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🛋 | Summary of system revision in 2022 | What will change the money related to old age and housing?


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Summary of system revisions in 2022 | What will change in money related to old age and housing?

 
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In addition, regarding the acquisition of pre-owned houses, while the existing age requirement has been abolished, it has become a requirement that the house conforms to the new earthquake resistance standards.
 

In 2022, there are many important revisions such as the revision of the mortgage deduction, the revision of the public pension system and the defined contribution pension system ... → Continue reading

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    Age requirements

    Seismic standard

    Seismic standardWhat is (Taishinkijun)?Building,Civil engineeringStructuredesignWhen doing, those structures are minimalShockproofIt is a standard that guarantees the ability and permits construction.

    In Japan, for buildingsBuilding Standards LawThe standards stipulated by laws and regulations such as andNuclear power plantSuch as important structures道路-BridgeCivil engineering structures such as these have their own standards.Here, the earthquake resistance standards of buildings are described.

    the term

    Horizontal seismic intensity
    Horizontal acceleration applied to the structure during an earthquakeAcceleration of gravityRatio to (eg horizontal seismic intensity 0.1 = 0.1g).
    Japanese Meteorological AgencyRepresents the magnitude of the shaking announced by(I.e.Although the name is similar to, it is a completely different concept.
    Owned horizontal strength
    Proof stress used for secondary design in the structural calculation method called "calculation of allowable stress, etc."When a very large force is applied, each member sequentially shifts from a recoverable region called "elastic region" to a region called "plastic region" where strain remains, but they accumulate and collapse a certain floor. There is a horizontal force that leads to.This is the holding horizontal strength of the floor.There are several methods for analyzing what kind of collapse is used, and even if the structure is the same, the values ​​may differ depending on the designer's policy.In practice, it is mostly calculated using a structural analysis program.

    Changes in earthquake resistance standards in Japan

    • 1920/(Taisho9 years)12/1 -(Act No. 8 of 37) Enforced
      Article 12 stipulates that "the structure, equipment, and site of the competent minister may be required for hygiene, security, and air defense."
      As a structural design law in the Urban Building Law Enforcement Regulations (Ministry of Interior Ordinance No. 9 of 37)Allowable stress design methodIs adopted, and requires structural strength against vertical force due to its own weight and load.
      However, at this point, there are no provisions regarding seismic force.
    • 1923/(Taisho 12)9/1 - Taisho Kanto Earthquake(Great Kanto Earthquake) Occurrence
    • 1924/(Taisho 13) --Revision of the Urban Building Law Enforcement Regulations
      In the allowable stress design, the material safety factor is tripled and the seismic force requires a horizontal seismic intensity of 3.
    • 1950/(Showa25 years)11/23 --Abolition of Urban Building Law, enforcement of Building Standard Law (former earthquake resistance)
      Specific seismic standards were stipulated in the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance (Cabinet Order No. 25 of 338).
      The seismic force in the allowable stress design was raised to a horizontal seismic intensity of 0.2.
    • 1968/(43)5/16 - Tokachi-oki EarthquakeOutbreak
    • 1971/(46)6/17 --Revision of the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance
      Based on the damage caused by the Tokachi-oki earthquake, the standard for RC sashes was strengthened.
    • 1978/(53)6/12 - Miyagiken-oki EarthquakeOccurrence.
    • 1981/(56)6/1 --Revision of Building Standard Law Enforcement Ordinance (New Earthquake Resistance)
      The concept of primary design and secondary design was introduced.
    • 1995/(Heisei7 years)1/17 - Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake(Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake) Occurrence
    • 2000/(12) June 6-Revision of the Building Standards Act and its enforcement order
      The concept of performance regulation has been introduced, and in addition to the conventional calculation of allowable stress, etc., the limit strength calculation method is accepted as the structural calculation method.

