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🛋 | Humidifier causes mold on windows ... What percentage of humidity is used to prevent condensation?What is the best room temperature?


Mold on windows with a humidifier ... What percentage of humidity is used to prevent condensation?What is the best room temperature?

If you write the contents roughly
Heating appliances that use fire, such as gas fan heaters and kerosene heaters, generate moisture during the combustion stage.

As the air dries in winter, many people will want to put on a humidifier.Humidity control makes the room comfortable ... → Continue reading

 ARUHI Magazine

Everyday events begin one day. Various articles useful for "living life" such as interview articles that are useful for finding a home, mortgage columns by FP, news about housing and news that can be used for living are being delivered every day!

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Gas appliances

Gas appliancesWhat is (gas-kiki)?City Gas-LP gasIs a general term for appliances that are used to burn fuel.Gas appliancesSometimes called.

Home cookware

Of the gas mainly used at homekitchenwareIs as follows.

Gas stove

Gas equipment used for cooking using pots and ply pans.Gas stove, Or simply called a stove.Three types of stoves are common for home use: a table stove that can be installed without fixing, a cabinet stove that is integrated with a storage shelf and an oven at the bottom, and a built-in stove that is used by incorporating it into a system kitchen.It has a burner for heating pots and the like and a grill function for grilling fish, but some do not have a grill function.The number of burners on the top plate is overwhelmingly 3 for table stoves and cabinet stoves, and 2 for built-in stoves.

Following the revision of the law in 2007, after October 2008, it became mandatory to install overheat prevention sensors and extinguishing safety devices on all mouths of all household stoves produced.Excluding the distribution inventory at that time, the unit price of the product has increased as the number of sensors, which used to be one, has increased to multiple.

Glass top stove

Before[When?]As the material of the top plate of the table stove,stainless,Enamel steel plateHowever, in order to counter the difference from the ease of maintenance of the electromagnetic cooker, the number of products using heat-resistant glass material for the top plate of the stove is increasing.However, due to the structure, there are two or three openings for installing the burner, so it is not a completely flat top plate like an electromagnetic cooker.Tokyo GasAnd so onBeep stoveIt is sold under the trademark of.


It was named after safe + full as a name for safe gas appliances.It refers to the one that pushes safety to the front by eliminating the high heat burner that is normally set on one side of the stove and using standard heat on both the left and right sides, or installing overheat prevention sensors on all burners.In some cases, the shape of the ignition knob has been devised so that it does not need to be pinched, or the handle has a shape that allows it to be gripped widely so that it can be used even with a weak force.

Gas cooker

A device for cooking white rice mainly with gas-fired power.The gas kamado was already commercialized in 1902, but it did not spread to ordinary households.Now[When?]Shaped likerice cookerWas already commercialized in the 1930s, but it was too expensive to become popular.Then, in opposition to the electric rice cooker (automatic electric rice cooker) released in 1955, a gas automatic rice cooker was released at the end of the same year.

In a gas cooker, the cooked rice is detected by using the temperature of the kettle.The mainstream methods for this sensing are the fuse metal method, which utilizes the property that the alloy melts when it reaches a constant temperature, and the ferrite method, which utilizes the property that the magnetic material loses its magnetic force at a constant temperature.However, the fuse metal method has a short service life and requires parts replacement within a certain period of time, and it is difficult to eliminate uneven operating temperature.Now[from when?]It is not produced in Japan, and only replacement fuse metal (commonly known as "navel") parts are supplied.again,recent years[When?]Some of the ones that have the microcomputer function of the above are highly functional ones that directly measure the temperature of the kettle and extinguish the fire.

For cooking rice only
The one that has only the function of cooking rice and making it into rice is called this.It is not equipped with a heat retention function or timer for cooked rice.
With jar
It has a built-in electric heater to keep the cooked rice warm.Although it is a gas cooker to keep warm with a heaterCommercial power supplyNeed.
With jar timer
The one that can set the time to start cooking rice is called this.It is necessary to open the gas plug in order to automatically ignite at the set time.For this reason, it is obligatory to connect the gas with a strong hose called a gas cord instead of a rubber hose.
Some of these have a microcomputer function, and the cooked food can be finely set in order to obtain the type of food to be cooked and the desired finish.

Gas oven

A cooking utensil that heats the ingredients placed in the refrigerator with the heat generated by the combustion of gas.Probably because of the cooking method that Japanese food does not have, the frequency of use in Japan is less than in Europe and the United States, and there are few product variations.You can bake roast beef and pizza, and cook cakes and cookies.
Gas high-speed oven (convex)
Of the ovens that heat using the heat of combustion of gas, the type that forcibly circulates the hot air inside the oven with a fan is called this.Also called a convection range.Since the hot air circulates, there is no temperature unevenness in the refrigerator and a uniform finish can be expected, but there is a drawback that the surface is easily dried because the hot air directly hits the material. Household gas on the market as of 2016ovenAre all of this type, and the fanless mere gas ovens that were previously sold are no longer in production.However, for commercial equipment, sales of non-convection ovens, which have a simple structure and are inexpensive, continue to be sold.
Combination range
A gas high-speed oven and a microwave oven are called as one.Although the names are similar, in the case of "convection range" which means convection, it means a single gas high-speed oven, so be careful.A cooking method is possible in which the ingredients are heated from the inside in a microwave oven and then browned from the surface in an oven.Of course, it can be used as a gas high-speed oven or as a single microwave oven, but it has the disadvantage that it cannot be used as a microwave oven immediately after it is used as an oven until the temperature inside the oven drops.

業務 用 厨房 機器

The main appliances used in kitchens at restaurants are as follows.

