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The elementary school attached to the Tachikawa International Secondary School in Tokyo, which will be the first public elementary, junior high and high school integrated education school in Japan, will open in April 2022.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education announced on November 2021, 11, at the elementary school attached to the Tachikawa International Secondary School in 28. → Continue reading
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High school consistent education
High school consistent education(Educational education) is the previous termSecondary education(generalJunior high school(Education conducted in) and upper secondary education (general)high schoolIt is a systematic education method that coordinates the curriculum of (education conducted in Japan) and makes it consistent.Also, the schools that do thisHigh school consistent schoolIt is called (Chukou Ikankou).
A junior high school (or a high school that accepts) that goes on to a high school without an examescalatorformula""エ レ ベ ー タ ーformulaBecause it is sometimes calledSecondary schoolAnd junior and senior high schools are sometimes called in this way.However, some junior and senior high schools have to take the exam, and some schools have a selection separate from the exam, so not all students can go on to high school.
Many national and private junior high schools and high schools have provided integrated education for six years after the war.Recently, since integrated middle and high school education has become possible even in public schools, there are an increasing number of examples of introducing it in order to increase the diversity of career choices for children.
Classification / statistics
There are the following three types of schools. (Source: "School Basic Survey-3 (Final Value) Results")
- Same school type (Secondary school）
- An integrated school that integrates junior high school and high school courses.There is a first semester course equivalent to junior high school and a second semester course equivalent to high school.After completing the first semester, they have the same qualifications as those who graduated from junior high school.Normally, the second semester course is not recruited, but students may be recruited at the beginning.Also,2013 OctoberToHaiyang Secondary SchoolThe 30th grade transfer examination will be held to recruit 4 students in the second semester.
- All 48 schools.4 national schools.28 public schools.16 private schools.
- Annexed type (junior high school / high school)
- A type in which the same installer (prefectures, municipalities, etc.) installs and connects junior high school and high school.You can go on to high school from junior high school without selection.High schools also recruit from outside.In the case of private schools, there may be no external recruitment.
- All 273 pairs.Kunitachi 1 group..69 public groups.203 private groups.
- It is often installed in relatively urban areas.In addition, it is often installed in schools with convenient transportation.The establishment of prefectural junior high schools will affect local municipal junior high schools.If students can be gathered from a wide range, it has the advantage of reducing the impact on local junior high schools.On the other hand, there are cases where prefectural junior high schools set up in depopulated areas are abolished due to factors such as the capacity being cut.NiigataSuch).
- Each school has its own characteristics, such as a school that emphasizes science and mathematics education, a school that emphasizes global education, and a school that aims to train future leaders.
- When foreign students and inward students are mixed to form a home room, and when they form another class for 3 years (Kyoto Municipal Saikyo High School / Affiliated Junior High Schooland so on.
- In junior high schools, there are many places where lessons are given more than the standard number of hours of junior high school.In addition, there are many schools that take advantage of the fact that they do not take high school exams and the special provisions of the curriculum to pre-learn high school content.
- Club activities are carried out in collaboration with junior high schools and high schools, and are carried out jointly by junior high and high schools centered on the Ministry of Culture.
- Collaborative type (junior high school / high school)
- A type in which junior high schools and high schools with different installers cooperate to provide education.Middle school teachers and high school teachers provide team teaching and smoothly connect curriculums.From junior high school to high school, a simple test is used to select.High schools also accept other junior high school graduates for general exams.
- All 177 pairs.Kunitachi 2 group..Public 174 pairs.1 private group (Hideto Mito Junior High SchoolAndMito Aoi Mausoleum High SchoolandHiroaki Mito High School）.
- Often adopted in depopulated areas.Education rooted in the area is developed.
- Since it is a collaboration, the effect of integrated secondary education is smaller than that of secondary schools and side-by-side schools.There is a drawback that it is difficult to organize a unique curriculum.