    Current regulations

    Provisions of the Building Standard Law

    • The structural strength of a building is stipulated in Article 20 of the Building Standards Act as follows.
    The building must meet the following standards as a structure that is safe against its own weight, load capacity, snow cover, wind pressure, earth pressure and water pressure, as well as earthquakes and other vibrations and impacts.
    1. Comply with the technical standards stipulated by Cabinet Order regarding the structural methods necessary for the safety of buildings.
    2. In addition to the buildings specified in the preceding item, the following buildings shall have safety that can be confirmed by structural calculation in accordance with the standards specified by Cabinet Order.
    B. Buildings listed in Article 6, Paragraph 1, Item 2 or Item 3
    In addition to the items listed in Roy, buildings with a height of 13 meters or eaves exceeding 9 meters, the main structural parts (excluding floors, roofs and stairs) are made of stone, brick, concrete blocks, etc. Unreinforced concrete structure and other similar structural structures
    • Buildings listed in Article 6, Paragraph 1, Item 1 = Special buildings used for the purposes listed in Appendix 1 (i), and the total floor area of ​​the parts used for those purposes exceeds 100 square meters.
    • Buildings listed in Article 6, Paragraph 1, Item 2 = Wooden buildings with 3 or more floors, or a total area of ​​500 square meters, height of 13 meters, or eaves height of more than 9 meters
    • Buildings listed in Article 6, Paragraph 1, Item 3 = Non-wooden buildings with two or more floors or a total area of ​​more than 2 square meters
    • The technical standards for the structure according to Article 20, Paragraph 1 of the Building Standards Law are the building standards for each structural type (wooden construction, masonry construction, reinforced concrete block construction, steel frame construction, reinforced concrete construction, steel frame reinforced concrete construction, unreinforced concrete construction). It is stipulated in Chapter 3, Sections 1 to 7-2 (Articles 36 to 80-3) of the Law Enforcement Ordinance.
    • The structural calculation method according to Article 20, Paragraph 2 of the Building Standards Act is stipulated in Chapter 3, Section 8 (Articles 81 to 106) of the Building Standards Act Enforcement Ordinance.

    <Appendix 1>

    (I)(Ro)(Ha)(To)
    UsageFloor to be used for the purpose of column (i)- Total floor area of ​​the part used for the purpose of column (i) (in the case of item (1), it is limited to the audience seats, and in the case of item (5), it is limited to the part on the third floor or higher)Total floor area of ​​the part used for the purpose of column (i) (in the case of items (2) and (4), only when there is a patient accommodation facility on the second floor)
    (1)Theaters, movie theaters, theaters, viewing halls, public halls, assembly halls, and similar items specified by Cabinet Order3rd floor and aboveMore than 200 square meters (1,000 square meters for the exterior bleachers)
    (2)Hospitals, clinics (limited to those with patient accommodation facilities), hotels, inns, boarding houses, apartment buildings, dormitories, and similar items specified by Cabinet Order.3rd floor and above300 square meters or more
    (3)Schools, gymnasiums and similar items specified by Cabinet Order3rd floor and above2,000 square meters or more
    (4)Department stores, markets, exhibition halls, cabarets, cafes, nightclubs, bars, dance halls, amusement halls and similar items specified by Cabinet Order.3rd floor and above3,000 square meters or more500 square meters or more
    (5)Warehouses and other similar items specified by Cabinet Order200 square meters or more1,500 square meters or more
    (6)Car garages, car repair shops, and similar items specified by Cabinet Order3rd floor and above150 square meters or more

    Structural calculation method

    Currently, the following four structural calculation methods are approved by the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance.

    1. Calculation of allowable stress, etc. (Enforcement Ordinance Article 82-Article 82-5) -A method that has been used conventionally.Also called a specification.
    2. Limit strength calculation (Article 82-6 of the Enforcement Ordinance) -A new method introduced from the 2000 revision.Also called performance regulation.
    3. Energy Law (Enforcement Ordinance Article 81 proviso, 17 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Notification No. 631) -A method newly introduced in 2004.
    4. Time history response analysis (Enforcement Ordinance Article 81-2, Ministry of Construction Notification No. 12, 1461) --Use is obligatory for skyscrapers over 60 m in height.