Gas range

Also called a stove or stove.It is used to heat pots and frying pans over an open flame. There are various variations depending on the dimensions, from one to multiple.Depending on the manufacturer, the number of units and thermal power may be made to order.Similar to household table stoves, there are types that can be installed on a table, those that have legs and stand on their own, and those that are integrated with an oven.The material is to prevent corrosionstainlessMost of them are made of metal, but only the burner part is made of casting or iron.

Soup range (low range)
For taking soup and soup stockDimension bodyA dedicated range for heating (Zundou) for a long time.While the height of the top plate of a normal microwave oven is about 800 mm, this is made about 500 mm to make it easier to cook and take out the contents.
Chinese range
A burner for stir-fry, a low range for soup, and a burner for boiled noodles are combined into one, and it has this name because it is used in Chinese restaurants and ramen shops.Since it is not necessary to prepare multiple dedicated devices, there are advantages in terms of installation space and cost.


The principle is exactly the same as that for home use, but the capacity is increased to enable mass cooking.In addition to cooking, it may also be used to reheat cold foods.

Steam convection range
In addition to the above, those that can be cooked, steamed, baked, cooked, boiled, etc. by using superheated steam in the refrigerator are called as follows. It is convenient because one unit can serve as multiple cookers, but it is considerably more expensive than a normal oven.

Roasting machine (griller)

An instrument that heats meat and fish over an open flame.There is a double-sided type that can be used at the same time, a top-fire type that heats from above and a bottom-fire type that heats from below.Due to the classic cooking method of heating the ingredients over an open flame, there is a wide range of dishes that can be cooked.Some of the larger ones can continuously cook the ingredients on the conveyor.


Iron plateAn appliance that heats and cooks meat and fish on it.There are those that use a flat iron plate and those that use a grooved griddle that uses an iron plate with a groove.

Char broiler

A device that cooks steak by heating stones with gas to generate far infrared rays.Besides steak, you can also bake fish.


A device that only burns the surface by exposing the material to a high-temperature flame for a short time.The inside cannot be heated.In addition to coloring gratin and pizza, it is also used for finishing Western confectionery.


An instrument that heats oil to a high temperature to cook fried food.There is a type that puts ingredients into a heated oil tank and a type that puts ingredients on a conveyor that goes under the oil tank and fries them fully automatically.Some of the items used in fast food restaurants, etc., automatically raise the basket submerged in the oil tank at the set time.

rice cooker

Cooking rice is exactly the same as for home use, but it is characterized by its large ability to cook rice for business use.While household rice cookers can cook up to 2 sho, some rice cookers can cook up to 5 sho.If you need more rice to cook, use a three-dimensional rice cooker.With this, some models have a rice cooking capacity of 1 kg or more at a time.If a large amount of capacity is required, some can be cooked continuously on a conveyor, which makes it possible to cook thousands of meals per hour.

Automatic rice cooker
A combination of a rice cooker, a measuring instrument, a rice washer, and a rice cooker that enables fully automatic rice washing to rice cooking is called an automatic rice cooker or rice cooker robot.

Rotating kettle

It is used when boiling or frying a large amount of ingredients at the same time.Normally, the pot is placed on the burner, but in the rotary pot, on the contrary, the burning burner is fixed at the bottom of the pot.Since the kettle itself is huge, it cannot be tilted manually when taking out the contents, and the kettle itself rotates by operating the handle, so it has this name.Since it can be used only for the purpose of cooking a large amount of the same food, it is mainly used in school lunch centers.

Boiled noodle bowl

A dedicated device for literally boiling noodles.There are the following distinctions depending on the purpose.

Ramen kettle
Boiled noodle bowl exclusively for ramen.Use a round basket (tebo).It is designed to cause the greatest convection where each basket is set.
Japanese soba kettle
Since Japanese soba does not use a boiling basket when heated, it is designed so that large convection occurs throughout the kettle.Next to the kettle, some have a water bath function to keep the soup stock warm.
Spaghetti kettle
It has a square kettle that fits multiple square baskets.
Udon kettle
Udon has a large bathtub so that a large amount of water can be heated, because the starchy substance easily dissolves in the boiled soup.
Frozen noodle pot
It is equipped with a particularly high-heat burner to heat the frozen noodles, and is designed so that the temperature does not drop as much as possible even during continuous cooking.
Automatic boiling noodle bowl
Anyone can cook under the same conditions by automatically raising the set boiled basket with a timer.

Dumpling machine

Since dumplings require a procedure of not only baking ingredients but also boiling and then baking, there is a dedicated device that gives the griddle the functions of water supply and drainage.A lid is provided to cover the entire cooking surface so that it can be steamed even when it is baked.


A device that boil water stored in a bathtub and heat it with the steam.It is often used in Japanese and Chinese food, but rarely used in Western food.There are two types: one that uses a wooden bamboo steamer, a drawer type that puts ingredients in a stainless steel drawer, and a cabinet type that has a closed kitchen.

Baking pot (deck oven)

A dedicated oven for cooking bread and cookies.The oven plate can be stored in multiple stages.It not only heats with the heat of gas, but also has the function of humidifying the inside of the refrigerator by supplying water depending on the type of cooking.


A cooker used by customers to cook themselves at yakiniku restaurants.There are two types, one is to heat an iron plate called rostrum and cook the ingredients on it, and the other is to heat stones and the like and use the far infrared rays generated from them to heat the ingredients.There is also a smokeless roaster that also has a ventilation function because smoke is inevitably generated due to the cooking method.

Sake liquor

A device for adding sake to a large amount of sake or Chinese sake at one time in a banquet hall.There are two types, one is to boil water in a bathtub and boil the sake set to heat it, and the other is to put sake directly in the heating tank and heat it before transferring it to the sake set.It has a feature that the product life is long because there are few moving parts.

