flag ロシア170-200
United States flag The United States of America85-110
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand70-80
Ukrainian flag ウクライナ50-70
Polish flag ポーランド40-54
Australian flag Australia40-52

Sparkling white wine became famous for the champagne used for baptism at the launching ceremony of large ships.Sparkling wines are now produced in almost every wine-producing country and are an integral part of events and commemorative events.The unique aspect of this wine is also reflected in the bottle.First, you need a heavier, heavier bottle because of the gas pressure.[99],mushroomThe shaped stopperMuseletIt is necessary to fix it with (wire that holds the stopper).The top of the bottle is covered with gold or silver metal foil.

Fortified wine

Fortified wine is a wine with added alcohol[100]..This category is divided into three types according to the stage of fermentation in which fortified wine was fortified.

  • Van de liqueurOrMistel(mistelle) Refers to grape juice fortified to prevent fermentation.Since it is not fermented, there is some debate about whether it can be regarded as wine, but there is no doubt that it is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes.(English edition,(English editionAndMcVin du JuraIs the three major French van de liqueurs certified by AOC.
  • (English editionIs a wine whose fermentation is stopped by fortified wine before fermentation is complete.When alcohol is added, sugar remains and the taste becomes smooth.(English edition,(English edition,(French version, Moscatello Catalunya,Moscato d'AstiMost of the wines made with Muscat fall into this category, as well as white.Port wine,Madeira wineIs also included here.
  • Dry fortified wine (France:vins mutés secs) Is a sugar-free dry wine that has been fortified with fermented wine.A certain amount of alcohol is added to increase the alcohol content.Such wines are aged for a long time and can be enjoyed for a long time.SherryThis includes dry port wine and white.

Cooking and white wine

Temperature is an important criterion for servicing wine in the most suitable conditions for drinking.White wine needs to be chilled, but do not add ice[d 1].. Between 8-9 ° C, sparkling wine foam feels lively, and sweet and fortified wines have less sweetness. When you drink dry wine with a strong aroma between 10-12 ℃, you can feel a lively and refreshing aroma.Great white wines are best at temperatures of 12-14 ° C, at which the aroma and body are clearly felt.

Harmony of white wine and food

The sourness of dry white wine is reduced by slightly salty or sweet dishes, but wine emphasizes the saltiness of foods and reduces the weight of fatty foods.Sweet wine goes well with sweet and fragrant dishes, softens the strong sweetness and enhances fruity.[101].

食 前 酒As for, tasty dry or sparkling wines work with any meal.Tasting specialist[d 2][102] Believes that the sugar and alcohol in some wines saturate the taste buds.In contrast, fruity and refreshing wines awaken the taste for the upcoming meal.

White wine that is extremely dry and has little mineralityOyster,seafoodIt is recommended to match with.The sournessShellfishThis is to clarify the salt content of.Greatly scented wines go well with shellfish, fish, or boiled white meat[d 1].StewsThen, the acidity of white wine offsets the greasiness of the dish.Strong sauce (lemon juice ormustard), More luxurious wines such as barrel-aged sweet or dry wines are recommended.Sweet spice (cinnamon,vanillaSweet wine or sweet fortified wine goes well with exotic dishes made with (etc.).Foie grasSweet white wine goes well with[d 2]..Sparkling wine can be drunk at any time during the meal, due to the variety of sparkling wines.In the case of sparkling wine, it is possible to continue drinking the same wine from the beginning to the end of the meal.

foodieIs generallycheeseI prefer white wine to red wine when matching with, but this is because of the acidity of white wineDairy products OfFat percentageBecause it is in harmony with[d 3].. , Mineral dry white wine,Goat milk cheeseBring out the milkiness of.Scented wines such as Gewürztraminer and some sparkling winesWash cheese ((English edition,Epowas,(English editionEtc.) Support the strong taste.Neutral white wine (Castile-La Mancha, Trebbiano, Italy)sheepGood for cheese and alsoQueso ManchegoPecorino RomanoIs a little spicy.It is advisable to combine the heat-pressed hard cheese with a solid wine with a barrel.Conte cheeseJura OfVin jauneIs the perfect combination.For sweet wine,RockfalllikeBlue mold cheeseIs recommended.In this case, cheese mold ((English edition) And wine mold (noble rot) form an overall harmony.