    Calculation of allowable stress, etc.

    Check (stress due to load) <(allowable stress) at the material level.Do not cause major damage in small and medium-sized earthquakes.

    Strong Points
    Elastic stress analysis is possible.Can be calculated manually
    Satisfactory criteria and procedures are clear.
    Disadvantage
    The basis of the safety factor, the meaning is unclear
    Non-linear structures cannot be evaluated. (Skyscrapers, seismic isolation, etc.)

    (ルート1-1、1-2、ルート2−1、2−2、2−3、ルート3が存在する。ルート2−3はあまり採用されない。)

    • In the primary design, it is confirmed that the stress level at the time of earthquake of the main part in terms of structural strength does not exceed the allowable stress level (Enforcement Ordinance Article 82-1).
    • In the secondary design, the deformation due to the earthquake and the proof stress based on the material strength are calculated, and it is confirmed that the criteria are satisfied (Enforcement Ordinance Article 82-2-4).
    Type of buildingPrimary design (calculation of allowable stress)Secondary design (calculation of retained horizontal strength)
    Stress degree (Article 82-1)Interlayer deformation angle (Article 82-2)Rigidity (Article 82-3)Eccentricity (Article 82-3)Owned horizontal strength (Article 82-3)
    Heavy snow areaGeneral area
    Buildings other than specific buildingsG + P + 0.35S + KG + P + KNo need for calculation
    Specific buildingHeight 31m or lessWithin 200 minutes 110/6 or moreLess than 100/15Rigidity /EccentricityIf is out of the specified value, calculate the following
    Height 31m or moreThe horizontal strength of each floor, which is determined by the material strength, is Quun or higher.
    • G is the force due to the fixed load, P is the force due to the load, S is the force due to the snow load, and K is the force due to the seismic force.
    • The force K due to the seismic force of each part is calculated by applying the following layer shear force Qi to each layer (Enforcement Ordinance Article 88).
    Qi = ∑Wi × Ci
    ∑ Wi is the total weight of the upper part supported by each floor (fixed load + load capacity. In heavy snow areas, snow load is also added)
    Layer shear force coefficient Ci = Z × Rt × Ai × Co
    • Standard shear force coefficient Co
    Primary design (calculation of allowable stress)Secondary design (calculation of retained horizontal strength)
    Type XNUMX ground wooden building0.31.0
    Buildings other than the above0.2
    • Height distribution coefficient Ai
    Is the total weight of the upper part supported by the floor divided by the total weight of the above-ground part of the building.
    T is the primary natural period of the building
    • Vibration characteristic coefficient Rt
    T
    Tc ≤ T <2Tc
    2Tc ≤ T
    T is the primary natural period of the building, and Tc is 0.4 (type 1 ground), 0.6 (type 2 ground), 0.8 (type 3 ground) depending on the ground type.
    • Earthquake area coefficient Z (Ministry of Construction Notification No. 55, 1793)
    RegionEarthquake area coefficient Z
    Shizuoka1.2
    Hokkaido (Nemuro / Kushiro / Tokachi / Hidaka branch office), Aomori (XNUMX / Kamijusan district), Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima (whole Hama-dori, Nakadori, Fukushima-shi, Nihonmatsu-shi, Tamura-shi, Date-gun, Adachi-gun, Higashi-Shirakawa-gun, Ishikawa-gun, Tamura-gun), Tochigi, Gunma, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Yamanashi, Nagano, Toyama (Toyama / Takaoka / Kushiro district), Ishikawa (other than Oku Noto district), Fukui , Gifu, Aichi, Mie, Shiga, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo, Nara, Wakayama, Tottori (Inaba region), Tokushima (other than Mima / Miyoshi), Kagawa (Okawa / Kida), Kagoshima (Amami region)1.0