The above numbers are only for junior high and high school integrated schools targeted by the "School Basic Survey" (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology statistics), and if you can go on to a high school from a junior high school without a general entrance examinationGoing to internal school) Also calls both schools integrated junior and senior high schools, so there are more practical integrated schools (such as national and private advanced schools).None of the representative integrated schools are included in the above figures.In this way, most private junior and senior high schools are actually considered to be integrated schools.The actual number of private junior and senior high schools is2012 May 5Currently 732 schools (Secondary schoolThere are 715 private junior and senior high schools that do not convert to..The tendency isNational-privateThere are many secondary schools (completely integrated secondary schools) and side-by-side schools (generally divided into separate class types and mixed types).publicThere are many cooperative types.
High school recruitment
Some schools aim to give students a certain sense of tension by accepting students from outside and to prevent the slackness peculiar to integrated schools.There are many students in the high school enrollment group of junior and senior high schools who aim to recover from the failure to take the junior high school exam.In recent years, the number of excellent outside students has decreased due to the spread of junior high school exams and the declining birthrate, so many schools have abolished high school enrollment and are shifting to complete junior high and high school integrated schools.Another factor is that the high school enrollment group's academic achievement is significantly lower than that of the internal enrollment group.
On the other hand, schools that do not recruit high schoolsComplete middle and high school integrated schoolThat is.A complete secondary school is institutionally different from a secondary school..The number of schools that stop recruiting high schools and become completely integrated high schools is gradually increasing.The background is that external students (high school enrollment group) are slower than internal students who have received a consistent curriculum for middle and high schools.Even if we continue to recruit high school students, it may be necessary to provide supplementary classes for students who have not yet taken courses for students enrolled from high school. Some schools have classes.Secondary schools also basically do not recruit late-stage courses.In addition, there are also complete secondary schools and secondary schools that allow transfer from other regions and returnees from high school and the second semester.[Source required].
In addition, although it is called a junior high and high school integrated school, many students flow out to prefectural high schools at the stage of graduating from junior high school, and there are few advancement to affiliated high schools. It is extremely low, and it has not been evaluated as a junior high and high school integrated school at all.South Kanto,KinkiThere are 6-year courses that provide integrated middle and high school education and 3-year courses that provide high school exam preparation education.Shoseisha Gakuen Toyonaka Junior High School / Shoseisha High SchoolSome schools have a peculiar phenomenon that is not seen in (excluding)AichiHigashimikawaRuralSakuragaoka Junior and Senior High School-Aichi Sangyo University Mikawa Junior and Senior High SchoolSuch).
Some private junior and senior high schools have separate "high school only" schools set up by the same school corporation.Depending on the school, the integrated junior high and high school is called "○○ junior high school", the high school is called "○○ high school", the integrated junior high and high school is 6 years, and the high school is 3 years. ..
in this case,High school-only schools tend to have lower academic abilities than junior and senior high schools, and when taking high school exams, "CleatIt may be positioned as.[Source required]As a result, even though the schools bear the same name, they may be polarized into "preparatory schools" and "difficult-to-educate schools," respectively.
In addition,uniformIs similar, but junior and senior high schools use more expensive materials,School corporations may also be trying to differentiate themselves, such as by holding separate school buildings and graduation ceremonies.[Source required]
Valais, Switzerland-UniversityAnnexPrivate school,National schoolThen, the traditional educational methodButPublic schoolThen,Tokyo Metropolitan Setagaya Technical High School 1959 から1973 There is only an example of setting up an attached junior high school.1998 OfSchool education lawIt was officially recognized by the amendment, and it became possible to actively provide integrated education.
As a school that legally takes the form of an integrated middle and high school,1999 Every time a public secondary schoolMiyazaki Prefectural Gokase Secondary School, Public annex typeOkayama Municipal Okayama Korakukan Junior and Senior High School, Matsusaka Municipal Iinan Junior High School, Matsusaka Municipal Iitaka Junior High School, public cooperation typeMie Prefectural Iinan High School, Private annex typeYokohama Kyoritsu Gakuen Junior and Senior High SchoolIt was the first time that four sets of were installed.Ministry of educationPlans to set up 500 integrated middle and high schools in Japan.