White wine is also a dessert wine.Sweet and fortified wines are most suitable, but other white wines can also be dessert wines.Fragrant white wines (Gewürztraminer and Muscat), sparkling and sweet winesfruit salad,tartUsing fruits such asDessertIt goes well with. ..Fortified wine and sparkling winecream,バ タ ーCan be matched with a thick dessert using[d 3]..I used sugar and creamCream Brulee,custard puddingIt is,JurançonIt can be eaten with sweet and lively wines such as Late Harvest wines.チ ョ コ レ ー トThe choice of white wines is quite limited, as it requires a very powerful wine to match with, but the amber Van Doe Naturel works well.

White wines are more often consumed during meals than other wines.Anglo-SaxonAnd Germans customarily need sweet or dry, fruity wines during their meals.

White wine as a food ingredient

White wine is routinely used as an ingredient in cooking.Due to its acidity, it removes excess fat weight and maintains a good balance.[101]..This acid also has the effect of refining meat and fish dishes, and also helps to break down and soften the fibers of meat.[103]..The role of white wine is similar to using lemon juice in similar situations,VerjuiceIs used as well.vinegarHas both sourness and irritation, making the dish bittersweet.

As a means of balancing with fatRavigote sauce,Bearnaise sauce,Marinara sauceWhite wine is included in the sauce.White wine can be used to make the sauce from the ingredients during cooking, and sweet white wine can be used to make a sweet and sour sauce, or a sauce that has both sweetness and saltiness.cheese fondueThen, the freshness of dry white wine harmonizes with the fat content of cheese.The clean white wine contrasts with the hot cheese fondue.

MarinatedThen, the power to soften the protein fiber is used.Italian styleTuna OfCarpaccioThe same thing can happen with dishes like[104].

White wine is also used as water for slow cooking.In this type of dish, the wine softens the meat and balances it with the fat content of the sauce.Choucroute Garnie,(English edition,risottoPlay this role when makingOssobuco,(English edition, ChickenMorelsServing and its variations, Conte-style chicken and cook au vin jaune,RabbitMeat, or(English editionTripelikeCharcuterieIt may also be used to prepare meat when cooking.Also,fish dishesSometimes used to prepare seafood dishes(French versionUsing Japanese burgundy wine,Angler fish Ofstew[105],FlounderStew[106],musselsBoiled in white wine, seafoodPot-au-feu[107] White wine is also used in such dishes.

Drinking the same wine used for cooking is a common rule for foodies.

表 養成 分 表

US survey data

NutrientsunitValue per 100g
Wedg~ 86.86
Energykcal~ 82
proteing~ 0.07
Total lipid (fat)g0.00
carbohydrateg~ 2.60
Sugarg~ 0.96

Source: USDA Food Composition Databases

Survey data in Japan

NutrientsunitValue per 100g
Wedg88.6
Energykcal73
proteing0.1
Total lipid (fat)g0.00
carbohydrateg2.0
ashg0.2

Source: Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan 2015 (XNUMXth edition): Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

Aging of white wine

In general, many dry white wines are less suitable for in-bottle aging than red wines.This is a tannin that prevents oxidation during aging[108] This is because the content of is less than that of red wine.[109]..However, even dry white wines that are excellent can withstand long-term aging, and good-aged Burgundy wines can be aged for as long as 50 years.[110]..Also, among dry white wines, those with strong acidity are suitable for long-term aging, and the acid is settled by aging.[109].

A ship wrecked and missing in the 1907 Charles Heidsieck incident was discovered in 1997[111]The wine in it was sold at an auction for $ 1 a bottle.This is the most expensive white wine ever sold.

Fortified wines and sweet wines generally live longer than red wines[109].

Art and white wine

Painting with white wine

White wine since the Middle AgesStill lifeIt has influenced many painters by including it in, expressing everyday life, parties, and luxury life. The painting of white wine in many British, Dutch, and German paintings since the 17th century indicates that the aristocrats and bourgeoisie consumed large amounts of white wine, replacing beer consumption at the time. Are[5].

White wineDesigner,manga artist, Also influenced advertising.For example, Jack Taldi'sComic"Les Aventures extraordinaires d'Adèle Blanc-SecThe heroine, Adèle Blanc-Sec (meaning dry white wine), has a scene that winks towards the wine.This work will be laterAdele / Pharaoh and the Resurrection Secret MedicineIt was made into a movie with the title.

Literary works

Many writers, poets and philosophers generally admire wine, but it is very rare to cite its color as red or white.Writers of all ages have used white wine to explain their issues.In all kinds of literary works, novels, poetry, or philosophy itself, white wine appears with the intention of seriousness or humor.The most commonly mentioned white wine in literature is French champagne.

AnjouAlso known as a gourmetFrançois RabelaisRepeatedly praised his favorite Anjou white wine and also praised it to the protagonist of his work.