Warmer table

Equipment used to store cooked foods warm.Soup etc. can be put in a container and the whole container can be boiled in hot water.Many can be set by arranging multiple containers side by side.It is often used in semi-self-style places such as employee cafeterias and ski resort cafeterias.


Although it is not a cooking utensil, some dishwashers also use gas.Some large washing machines have a built-in dedicated gas water heater to boil the hot water used for washing.

Hot water equipment

The main machines for heating tap water using gas as a heat source and using the hot water as drinking or domestic water are listed below.Due to the difference in climate in Japan, indoor-installed appliances may be used in cold regions, but there is a tendency for many outdoor-installed appliances to be used in relatively warm regions.However, in the case of an apartment house, etc., the indoor installation type may be used even in a warm area due to the restrictions on the floor plan.

Instantaneous hot water equipment

A device that heats the required amount of clean water taken in from the water supply port to the required temperature.It is economical because it does not uselessly heat other than the hot water remaining in the hot water supply pipe (so-called waste water).Depending on the installation location and purpose of use, it may be installed indoors or outdoors.In the device圧損Except for, it is possible to supply hot water with the pressure of clean water, so it is sometimes called a direct pressure type.

In terms of capacity, there are many types, from the small water heater No. 5 to the maximum number 32 for home use and hundreds by combining multiple devices for business use.By the way, the number indicates how many liters of hot water whose water entry temperature has been raised by 25 ° C can be discharged per minute, and is a numerical value that serves as a guide for the capacity of hot water equipment. In the sense that No. 1 can produce hot water every 5 liters and No. 5 can produce hot water every 24 liters, the larger this number, the higher the hot water supply capacity.

Small water heater

Because it can be easily installed where you want to use hot waterSince ancient times[When?]Many models have been sold.However,recent years[When?]There are almost no designs adopted for new properties, not just detached houses, and the market is only for replacement of existing products.By installing the main body indoors, all the exhaust gas will flow out indoors, so ventilation is always required when using it.recent years[When?]Since it is obligatory to attach an incomplete combustion prevention device to all models of, combustion stops when abnormal combustion occurs due to insufficient ventilation, but it is still possible to use it when reignited, so it is abnormal. A carbon monoxide poisoning accident occurred due to combustion.For this reasonNow[When?]The models on the market are equipped with an interlock function that does not automatically release unless some kind of operation is performed when the incomplete combustion prevention device is activated multiple times in succession.

Main stop type
The ignition of the small water heater is finally performed by water pressure.The type in which the water flow is turned on and off by the main body of the water heater is called a main stop type.This is to stop the hot water supply at the part (hot water outlet).Most water heaters used in ordinary households use this method, and the water heater body has a switch such as a push button, which serves as a hot water outlet switch.
First stop type
A hot water supply pipe is laid at the outlet of a small water heater to enable hot water supply at a place far away from the water heater.As mentioned in the section of the main stop type, the ignition of the water heater is the on / off of the water flow, so it is called because the water flow is stopped at the tip of the water heater.

Hot water supply single-function water heater

The one that has only the function of supplying hot water to the hot water tap is called this.The main body is inexpensive because it does not have a reheating function, but it is rarely used as the main hot water supply equipment in ordinary houses because it is not economical.On the contrary, in apartment houses, it was often adopted because of the low initial cost.

Bath water heater (water heater with reheating)

This is called a product that has not only the function of supplying hot water to the hot water tap but also the function of a bath kettle to boil water in the bathtub.All models currently on the market have a gas bath water heater with an automatic hot water filling function, and a specified amount of hot water can be stored in the bathtub simply by pressing a switch.Furthermore, the set temperature can be maintained by reheating the hot water in the bathtub at regular intervals.Currently, gas bath water heaters of the standard type without automatic hot water filling function (in the past, this name was standard because those without automatic hot water filling function were standard) are not on sale.

There are two types of automatic hot water filling function, and there is a distinction between full auto and auto.The difference between the two functions is whether or not to automatically add hot water when the water level in the bathtub drops after the completion of hot water filling.The fully automatic model automatically adds hot water, so the water level in the bathtub can always be kept constant, whereas the automatic model automatically recovers only the first hot water filling, and even if the water level drops after that, it recovers manually. The water level will remain low unless you let it.This difference in operation is due to the difference in the principle of the hot water filling function.This difference becomes noticeable when water remains in the bathtub at the start of automatic hot water filling.In each function of the bath water heater, the circulation pump is operated at the start of operation, and it is first determined whether or not there is residual hot water in the bathtub.If it is determined that there is no remaining hot water, a preset amount of hot water is supplied into the bathtub.For this reason, there is almost no difference in the operation of the hot water filling when the bathtub is empty.

On the other hand, if there is residual hot water in the bathtub, the function will be different.The fully automatic model measures the height of the remaining hot water in the bathtub by operating the circulation pump at the start of operation and measuring the pressure applied to the reheating pipe at that time (water level sensor method).For this reason, the shortage can be easily calculated, and even if there is remaining hot water in the bathtub, not only can the hot water filling function be activated almost accurately, but even if the water level drops, additional hot water is automatically added. By doing so, the water level can be returned to the set level.On the other hand, in the model with the auto function, if there is residual hot water when the circulation pump is operated, the reheating operation is started once.Strictly because it takes an indirect method (calorific value calculation method) of measuring how much the temperature of the hot water in the bathtub has risen after applying a certain amount of heat and calculating the amount of remaining hot water based on that. It lacks accurate accuracy, and the water level of automatic hot water filling when there is residual hot water varies.In addition, since the water level in the bathtub cannot be measured, automatic addition hot water cannot be added.