    Hokkaido (Ishikari / Sorachi / Usuki / Watashima / Hiyama / Iburi Branch Office, Furano City, Sorachi County, Yufutsu County, Southern Kamikawa County, Abashiri Branch Office except Monbetsu), Aomori (Tosei / Nakahiro Nankuro / Northwest XNUMX / Shimokita district), Akita, Yamagata, Fukushima (Aizu area, Nakadori, Koriyama city, Shirakawa city, Sukagawa city, Iwase county, Nishi Shirakawa district), Niigata, Tomiyama (Shinkawa district), Ishikawa (Oku Noto district) , Tottori (Hakuya region), Shimane, Okayama, Hiroshima, Tokushima (Mima / Miyoshi), Kagawa (other than Okawa / Kida), Ehime, Kochi, Kumamoto (Kumamoto City, Hitoyoshi City, Kikuchi City, Aso City, Koshi City, Shimomashiro) County, Kikuchi County, Aso County, Kamimashiro County, Yashiro County, Kuma County), Oita (Oita City, Beppu City, Saiki City, Usuki City, Tsukumi City, Taketa City, Bungo Ono City, Yufu City, Kusu County), Miyazaki0.9
    Hokkaido (Rumoi / Soya branch office, Monbetsu city among Amisato branch office, Monbetsu county, Asahikawa city, Shibetsu city, Nayoro city among Kamikawa branch office, northern part of Kamikawa county, Nakagawa county), Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto (Yayo city) , Arao City, Minamata City, Tamana City, Honda City, Yamaka City, Ushifuka City, Udo City, Kamimakusa City, Usa City, Tamana County, Kamoto County, Ashikita County, Amakusa County), Oita (Nakatsu City, Hita City, Bungotakada City, Kitsuki City, Usa City, Higashikuni Higashi County, Hayami County), Kagoshima (other than the Amami region)0.8
    Okinawa0.7
    The basis of the seismic area coefficient was in 1951Hiroshi Kawasumi Architectural Institute of Japan"Distribution of Earthquake Risk in Japan" published in the magazine of[1]According to the attached figure, commonly known as "Kawakado Map".
    The earthquake area coefficient of Shizuoka prefecture is 1.0 in the notification of the Ministry of Construction, but it is set to 1.2 by the Shizuoka prefecture earthquake area coefficient according to the Shizuoka prefecture building structure design guideline.
    • The interlayer deformation angle of the primary design may be 120/1 or less if there is no risk of significant damage to a specific building part due to deformation of the main part in terms of structural strength due to seismic force.
    • Need for each floorOwned horizontal strengthQun is calculated by the following (Article 82-4 of the Enforcement Ordinance).
    Qun = Ds × Fes × Qud
    Ds is on each floorStructural characteristic coefficient(Determined by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism depending on the damping property and toughness according to the structural method)
    Fes is the shape characteristic coefficient of each floor (RigidityAnd determined by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism according to the eccentricity rate)
    Qud is the horizontal force generated on each floor by the seismic force (Co = 1.0 in the above Qi)
    • Even in the same building, a calculation route different from the X-axis and Y-axis may be adopted.For example, consider route 1 for the X-axis and route 3 for the Y-axis.However, a mixture of 2-1 and 2-2 and 2-3 is not desirable.
    • The shape coefficient Fes premium on Route 3 is limited to the relevant floor.
    • For the structural characteristic coefficient Ds in Route 3, different numerical values ​​may be used for each floor and examination direction.
    • If the structure type is different depending on the floor in the same building, different calculations will be performed according to each structure type.As a general rule, it is the same route.
    • If different structure types are different on the same floor, it may be adapted according to the actual situation.
    • The stress increase according to the brace sharing ratio is applied to the primary design stress of all the target groups.If the premium rate differs depending on the floor, the beams at the boundary may be premiumd by the average value of the premium rate of each floor.

    Limit strength calculation

    Confirm (destruction probability) <(allowable destruction probability) at the entire structure & member level.It is a design method that assumes large-scale snowfall and storms that a building may encounter very rarely during its existence.Compared to the allowable stress design assuming small and medium earthquakes, large earthquakes are assumed.