"Jump, dance, go around, drink white wine and rosé, do nothing every day. What's the crown of the sun?" --François Rabelais

Western philosophyInEnlightenment,VoltaireCasanovaHad a wine party and got drunk at a great liquor table.

"All the customers are white wineMeadI had the bottle in my right hand.I'm drunk ... with great Burgundy white wine. "--Casanova[112]

"Bubbles emanating from this fresh wine.
It's a brilliant image for us French. "--Voltaire

White wineユ ー モ ア,Marcel PañolDrama,Pierre DesprogeIt is also used in the gossip radio show of.

"If fresh, pour the white wine on me.
――If it's fresh?Touch it!It will be cold as if you came from an Arctic vineyard! "--Marcel Pagnol

"At the fish market in June, people are no longer noisy. People wander around. Behind the harbor, you can't find cherry tomatoes at the farm market stores.
A person has a branch of basil and a glass of coldBlumIf you have white wine, salt them on the sand and devour them. "--Pierre Desproge[113]

Michel OnfraySauternesI'm writing a book about.The description of wine and its land is partial, with a focus on its influence on the philosophy of wine rather than viticulture.[114].

song

Some poems praised white wine were accompanied by songs.Probably the most famous white wine in the song(English editionLyrics,(French versionComposed "Oh, white wine (original title:Ah! Le petit vin blanc) ".

Une Pointe de ChampagneWritten around 1890(English editionIs a song[115].

I am Drunk(Original title:Je suis pocharde), The song that Louis Byrec sings1895 ToYvette GuilbertMade by, but packed with knowledge about sparkling wine.

"I come to the wedding of my sister Annette
And, when the champagne is flowing,
I could not hold you, I am tipsy,
and I pinched my little tuft.
I feel flageoler I feel my legs M
I have the heart guil'ret, the pleasing air
I am ready to cavort
When I drank Moet et Chandon ".

1926 Some varieties appear in the song, such as Hubert Lapaire's song "Sauvignon".[116].

"I dounn'rais the burgundy vou the Burgundian
And all your sacred champagne wines
for a little keg of sauvignon
Who gilds the cotiau of nout campaign
It is v'louteux it is blondin
It is of the little wine franch'ment kind ...
If bin before St. Martin J'mettrons the throat under the champ'lure "

I was returning homeBoris VianIn his song "Mechanical Music", "in a green bottleMuscadetHow wonderful that refreshing wine is! I praised him.

(English editionWrote a song called Champagne on his album "Champagne".

"Find me now. A friend who calms madness, a friend who never betrays, champagne !!"

こ と わ ざ

The consumption of white wine is also proverbial.

  • "If you serve red wine after white wine, no one will leave, but if you serve white wine after red wine, no one will go away." --In a sense, it is inevitable to drink white wine after drinking a few glasses of good quality red wine. It is unpleasant for me.[117]
  • "Drink white wine in the morning. Drink red wine, which is bloody, in the evening," is a Burgundian saying.

Functions for health

Due to the short soaking of the grape skin, white wine contains almost no tannins, which seems to be medically noticeable in red wine.AntioxidantIs not included much.Meanwhile,MontpellierResearcher team has developed a white wine rich in polyphenols[118]..This wine is currently considered for export to Scandinavia, where white wine consumption is high.

Sulfur dioxide, a commonly used additive in wine, is not harmful in terms of usage, but its effectsasthmaConcerned among patients[119].. That is,Difficulty breathingCan cause[120]..For others, there are no serious allergic reactions.Dyspnea,MigraineSymptoms, such as abdominal burning, may indicate sulfur dioxide intolerance.Sulfite oxidaseSymptoms caused by a deficiency of (sulfur dioxide degrading enzyme) are very rare.Research is underway to clarify that the symptoms attributed to sulfur dioxide are not due to other molecules present in the wine.[121]..A by-product of fermentationhistamineKind (Amine) May cause allergic symptoms[122].

White wine is an acidic beverage with a pH of 2.8-3.6.[123]..This acidity is the toothEnamelCan be destroyed[124].

In addition, wine contains alcohol, indicated by frequency or percentage.AlcoholCirrhosisMay cause.The disease can occur with a regular intake of 1 g per day for women and 20 g per day for men.[125]..However, a study conducted in California showed that daily intake of small amounts of wine could have beneficial effects in patients with non-alcoholic cirrhosis.[126], This effect is beerLiqueurNot found in other alcoholic beverages such as. Further research was conducted in 2010 to prove that this effect was derived from wine.