Installation free
Of the bath water heaters, the type that connects the bathtub and the water heater with two resin pipes or copper pipes of about φ10 to 12.5 and forcibly circulates the hot water in the bathtub with a pump to perform reheating. Call.This name was given because it is not necessary to install the water heater body near the bathtub by circulating it with a pump.It is possible to take a distance of 2 m or more from the bathtub to the water heater, but the longer the distance, the greater the heat loss, which makes it uneconomical.
Since it is forcibly circulated by a pump, there is no temperature unevenness in the bathtub, and accurate boiling is possible.
Adjacent installation
The main body of the water heater and the bathtub are installed with only one wall separated, and the type that connects the bathtub and the water heater directly with two rubber pipes of about φ1 is called this.In the past, it was reheated by natural convection, but in recent years, the forced circulation method using a pump has become the mainstream.

Water heater with automatic hot water filling and high temperature difference hot water reheating

It is the same as a bath water heater that supplies hot water at a set temperature to the bathtub when filling it with hot water so that it can be bathed, but the method of reheating the inside of the bathtub when the hot water temperature drops is different.This type of water heater raises the temperature inside the bathtub by injecting hot water (about 80 ° C) when the hot water in the bathtub becomes lukewarm.At this time, the water level in the bathtub will naturally rise.Since water injection is only in one direction from the water heater without circulating the hot water in the bathtub, the water heater and the bathtub are connected by only one pipe.Strictly speaking, it is not reheating, but it should be noted that it is permitted to display it as reheating in real estate terms.

CO2 reduction High efficiency energy saving water heater (Eco-Jozu)

Conventional gas water heaters emit high-temperature exhaust gas of around 200 ° C even after the gas is burned inside to exchange heat with water.High-efficiency water heaters are those that improve the thermal efficiency of the entire water heater by exchanging this waste heat with water in advance, and those that use gas as fuel areEco-JozuIt is nicknamed.The thermal efficiency of Eco-Jozu is about 95%.By the way, equipment that uses petroleum as fuel and has a similar mechanism isEco feelNicknamed.

Theoretically, most of the gas becomes carbon dioxide and water after combustion, but by exchanging heat between this exhaust and cold water, the exhaust is exhausted.latent heatIs deprived, resulting in condensed water.Since this condensed water combines with other combustion products in the exhaust to form an acidic drain, when installing a high-efficiency water heater, it is necessary to install a neutralizer and drain pipe for drain regardless of the type of fuel. Mandatory.For this reason, it was not possible to install Eco-Jozu in apartment houses, etc. because drainage pipes could not be laid.However, some bath water heaters, Eco-Jozu, have the function of draining the neutralized drain water after draining the bathtub by flowing it through the reheating pipe, so that it can be installed even in installation locations where drainage is difficult. Things are being developed.High efficiency of the water heater reduces fuel consumption, which has the advantage of reducing carbon dioxide emissions and fuel costs.

Hot water storage type hot water equipment

A type of water heater that temporarily stores the water that enters from the water supply port in a tank called a hot water storage tank inside the main body and heats it in advance to supply hot water.Compared to the instant hot water supply type, the structure is simpler, so there are fewer failures, but the amount sold is limited due to the limited use for consumer use.It is possible to supply hot water (90 ° C or higher) that cannot be obtained by the instant hot water supply method to boil the water in the tank, but the hot water supply pressure is low because the stored water in the tank is used.If the temperature inside the tank drops due to heat dissipation, it may reignite even if hot water is not supplied.

Beverage storage water heater

It is used in places where high-temperature hot water supply is required, such as for tea supply.It is mainly installed in hot water supply rooms such as offices and large restaurants.There are multiple types of capacities, from 10 liters to over 300 liters, depending on the capacity of the built-in tank.

Commercial hot water boiler

A simple boiler with a water head pressure of 10 m or less and a heat transfer area of ​​4 square meters or less and a relief pipe or relief valve, a water head pressure of 10 m or less and a heat transfer area of ​​8 square meters or less, and a relief pipe or relief valve The ones are called small boilers, and the others are called boilers.Both have a tank inside the main body, and the water in the tank is boiled and supplied as hot water or steam.In the case of hot water supply, a line pump or the like is often installed on the secondary side of the boiler to secure the hot water supply pressure.

Reheating equipment

Generally, a device called a bath kettle.There is a single-function device that boil water in the bathtub and a multifunction device that can also use a shower in the bathroom. Some BF type bath kettles can supply hot water from the bathroom to other taps.

Adjacent installation (natural circulation type) bath kettle

The one that connects directly to the bathtub with two rubber pipes is called this.Since natural circulation due to the temperature difference of water is used for boiling, only the upper part of the bathtub may be hot and the bottom part may remain water.

Bathroom installation type (CF type / BF type / FE type / FF type)
It is installed near the bathtub in the bathroom, and it is CF type (natural exhaust type) depending on the combustion exhaust method.BF formulaIt is divided into (natural air supply / exhaust type), FE type (forced exhaust type), and FF type (forced air supply / exhaust type).In principle, CF type bath kettles cannot be newly installed in the bathroom to prevent air supply and exhaust accidents.
Outside the bathroom type (CF type / FE type / FF type)
A bathtub that is installed adjacent to the bathtub indoors with a wall separated from it.It is often installed mainly on the side of the bathroom.Similar to the type installed in the bathroom, it is divided into CF type (natural exhaust type), FE type (forced exhaust type), and FF type (forced supply / exhaust type) depending on the combustion exhaust method.
Outdoor installation type (RF type)
This is what we call the one designed for outdoor use by diverting the type installed outside the bathroom.The difference from the installation in the bathroom is that it does not require an exhaust stack and is designed to exhaust directly from the main body.