Advantages and disadvantages of integrated middle and high school education
At junior and senior high schools, when entering high school / second semesterHigh school examOne of the reasons for its popularity is that most of the six years can be spent without being overwhelmed by studying for exams, because it requires no or simple exams.This has traditionally made it possible to go on to a local public general high school if you have achieved a certain level of academic achievement.Comprehensive selectionIt was also realized by the system etc. (After that, the comprehensive selection was realized.YoungerThe influence of the disease and the restraint such as the lack of choice of course were disgusted, and it gradually declined).
One of the great merits is that the burden of taking high school exams is small,Due mainly to differences in students' own learning attitudes, the difference in academic ability among students in the school tends to become more pronounced as the grade goes up.This tendency is more pronounced at private university affiliated schools, where students can almost certainly go on to university as they are.[Source required]At the affiliated schools of national universities, there are basically no quotas for admission to maternal universities, so not many are seen.[Source required]
Since many junior and senior high schools are not recruiting at the high school stage, there is also the problem that it is difficult to go on to another school even if the school spirit does not suit you.Even so, if you go to a high school that is recruiting high schools, you can transfer to another school,Depending on the junior high school, if you take an examination at an external high school, even if you fail, you will not be eligible to go on to the attached high school internally.penaltyThere may be provisions.[Source required]In many cases, private university affiliated schools can go on to university internally without taking a general entrance examination, and therefore, difficult university affiliated schools are becoming more popular.
It has been pointed out that it is structurally inevitable that public junior and senior high schools will become "special schools only for selected students" because parents' interests tend to be prioritized when choosing a junior high school..
However, for general local public junior high schoolsYutori education,BullyingProblems orClass collapseSince there are relatively many problems such as these, there is a strong anxiety about enrolling in a public junior high school.However, since it is a junior and senior high school, it cannot be said that there is no problem with bullying.[Original research?]
A typical middle and high school integrated schoolCurriculumCompleted the contents of middle and high school by the second year of high school (fifth grade of secondary school), and in the last yearCollege entrance examIt is to study specialized in.In the current course of study, the content of junior high school is thin because of the leisure education, but the content of high school is rather rich.This method is not necessarily a crammed education because it is extended evenly over five years.However, in the 5 course of study, many schools continue to study in the junior high school stage after 2002 for the contents that were deleted in the junior high school stage and moved to high school (such as Aeon in science).
The junior and senior high school is said to be advantageous for leaving a high academic record.For exampleTokyo UniversityPrivate and national integrated schools occupy most of the top schools[Source required]..In addition, some junior and senior high school integrated schools have passed the university of some faculties.oligopolyThe condition is often regarded as a problem, but in rural areas there are cases where a large number of successful applicants come from local public high schools..
In recent years, public reforms have progressed, and prestigious public schools are picking up their academic achievements.Also,"Public junior and senior high schoolIs also being installed nationwide.Tokyo Metropolitan Koishikawa Secondary School,Chiba Prefectural Chiba Junior & Senior High SchoolEven prestigious public schools such as these are being installed one after another.
The merits of integrated education are not limited to middle and high schools, but mainly in public schoolsElementary and junior high schoolThere are also places to establish.SaitamaSaitamaIwatsuki ku(OldIwatsuki)Kaichi Junior and Senior High SchoolThen,primary schoolAlso installedElementary, middle and high school integrated schoolWill be.KindergartenからJunior college,UniversitySome school corporations have up to.By the waymost[Needs verification] OfSpecial schoolIs an integrated elementary, junior high and high school (some children may enter).