    Strong Points
    Probabilistic performance comparison of structures is possible
    You can set the usage limit, repair limit, and safety limit.
    Disadvantage
    Statistical values ​​of load and member strength are required.
    The calculation is complicated.
    • In the primary design (damage limit), the seismic force acting on each floor of the above-ground part of the building due to the acceleration due to the earthquake and the inter-story displacement generated on each floor are calculated according to the following, and the seismic force is the damage limit proof stress. Make sure that the stress level generated in the cross section of the main part of the structural strength of each floor of the building does not exceed the allowable stress level for the force generated in a short period of time, and that the load strength against the horizontal force of each floor of the building is not exceeded. The deformation angle should not exceed 200/1 (120/1 if there is no risk of significant damage to the building part due to deformation of the main part in terms of structural strength due to seismic force). Confirm (Article 82-6-3 of the Enforcement Ordinance).
    • In the secondary design (safety limit), the seismic force acting on each floor of the building due to the acceleration due to the earthquake is calculated according to the following, and it is confirmed that the seismic force does not exceed the possessed horizontal bearing capacity (enforcement). Article 82-6-5 of the Ordinance.
    • The seismic forces at the damage limit and the safety limit are associated so as to be the same as the allowable stress and the possessed horizontal strength in the calculation of allowable stress, etc., respectively.[Source required].
    Primary design (damage limit)Secondary design (safety limit)
    Damage limit natural period Td (s)Damage limit proof stress Pdi (kN)Safety limit natural period Ts (s)Possessed horizontal strength Psi (kN)
    Td <0.16(0.64 + 6Td) × mi × Bdi × Z × GsTs <0.16(3.2 + 30Ts) × mi × Bsi × Fh × Z × Gs
    0.16 ≤ Td <0.641.6mi × Bdi × Z × Gs0.16 ≤ Ts <0.648mi x Bsi x Fh x Z x Gs
    0.64 ≤ Td1.024mi × Bdi × Z × Gs / Td0.64 ≤ Ts5.12mi x Bsi x Fh x Z x Gs / Ts
    mi is the mass of each floor divided by the gravitational acceleration, Bdi and Bsi are coefficients representing the distribution of acceleration generated on each floor, Z is the seismic area coefficient, and Gs isSurface ground amplification factor, Fh is the reduction rate of acceleration due to vibration damping in the safety limit natural period.

    Energy law

    The notification "Structural calculation such as seismic calculation based on energy balance" is shown.

    Time history response analysis

    • Article 81-2 of the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance stipulates the following, and it is obligatory to dynamically analyze using seismic waveforms with the properties specified in the notification.
    The structural calculation of a skyscraper is performed by continuously grasping the force and deformation generated in each part of the building due to the load and external force according to the structural method of the building, the nature of vibration, etc. Must be structurally calculated according to the standards set by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as being able to confirm that it is safe in terms of structural strength.
    • According to the notification, the magnitude of the seismic force is the acceleration on the liberation engineering base (ground with S-wave velocity of 400 m / s or more).Response spectrumThe magnitude (notification spectrum) of (attenuation constant 5%) is specified.
    Cycle T (s)Acceleration response spectrum (m / s / s)
    Rare seismic motion (level 1)Extremely rare seismic motion (level 2)
    T <0.16(0.64 + 6T) Z(3.2 + 30T) Z
    0.16 ≤ T <0.641.6Z8Z
    0.64 ≤ T(1.024 / T) Z(5.12 / T) Z

    However, T is the primary natural period for building design (unit: s), and Z is the seismic area coefficient.

    • The duration of the seismic wave used is said to be 60 seconds or more.
    • Confirm that the main parts of the building's structural strength are not damaged by the rare earthquake motion, and that the building does not collapse or collapse due to the extremely rare earthquake motion.