Free installation (forced reheating type) bath kettle

A type of bathtub that connects the bathtub and the main body of the bathtub with two pipes and forcibly circulates water with a pump to heat it. Since the CF type bath kettle could not be newly installed in the bathroom, it was commercialized as a replacement.Only the reheating part of the bath water heater is made independent, but some models have an automatic hot water filling function.

Water supply / exhaust equipment for water heaters (bath kettles)

Most models need to be equipped with air supply / exhaust equipment when installing indoors, because those with high hot water supply capacity or reheating capacity also emit a large amount of combustion exhaust.Only small water heaters and hot water storage water heaters for beverages, which have the smallest capacity, are allowed to directly exhaust the air indoors, but in principle, other indoor equipment is always exhausted to the outdoors by itself. Need to be issued.Inadequate air supply / exhaust equipment may cause air supply / exhaust accidents due to direct combustion failure, so when installing or moving these equipment,Law Concerning Supervising Installation of Specified Gas Consuming Equipmentbased onGas consumption equipment installation work supervisorThose who have the qualification of the above need to directly supervise the construction.

Heating equipment

A device for adjusting the room temperature by directly or indirectly using the heat generated when gas is burned.Almost all models except some are dedicated to heating, and if a cooling function is attached, use power other than gas.

Gas stove

A device that raises the room temperature by directly releasing the heat generated when burning gas into the room.Depending on the heat release method, it is divided into a convection type and a reflection type.The shape isKerosine stoveAlthough it is similar to, it has advantages such as a shorter time from ignition to heat dissipation, and less odor due to unburned gas during ignition / extinguishing and during combustion.Since the structure is simple and generally inexpensive, and many models do not require electric power during operation, they can be used as long as gas can be supplied even during a power outage due to a disaster or the like.On the other hand, the disadvantage of the type that uses city gas or propane gas is that the gas tank cannot be built into the main body, so it is necessary to connect it to the main plug with a strong hose dedicated to each gas type called a gas cord. It causes restrictions on movement.

However, in recent years, a small portable gas stove that uses a (butane gas) cylinder for a cassette gas stove has been put on the market, and it can be carried indoors or outdoors.In this case, combustion can be continued only for the capacity of the cassette gas, so it can be used for only about 2 hours.In addition, some cafes have an outdoor relatively large umbrella-type stove with a built-in propane cylinder so that you can eat and drink outdoors even in winter, and you can move independently.This was originally popular in Europe and other countries, and has come to be seen in Japan in recent years. Since the Corona disaster in 2020, the use of outdoor seats has increased in restaurants to avoid the so-called Three Cs, but it is also used as a heat source for warming up on terrace seats in winter.

Gas stoves that do not use electric power do not automatically make fine combustion adjustments during operation (most have only two stages, strong and weak, in which the thermal power is manually operated), so other gas fan heaters, etc. Compared to gas heaters, fuel efficiency is disadvantageous.

In addition, since the unit price of propane gas is generally higher than that of city gas, gas stoves are rarely sold over-the-counter in the propane gas area due to problems such as running costs, but they are popular in the city gas area. Is.However, by using gas control valves for each gas type, many of the main body parts can be shared, so the product lineup includes products for each gas type.

Since the combustion gas is constantly released into the room, it is necessary to ventilate the indoor air with the outside air on a regular basis indoors regardless of the type of fuel gas.

Gas fan heater

A device that raises the room temperature by releasing the heat generated when gas is burned into the room as warm air.Depending on the exhaust methodFan heaterAnd FF fan heater.In either case, power is required to operate the fan and control the thermal power, so it cannot be used during a power outage.

The fan heater needs to be ventilated regularly to release the exhaust gas into the room. Since the FF fan heater is a forced air supply / exhaust system, it does not use indoor air for combustion and does not require ventilation.The fan heater can be moved to some extent like the stove, but the FF fan heater cannot be moved because the air supply / exhaust pipe is fixed to the wall.Many of them constantly measure the room temperature and automatically adjust the combustion, and the circulation of air in the room leads to a reduction in fuel consumption.

Gas fan heaters are popular as heating appliances in urban gas areas, but propane gas (similar to gas stoves) has a higher gas unit price than city gas, so due to problems such as running costs, propane gas It is rarely sold at local stores.By using gas control valves for each gas type, many of the other main body parts can be shared, so the product lineup includes products for each gas type.

Hot water circulation heating equipment (TES)

A heating system that raises the room temperature by heating the antifreeze liquid with the heat generated when the gas is burned and circulating it with a pump to dissipate heat indoors.Although the equipment is larger than a stove or fan heater, it does not pollute the air in the room and can efficiently heat only the necessary parts, and it can be installed in bathrooms and toilets where it was difficult to install a heater in the past. There are various merits such as.

Floor heating

A heating method that raises the temperature inside the room by passing the heated circulating fluid under the floor and warming the floor material.With warm air heating, etc., the space near the ceiling warms up, so the phenomenon of cold feet is likely to occur.On the other hand, in floor heating, the floor material itself generates heat, so that does not happen.In addition, since the space with a height of about 1 m from the floor where humans live is most likely to warm up, wasteful energy is not consumed and running costs are reduced.As a demerit, in order to heat the floor material, it is desirable that the material is a floor heating exclusive product, and the degree of freedom of selection is low.However, with the recent spread of floor heating, many types have been released by building material manufacturers, and the situation where there are too few options as before has been improved.Another reason is that the start-up after starting heating is the slowest compared to other methods, and it is not enough to turn on the switch after it gets cold.Normally, there is a function to start automatic operation by setting a timer, so this may be used, or other heating equipment may be used as an auxiliary until it starts up.