In addition,Toyota-Chubu Electric Power-JR TokaiThe three companies in the Chubu business world2006 OctoberJunior and senior high school "Haiyang Secondary School"AichiGamagori OfLaguna GamagoriOpened within.United KingdomPrestigiousEaton SchoolIs a model, and a school corporation established at the same timeKaiyo Gakuen(Chairman: Shoichiro Toyoda) Operates.
Regional integrated secondary school concept
Japanese Teachers' UnionThe regional comprehensive secondary school reported by the Second Education System Review Committee in 2 in "Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan" has the following concept.The specific contents of this concept are:Tomiji Nagao-Yoshimatsu ShibataHen "Secondary Education Principles [New Edition]" (YuhikakuSosho, first edition published in May 1986), "Chapter 5 Social Characters of Secondary Education" (Toshio OgawaWritten by), "4 Modern Education Reform and Creation of Youth Education", "High School Entrance Examination Reform and Secondary Education Reform Concept-" Six-Year Secondary School "Two Ways" (pp.6-123), page 132 It is specified in the table of.This item is described based on this table.
- Premise of connection: A 6-year regional general secondary school that connects the current junior high school and high school.The first semester will be junior high school and the second semester will be high school, and no selection test will be conducted when entering the university.It is a coeducational elementary school district system.
- Curriculum: Provides general education and specialized education as a national education, and the curriculum is flexibly organized according to the actual situation of the school or region and the choice of students.
- Administrative and financial: Enrollment in regional secondary school is guaranteed as a right for all adolescents.However, up to the first half of junior high school, there is an obligation to attend school.Regional general secondary school will be free of charge.Municipalities or prefectures are obliged to establish a regional general secondary school and are obliged to support school attendance.
Middle and high school integrated education promotion bill
Democratic PartyOn April 1998, 4,Junior high schoolとhigh schoolTheSecondary schoolIn order to introduce all the integrated middle and high school education, the "Bill on Promotion of Integrated Middle and High School Education" (1424 House of Representatives, Law No. 14) was announced.The outline of this bill is as follows..The bill to promote integrated secondary education will provide integrated secondary education to all children by unifying junior high and high schools into public integrated secondary schools within 10 years, eliminating high school entrance exams and making high schools free of charge. Was a thing.
The purpose is to clarify that secondary and high school integrated education will be implemented exclusively in secondary schools, and to establish necessary measures for promoting its establishment, thereby promoting integrated secondary and high school education.
(Definition) In this law, "junior high and high school integrated education" means to consistently provide secondary general education and specialized education according to mental and physical development on the basis of education in elementary school.
1 Implementation of integrated middle and high school education
Consistent middle and high school education (limited to those related to secondary education) is extremely important in that secondary education requires the foundation of human development for the youth who will lead the next generation. Secondary education exclusively with the goal of cultivating a spirit of self-help, independence and coexistence by providing education through diverse exchanges and experiences in the life of a school and diverse education according to individuality. It shall be carried out at the school.
2 Abolition of junior high school and high school, etc.
Secondary and high schools shall be abolished within 10 years of the enforcement of this Act at the latest, and secondary education shall be conducted exclusively in secondary schools.After secondary education is implemented in secondary schools, tuition fees will not be collected in the second half of national and public secondary schools.
3 Public secondary school development plan
Prefectural governments establish a basic plan for the development of public secondary schools in the area (hereinafter referred to as the "public secondary school development plan").
4 Junior and Senior High School Consistent Education Promotion Council
A junior high and high school integrated promotion council (hereinafter referred to as "council") may be established in each prefecture as stipulated by the ordinance.
5 Legal measuresThe State shall take legal, financial or financial measures and other measures necessary to implement measures to promote the establishment of secondary schools.
- England - Public school
- Germany- Gymnasium
- Austria - Gymnasium
- Switzerland- Gymnasium
- Netherlands-University Preparation Secondary Education (VWO)
Footnotes and references
- ^ 2013 New 4th grade (currently 3rd grade of junior high school) transfer examination ① ・ ② (including returnees) Application requirements (Kaiyo Gakuen Kaiyo Secondary School)by.