Many wine lovers aren't sure if wine is good or bad for their health, but it is certain that consuming white wine is beneficial to their health.Recent studies show that white wine is better than red wineCardiovascular diseaseTurned out to be significantly beneficial[127]..White wines also contain antioxidants, although red wines are more common[128]..Both white and red wineLDL cholesterolEffective in preventing oxidation of[129].

注 釈

References

  • French flag Yves Renouil (dir.), Dictionary of Wine, Féret et fils, Bordeaux, 1962
  • French flag Sopexa, Wine and Spirits of France, Le Carrousel, Paris, 1989, 2-907504-00-2
  • French flag Collective work, The Vine and the Wine, Éditions la manufacture et la cité des sciences et de l'industrie, 1988, Lyon,2-7377-0120-1, Part "Vinification in white" written by Denis Dubourdieu, p. 170 and 171
  • French flag Jean-Luc Berger, The Procedures of Wine-making, The vine and the wine, pages 76–77, No. 155, Science & Vie magazine, September 1986, Éditions Exelsior, Paris,ISSN 0151-0282
  • French flag Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon, Yves Glories, Alain Maujean, Denis Dubourdieu; Traits of: Chemistry of Wine, stabilisation and treatments, Dunod, October 2000,2-10-003948-2

注 釈

  1. ^ Ancient timesAssyriaAs a practice of learningSumerian Theuppercase letterso,Akkadian TheitalicIndicate with to differentiate.
  2. ^ In Sumerian, there are many homophones, so they are expressed numerically in order of frequency.
  3. ^ Vin doux naturel is made by adding alcohol to stop the fermentation of grape juice during alcoholic fermentation.Also called natural sweet wine.Vin de liqueur is made by adding alcohol to unfermented fruit juice and aging it in barrels.Also called liqueur wine.
  4. ^ Must(France: must) ormast,Moromi(Moromi) refers to the raw materials issued during winemaking.In red wine, fermentation is performed with the skin and seeds mixed in addition to fruit juice, but in white wine, only fruit juice is used during fermentation as described later, so must is almost synonymous with fruit juice (grape juice). ..
  5. ^ For example, if there is a must that contains sugar that potentially has an alcohol content of 16%, and fortified wine with an alcohol content of 13%, sugar equivalent to 3% of the deducted alcohol remains. become.Therefore, 3% x 16.83 g / L (the amount of glucose required to increase the alcohol content by 1%) = 50 g / L remains as sugar.
  6. ^ The clarification work at this stage is called collage.
  7. ^ As a rule of thumb, wine should be frozen at a minus temperature by halving the alcohol content.For example, 10% wine freezes at –5 ° C and 12% wine freezes at –6 ° C.
  8. ^ Here, it does not refer to Pedro Ximenez as a grape variety, but to the extremely sweet sherry made from this variety.
  9. ^ Botrytis cinerea, like noble rot, is an infection with Botrytis cinerea.A favorable effect (noble rot) is obtained only when this fungus adheres to the fruit of ripe grapes, but otherwise it is regarded as a disease.

Main sources of annotations

  • French flag Guide to Grape Varieties, 300 varieties and their vines, Ambrosi, Dettweiler-Münch, Rühl, Schmid, and Schuman; ULMER, 19972-84138-059-9, 320 pages
  1. ^ p. 12-13
  2. ^ p. 220
  3. ^ p. 238
  4. ^ p. 230-231.
  5. ^ p. 220-221.
  6. ^ p. 96-97.
  7. ^ p. 235-236.
  8. ^ p. 256-257.
  9. ^ p. 269.
  1. ^ p. 46
  2. ^ p. 62
  3. ^ p. 113
  4. ^ p. 129-137
  5. ^ p. 141-142
  6. ^ p. 153-154
  7. ^ p. 171
  8. ^ p. 173
  9. ^ p. 232
  10. ^ p. 235
  11. ^ p. 264
  12. ^ p. 210
  13. ^ p. 331
  14. ^ p. 335
  15. ^ p. 339
  16. ^ p. 395
  17. ^ p. 396
  18. ^ p. 450
  19. ^ a b p. 397
  • French flag Collective work, The Hachette Guide to the Wines of France 2010, Hachette pratique, August 2009,978-2-01-237514-7
  1. ^ a b p. 52-53
  2. ^ a b p. 52
  3. ^ a b p. 55
  • French flag Catalog of varieties and clones of grapevines grown in France, ENTAV – – ENSAM –, ENTAV and Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1995,2-9509682-0-1

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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