Panel heater

A radiator that heats hot water pipes by arranging them in a panel on the wall.Since it can be installed in places where pipes cannot be laid under the floor or in places with a lot of moisture, it can be installed in almost any place.It is often used especially in toilets and dressing rooms.In addition, by installing it under the window of the living room, it is possible to prevent the ingress of cold air outdoors and prevent dew condensation on the window.

Hot air blower

A radiator that takes in circulating fluid, exchanges heat with air, and then turns a fan to discharge it as warm air.A fan convector placed on the floor like a fan heater and hot waterAir conditionSome are installed on the wall.By changing the direction of the warm air, it can be used as spot heating, so it is not only installed alone, but it may also be used as an aid to floor heating.Some are fixed with a pipe when placed on the floor, but some can be easily attached and detached with a hose and a hot water outlet, and one radiator can be moved and used as long as a hot water outlet is installed. Is.In the case of an air conditioner, heating is performed with hot water, but cooling is performed with an electric air conditioner.

Bathroom heater / dryer

Except for the cooling function of the hot water air conditionerBathroom heatingIt is designed to be used as.Some models have a ventilation function and a cold air function (which is different from the cooling function only by introducing outside air), and it has been possible to use it as a bathroom dryer by performing ventilation and heating at the same time. It is functionally the same as an electric heater.In addition, as a generic product, there are some that can be installed in the bathroom that does not face the outer wall by embedding in the ceiling, and some that have a mist function.

Some manufacturers have commercialized a smaller wall-mounted bathroom heater / dryer for heating dressing rooms and toilets.

Hot water type clothes dryer

A device that raises the temperature by releasing warm air that has exchanged heat with the circulating fluid into the drum, and dries clothes after washing.Although it can be installed independently, it is often sold as a package with bathroom heating / drying / undressing room heating.This main body is a diversion of a gas clothes dryer.

Gas heat pump (GHP)

A device that can be used as an air conditioner by generating cold heat by operating a compressor with a gas engine and compressing and expanding the refrigerant.Initially, it was only a large model, but later a model with about 5 horsepower that could be installed in ordinary households was also released.However, at present, all but one small manufacturer have discontinued production.In cold weather, the refrigerant cycle is reversed, compressed by a compressor to raise the refrigerant temperature, and circulated to perform heating.It is this that can be cooled using gas as an energy sourceGas heat pumpOnly the absorption chiller described later.

Absorption chiller

A device that generates cold heat by using ammonia as a refrigerant and water as an absorption liquid.Ammonia absorption chillerAlso called.The heat of combustion of the gas is used to separate the mixed ammonia and water during the operation cycle.Since it requires large-scale equipment, it is mainly used for industrial purposes and large-scale air conditioning.Then a gas heat pumpCogenerationAlthough the demand for air conditioning has decreased due to the widespread use of the system, it is still used for industrial and commercial purposes, especially as a refrigerator because it can produce temperatures below -50 ° C.

Gas air conditioner (old product)

A device designed so that it can be used as a heating appliance by incorporating a gas combustor into an electric air conditioner and heating the refrigerant by burning gas during the winter.Previous electric air conditioners could not be used as a heater in cold regions where the outside temperature was below 0 ° C, but this method could be used as the main heater even in winter.However, the main body was expensive,heat pumpAs of 2007, all of the manufacturers that had several companies have stopped production due to the improvement of the performance of the air conditioner and the spread of household air conditioners that can be used as a heater in winter even in cold regions.The production of petroleum air conditioners, which have a similar mechanism using kerosene as fuel, has been discontinued by all manufacturers.

Gas fireplace

As a device that has both practicality as a heater and aesthetics as an interior, it was once adopted in many high-class Western-style buildings, and is now mainly in demand in stores and commercial facilities. ..Overseas, where the unit price of gas is low, it is relatively popular for private homes as it allows you to easily enjoy the feeling of a fireplace without any hassle.

Many of the older models released exhaust gas into the room, but now CF, FE, and FF devices are increasing.The price is very expensive when considered as a mere heater, but there is also a side as an interior by using expensive materials such as marble and elaborating the design, so there is demand, albeit small.In addition, small ones that can be installed in ordinary households are also produced, and are manufactured by major gas appliance manufacturers.リ ン ナ イAlso entered the household gas fireplace market in 2007.

New generation gas equipment

The conventional usage of both city gas and LP gas was mainly to use combustion heat, but in the future, we are planning to develop it so that it can be used not as mere thermal energy but as comprehensive energy.Equipment developed or under development for these purposes is called a new generation gas equipment.

Household gas power generation / hot water supply / heating system

Product name isEco Will..A small cogeneration system that uses a small gas engine to operate a generator to obtain power, and at the same time, recovers the waste heat of the gas engine for hot water supply and heating.The generated power is used at home in the same way as purchasing power, and the heat is stored in the hot water storage tank before being used for hot water supply, heating, and reheating of the bath.In the unlikely event that the amount of hot water stored is insufficient, hot water can be supplied by directly burning the gas, so there is no need to worry about running out of hot water.

If the amount of power generation and the amount of heat used are balanced, energy can be used efficiently, but the generated power cannot be supplied to the electric power company as electricity for sale, so it is in an unbalanced state. Not only does this reduce efficiency, but it also worsens the environmental impact, which is a selling point, such as running costs not falling as expected.

Household fuel cell

Product name isEne farm..It is an epoch-making gas appliance in the sense that it does not burn city gas in the form of flames.Hydrogen is extracted from city gas and combined with oxygen in the air to generate electricity.In addition, the heat generated at this time is collected and stored in a hot water storage tank, which is used for hot water supply, heating, and additional cooking in the bath.Like ECOWILL, it is also equipped with an auxiliary heat source using gas when the amount of hot water stored is insufficient.

It was also called lifuel in 2008 monitor tests.[1].. Started selling in 2009[2], At home makers, etc.Solar powerThere are also examples of being adopted as a set with[3].