- ^ Nagoya University Faculty of Education Junior High School/High School
- ^ Cooperation between national schools and public schools.In particularYokohama Junior High School attached to the Faculty of Education, Yokohama National UniversityとKanagawa Prefectural Koryo High School,Junior High School attached to the Faculty of Education, Wakayama UniversityとWakayama Prefectural Seirin High School
- ^ Characteristics of private schools in this prefecture-Private school promotion business (Ibaraki Prefecture General Affairs Department, General Affairs Division, Private School Promotion Office)According to "Collaboration-type integrated middle and high school" in "Integrated middle and high school education".
- ^ "National School Directory 2013 Edition" (Hara Shobo,2012 May 12Issuance)17 private secondary schools(2012May 3ToShigaPrivate school councilIn the same year, we received a report from the government that the installation approval was appropriate.May 4Opened inMIHO Aesthetics Secondary SchoolIncluding,2011 May 12ToGunmaReceived a report from the private school council that abolition approval is appropriateGenesis Secondary Schoolexcept for. ),766 private junior high schools(Of the 733 private junior high schools that are active, 705 are co-located with private high schools and provide integrated middle and high school education.(It is hard to say that the awareness of integrated middle and high school education is very strong.Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University Junior High School-Gifu Shotoku Gakuen High School(Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University High School The2012 May 3Was abolished),Tenri Junior High School-Tenri High SchoolandImabari Meitoku Junior High School-Imabari Meitoku High School(With Imabari Meitoku Junior High SchoolImabari Meitoku High School Yada Branch SchoolWe provide integrated middle and high school education only with and. )including. ),Five of the private junior high schools that do not have private high schools juxtaposed are junior high schools that provide integrated education with high schools.(Hideto Mito Junior High School,Kitaura Saniku Junior High School,Okinawa Saniku Junior High School,Keio University Regular ClubandKeio Junior High School),There are 5 private high schools that do not juxtapose private junior high schools but provide integrated education with private junior high schools.(Mito Aoi Mausoleum High School,Hiroaki Mito High School,Keio Shiki High School,Keio Women's High SchoolandKeio High School).This figure is based on the system for Nanzan Junior High School / High School Boys'Club and Nanzan Junior High School / High School Girls' Club.Nanzan Junior and Senior High SchoolIt is counted as one school ofJiyu GakuenIn terms of the system, Jiyu Gakuen Men's Department, Jiyu Gakuen Women's Department, and Jiyu Gakuen High School, and the official website is separated from Jiyu Gakuen Men's Department and Jiyu Gakuen Women's Department.・ It was counted as two schools, high school and free school girls' club middle school and high school.In this document, 2May 3Closed toShonan Linus Gakuen Junior and Senior High School(The school is closed due to the system) is included in the count.By the wayElementary and middle school integrated educationThere are 19 private junior high schools(St. Ursula Academy Eichi Elementary School / Junior High School / High SchoolProvides both elementary and junior high school integrated education and middle and high school integrated education (St. Ursula Academy Eichi's Middle School Course-Ursula Gakuin Eichi's Middle and High School Integrated EducationBy)Elementary and junior high schoolとHigh school consistent schoolIncluded in both),There are 5 private junior high schools that do not have private elementary schools or high schools.(,Seino Gakuen Junior High School,Seisa Nagoya Junior High School,Ogura Nisshinkan Junior High SchoolandIizuka Nisshinkan Junior High School(Iizuka Nisshinkan Junior High SchoolProvided integrated middle and high school educationNissinkan High School The2008 May 7ToFukuokaPrivate school councilAbolition approval report)),33 private junior high schools are closed(30 of the closed private junior high schools have active private high schools side by side, and both private junior high schools and private high schools are closed (2 schools)Eimeikan Junior and Senior High SchoolAnd 2012May 3Closed toShonan Linus Gakuen Junior and Senior High School),OitaNakatsu OfNakatsu Don Bosco Gakuen Junior High SchoolOnly one school is a closed private junior high school where neither a private high school nor a private elementary school is juxtaposed.