    Seismic standards for nuclear power plants

    Seismic standards for nuclear power plants are stipulated by the "Seismic Design Examination Guidelines for Power Reactor Facilities".This was enacted in 1981 (Showa 56) and revised in 2006 (Heisei 18).Many nuclear power plants are designed based on the guidelines established in 1981.The nuclear power plants created before the guideline was established use almost the same method as this guideline, but the waves used for dynamic analysis are different.Below, we describe the criteria for seismic design, focusing on the buildings attached to nuclear power plants.

    1981/Seismic Design Examination Guidelines

    As mentioned above, many nuclear power plants in Japan are designed according to this guideline.[2]..Hereinafter, this guideline will be referred to as the old guideline in the text.

    In this, the place where the power reactor facility will be installed is described as follows. "The reactor facility for power generation must have sufficient seismic resistance against any assumed seismic force so that it does not trigger a major accident. In principle, the buildings and structures should be rigid structures. ,Important buildings and structuresbedrockSupportI have to let you. In this way, the old guideline required that the main building of the power plant be installed on the bedrock.

    Also, depending on the importance of the reactor facility,EarthquakeFrom the viewpoint of the environmental impact of radiation that may be generated by, it is divided into three stages: A class, B class, and C class (the most important of the A classes are classified into As class). The design seismic force is specified according to each.

    2006/Seismic Design Examination Guidelines

    As "Seismic Design Examination Guidelines for Power Reactor Facilities" on September 2006, 9Nuclear Safety CommissionIs decided[3]..Hereinafter referred to as the current guideline.

    The old guideline has been used for about 15 years since the old guideline.But in the meantimeSeismology,Earthquake engineeringAlthough the technology has made great progress in Japan, their latest findings have hardly been reflected.Therefore, the current guidelines were established in 2006.

    As mentioned above, the old guideline required that important facilities such as the main building of the power plant be rocked on the bedrock, but the current guideline states that "buildings and structures have sufficient support performance."groundMust be supported by. "

    In addition, the importance of the reactor facility has been changed from four levels to three levels of S class (As class and A class in the old guideline), B class, and C class.

    Seismic standards in other countries

    米 国

    The United States stipulates basic policies in the structural design standard IBC (International Building Code).The detailed load specifications used in the actual design refer to ASCE 7, AISC (steel structure), and ACI (concrete structure).

    Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
    ASCE criteria are Minimum Design Loads for Buildings And Other Structures

    Canada

    See CSA (Canadian Standard Associations) for Canada.Refer to each state's regulations for detailed load regulations used in the actual design.

    • CAN / CSA-S16-01: Design of Steel Structure (English: Limit States Design of Steel Structure)
    • CAN / CSA-A23.3-04: Design of concrete buildings

    Europe

    Eurocode, the unified European standard, has the following mechanism.For the load, refer to the National Annex of each country.

    • Eurocode 0: Basics of structural design
    • Eurocode 1: Action on structures
    • Eurocode 2: Concrete building design
    • Eurocode 3: Steel Structure Building Design
    • Eurocode 4: Design of synthetic structures
    • Eurocode 5: Wooden building design
    • Eurocode 6: Masonry building design
    • Eurocode 7: Ground foundation design
    • Eurocode 8: Seismic design of structures

    Chugoku

    The structural design standards in China are as follows.

    • GB50009-2012: Load regulation in structural design of buildings
    • GB50010-2010: Design of concrete buildings
    • GB50011-2010: Seismic design of buildings
    • GB50017-2003: Steel structure building design

    The design seismic motion has two reproduction periods of 50 years and 2500 years.

    Related item

    footnote

    1. ^ Hiroshi Kawasumi, "Distribution of Seismic Hazard in Japan" Journal of architecture and building science 66 (773), 3-8, 1951-04-20, NOT 110003778860
    2. ^ Seismic Design Examination Guidelines for Power Reactor Facilities (Old)
    3. ^ Seismic Design Examination Guidelines for Power Reactor Facilities (New)

    References


     

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