Hybrid water heater

With "Eco-Jozu" of gas water heaterEco cute Ofheat pumpA hot water supply system designed to combine the advantages of both.Normally, an energy-efficient heat pump is used to store hot water in a hot water tank, and when a large amount of hot water is needed, Eco-Jozu operates as an aid.Therefore, unlike a system that uses only a hot water tank, there is no need to worry about running out of hot water.Moreover, by using hot water heating in this system, the thermal efficiency can be further improved.Currentlyリ ン ナ イFrom "Eco One (ECO ONE) "with the product nameNoritzIt is sold under the name of HYBRID hot water supply system.

Commercial cogeneration equipment

The system is an enlarged scale of household gas power generation, in which a gas engine is used to generate power, and waste heat is used to supply and heat hot water.In general households, the amount of electricity and hot water used is likely to be concentrated at a specific time of the day, and it may be difficult to balance power supply and heat supply, but in commercial facilities the load is concentrated. Since it is not as biased as ordinary households, theoretically, the larger the scale, the more efficient energy consumption becomes possible.However, at the time of introduction, it is essential to analyze the balance between the amount of electric power used and the amount of heat in advance from a professional point of view.

Industrial cogeneration equipment

As with commercial use, it is a large-scale gas power generation system, but by using a gas turbine engine as the engine, it is possible to generate steam with higher utility value for industrial use.Also, the steamVapor-compression refrigeratorSince it can be used for cold heat, it has a wide range of use.Since it is for industrial use, it is easy to make demand forecasts for electric power, hot and cold heat, and in many cases energy efficiency is almost ideal.


In addition to the above, the equipment that uses gas is summarized below.

Gas clothes dryer

A device that uses the heat generated by burning gas to dry washed clothes in a rotating drum.Many of themCoin laundryIt is used for business purposes, and for home use, it is manufactured only by Rinnai.[4]It is sold under the brand name of its own company and the largest city gas company.Equipment fee is electricClothes dryerThe fact is that it is rarely used even in urban gas areas because it is more expensive and the introduction cost is higher.Since it generates a large amount of heat, it can be dried in a shorter time than the electric type, and the running cost is generally low for both city gas and propane gas.

Gas Swill Disposal Machine

A device that dries and processes crushed swill with the heat of burning gas.The range of garbage that can be handled is wider than that of equipment that uses decomposition by microorganisms, and it is characterized by being able to treat even if there is a certain amount of water.In addition, there is an advantage that a new addition can be made even during processing.Those that cannot be treated structurally include hard ones such as bones and shells (small ones can be crushed), strong fibrous ones such as bamboo shoot skin, and a large amount of oil.In addition, since the water vapor of the swill is discharged as water vapor, it is necessary to attach a deodorizing device to the exhaust device.The residue after treatment can be recycled as compost by a dedicated recycling system.

Industrial combustion equipment

In addition to the industrial boilers mentioned above, there are other devices used to generate large amounts of heat, such as rolling and melting metals and kilns for baking pottery.There are various variations, from a simple burner type that can be used with one hand to a large-scale one that can control the temperature electronically.

Gas far infrared heater

A device that generates far infrared rays by heating ceramics, etc. with a gas flame.BlackbodyIt is said that radiation characteristics close to radiation can be obtained.

Invasion heater

A device that attaches a gas burner to a box containing liquid and allows heat exchange to be performed by passing the exhaust as it is through a pipe that is spirally processed inside the box.PlatingIt is used for heating and keeping warm of solutions.

Soldering furnace

In the metal processing production line, with the heat of gasSolderEquipment to attach.

Offset dryer

Offset printingA device that integrates a machine and its ink dryer.Warm air using gas as a heat source is used to dry the ink.In some cases, a general industrial dryer is used only for drying the ink.


A device that removes the odor by completely burning the residue and unburned substances remaining in chemicals and combustion gas before they are released to the atmosphere.

Gas lamp

City gas was first usedGas lampIt was because of the outdoor light that used.For this reason, even today, October 1872st is designated as the gas anniversary every year in commemoration of October 10, 31, when the gas lamp was first lit in Japan.Although gas lamps have been improved since then, they are now only installed in specific places such as tourist spots due to the convenience of electric lighting.

In addition to gas lamps, gas may be used as a fuel for bonfires as lighting fixtures that also serve as decorations, and for monuments such as the torch stand.

CNG vehicle (natural gas vehicle)

20MPa (approx. 200kgf / cm)2) A car that runs on compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel.Natural gas carAlso called.It is produced in a variety of vehicle types, from heavy trucks to light vehicles.The engine will be a diesel engine.There are companies that convert not only the models produced by manufacturers but also the diesel vehicles of each manufacturer into CNG vehicles.


On August 2021, 8, Harvard Medical School argued that avoiding exposure to air pollution was as important to maintaining good health as fruits and vegetables and regular exercise.

For this reason, gas appliances cause air pollution, so it is very effective to replace them with electrical appliances to improve health.

Many studies over the years have responded to increased levels of outside air in particulate matter, increasing hospitalization for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, pneumonia, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other serious health problems. It shows that repeatedly.Both long-term and short-term exposure appear to be important.

A study published in 2021 examined a 14-year global model of pollution levels and risk assessments of the world's population.Burning fossil fuels alone will lead to the premature death of nearly 2018 million people worldwide in 900.This is one in five deaths in the United States, including more than 35.Most of these deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes.

Older people, younger people, pregnant people, and people with underlying illnesses such as heart and lung disease are particularly vulnerable to the potential effects of not replacing gas appliances with electrical equipment.[5].