- ^ Public junior high and high school integrated school entrance examination status (flash report junior high school entrance examination data 2012)According to "About the types of integrated junior and senior high schools".
- ^ Author "There is only a private junior and senior high school!" (Treasure IslandNew book,2001 October"(2) Pre-emptive lessons in" What is the guidance content of a private junior and senior high school that won by one person? "(Pp.57-82)" "(Pp.67-68).
- ^ Outline of Integrated High School Education: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology→ (4) Future maintenance goals
- ^ Hidenori Fujita"Educational reform ... Creating a school in the symbiotic era"Iwanami Shoten〈Iwanami Shinsho> (Original 1997), pp. 79-86.ISBN 400430511X.
- ^ 19 medical school pass record and evaluation (2007, Education Reform Kawaraban (Katsuhiro Kobayashi))
- ^ "National School Directory 2013 Edition" (Hara Shobo,2012 May 12According to (issued), Eimeikan Middle School and Eimeikan High School are listed as closed.
- ^ Outline of the bill on promotion of integrated middle and high school educationQuoted from.
- ^ Yumi Yamamoto-Bunro Fuji-Hiroshi SanukiHen "Is this okay? Elementary and junior high school-Theory and reality ”(New Japan Publisher, "Chapter 2011 Why did this problem come up?" In "Part 9 What is the problem of integrated elementary and junior high school?" (First edition published in September 1)Yumi YamamotoWritten by "2 School System and Business World" (pp.20-21).
- Junior high school - high school - Secondary school
- Middle school exam - High school exam
- High school consistent school
- Kindergarten, middle and high school integrated education - Kindergarten, junior high and high school - Elementary, middle and high school consistent education - Middle and high school integrated education - Elementary, middle and high school integrated education
- Junior high school teacher - High school teacher
- Old high school - Old junior high school - High school
- Special science class - Super science high school
- List of public junior high and high schools in Japan
Related books and related literature
- General remarks on integrated middle and high school education
- Monthly High School Education Editorial Department "Guide for Promotion of Integrated Education for Middle and High Schools" (Gakuji Shuppan,2000 May 7Issue)
- Junior and Senior High School, Faculty of Education, The University of TokyoWritten "Middle and high school integrated education 1/2 century-a straight line to the possibility of school" (Tokyo Books,1998 May 4Issue)
- Masami Yamazumi-Heizo Nakajima-Kenji Yamazaki・ Toshihiko Koshida, "Essay on Consistent Education for Middle and High Schools" ("World"1997 OctoberNo. Collection, pp.257-267)
- "The Future of Integrated Secondary Education-Diversifying Secondary Education-" ("Educational Review", Vol. 631 (Collection)1999 May 11Issued), pp.10-41)
- Ota and ShimasaWritten by "What are prestigious junior high school children learning? Educational power of 12 eastern and western difficult schools" (Diamond Company,2012 May 11Issue)
- Ryusuke Suzuki, "Integrated High Schools Selected by" Class "" (Gakken Marketing,2008 May 4Issue)
- Ryusuke Suzuki, "Prestigious Junior High School, Best Class" (Gakken Publishing,2008 May 2Issue)
- Junior and senior high school integrated school details
- Junior and Senior High School attached to the Faculty of Education, University of Tokyo, "Integrated Junior and Senior High School 1/2 Century-Challenge to the Possibility of Schools"Tokyo Books,1998 May 4Issue)
- Secondary School, University of TokyoEd. "New edition: Achievement for the future that grows through mutual learning-Challenge of consistent high school education" (Akashi bookstore,2010 May 6First edition issued)
- Ryusuke Suzuki, Kaiyo Gakuen's Changing Education in Japan (Japan Business Publisher, Issued April 2013, 8)
- High school consistent education - Ministry of education