Reference materials

  1. ^ Recruitment of household fuel cell monitors by Tokyo Gas (2008)
  2. ^ ENE-FARM subsidy up to 140 million yen, Kenplatz, April 2009, 4
  3. ^ Sekisui House Launches Environmentally Friendly Housing "Green First", Nikkei BP, March 2009, 3
  4. ^ As a nameTokyo Gas Co., Ltd. OfRegistered trademark(Registration numbers 1947253, 4182770, 4194382).It is said that this is because it was planned to be used for products manufactured by companies other than Rinnai.
  5. ^ MD, Wynne Armand (August 2021, 8). “Air pollution: How to reduce harm to your health" (English). Harvard Health. 2021/11/18Browse.


heating(Danbo,HeatingTomo)InteriorA general term for the act of warming and raising the temperature.


In the old days,Ancient romeでHypocaustWas used.A method similar to northeastern ChinaOndolIn each case, heating was performed by passing air warmed by fire under the floor.[1].

In the mid-1700sUnited KingdomでSteam heatingWas used for the first time. In the late 1800sAmericaMade of cast ironboilerWas manufactured, and the development of heating technology progressed.[1].

in JapanMeijiSince the times, various methodsStoveWas manufactured,Cold districtDue to the low airtightness of the house except for火 鉢Kotatsu continued to be used.The reason why heating appliances that heat the entire room are widespread isAfter World War IIIs that[1][2].

Heating equipment

Japanese Industrial Standard, JIS S 2091: 2013 "Terms of household combustion equipment"[3]AtHeating equipment(Space heaterWhat iscombustionOccurred inheatIt is defined as a general term for combustion equipment that heats the room or heats the room.[Annotation 1][4]..Therefore, the equipment that does not apply#Other heating appliancesSee.

Gas heating equipment

Gas heating equipment (Gas heater) Is for fuelgasHeating equipment using[Annotation 2].

  • Gas stove – A gas-fueled stove.Displayed gas consumption is 19 for household useKilowatt (19,000 W) Below, the open type refers to those with 7 kW (7,000 W) or less.[Annotation 3].
  • Gas hot air heater – BlowerCombustion of gas by forced ventilation byCombustion gasA method of blowing warm air without including[Annotation 4].. Also called FF type[Annotation 5][8][6].
  • Gas fan heater – An open stove that burns gas with forced ventilation by a blower and forcibly convects warm air containing combustion gas.[Annotation 6].
  • Gas Fireplace – Gas-fueled fireplace[Annotation 7].

Oil heating equipment

Oil heating equipment (Kerosene heater) Is for fuelkerosene,Light oilorheavy oilHeating equipment using[Annotation 8][9].

Radiant heating

JIS Z 8117: 2002 "Far infraredthe term"[12]Among them, only the equipment for the purpose of "heating" or "warming" is raised.

Other heating appliances

Equipment / equipment that does not fall under the above.

Other heating appliances (by method)
Combustion method
Electrical system
Hot water / steam method


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The term "heating equipment" is "household combustion equipment term", No. 41001[3]It is defined in.
  2. ^ 42301[3]Defined in.
  3. ^ 42302[3]Defined in.
  4. ^ 42303[3]Defined in.
  5. ^ a b "Forced supply / exhaust type" (gas, number: 44309) or "forced supply / exhaust type" (oil, number: 44310) is also called "FF type", but the etymology of FF is not specified in terms.[3].[5],[6]InForced Draught Balanced FAbbreviation for lue Type, but on the other hand[7]And so onForced FIt is an abbreviation for lue.Please note that neither is a formal etymology.
  6. ^ 42304[3]Defined in.
  7. ^ 42305[3]Defined in.
  8. ^ 43301[3]Defined in.
  9. ^ 43302[3]Defined in.
  10. ^ 43303[3]Defined in.
  11. ^ 43304[3]Defined in.
  12. ^ 43305[3]Defined in.
  13. ^ 43306[3]Defined in.
  14. ^ 43307[3]Defined in.
  15. ^ 43308[3]Defined in.
  16. ^ 5001[12]Defined in.
  17. ^ 5004[12]Defined in.
  18. ^ 5008[12]Defined in.
  19. ^ 5012[12]Defined in.
  20. ^ 5013[12]Defined in.


  1. ^ a b c Taisuke Matsumoto, Masaki Noda, Isamu Matsui "History of heating technology and transition of thermal environment evaluation index-Research on ensuring comfort of living space in detached houses- (PDF) '[Broken link]Nihon University, December 2009, 12.
  2. ^ "Heating space still developing (PDF) '[Broken link]Living Amenity Association.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p JIS S 2091: 2013 "Terms of household combustion equipment"(Japanese Industrial Standards Committee,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)
  4. ^ "Space heater Definition & Meaning" (English). en: Dictionary.com. 2022/1/2Browse.
  5. ^ "Definition of FF expression (PDF)"(Japanese). Japan Combustion Equipment Inspection Association. 2022/1/3Browse.
  6. ^ a b c "What is an FF stove?Supporting the feeling of warmth!”(Japanese). Sunpot. 2022/1/2Browse.
  7. ^ "FF heating』- Koto bank
  8. ^ "Gas FF heater”(Japanese). リ ン ナ イ. 2022/1/2Browse.
  9. ^ a b "Types of oil heaters"(Japanese). Japan Gas and Petroleum Equipment Manufacturers Association. 2022/1/2Browse.
  10. ^ "Long-term use product safety inspection / labeling system”(Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2022/1/2Browse.
  11. ^ "Pamphlet for long-term use product safety inspection / labeling system (PDF)”(Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2022/1/2Browse.
  12. ^ a b c d e f JIS Z 8117: 2002 "Far infrared terminology"(Japanese Industrial Standards Committee,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)
  13. ^ "Radiant heating』- Koto bank

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