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👶 | [Rainy day ending] One boy who fulfilled his dream of "all-you-can-eat cup ramen" on his birthday, but when he started eating ...?


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[Rainy day ending] One boy who fulfilled his dream of "all-you-can-eat cup ramen" on his birthday, but when he started eating ...?

 
If you write the contents roughly
But why did you request all-you-can-eat cup ramen on your birthday?
 

The editorial department picks up and delivers topical posts on Twitter!This time, I asked my mom what she wanted to eat on her birthday ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Cup Noodle

Cup Noodle(Cup noodles) means dry noodles or raw noodles[1]Such asInstant noodlesContainers that can be used as tableware (CupPut it in a heat-resistant and water-resistant container, etc.Brightness (ingredients)Is attached.Japan OfAndo BaifuFor the first timeProductsSucceeded in conversion and spread as a simple food all over the world[2].

The official name is “Improvised Cup Noodle”[1].. The contents areInstant noodleStuffCup Noodles,Japanese buckwheat noodles,UdonStuffCup soba,Cup udon,Fried noodlesWind thingsCup fried noodles(Instant yakisoba)Also called.

Most products are cookedHot waterAll you have to do is pour in (some products that use yakisoba or raw noodles require a hot water drain).The cup of this productkitchenwareAt the same timeTableware(It also plays the role of a package at the time of display). There are also many types that heat and cook in a microwave oven.

Noodle foods to be cupped include a wide variety of noodles, including oriental wheat noodles such as ramen and udon noodles, pasta (western wheat noodles), and rice noodles such as rice noodles and pho.in shortfreeze dryBy processing, it is possible to make any noodles into cup noodles[Annotation 1]Is.Nowadays, cup versions of foreign noodle foods are available in Japan as well.

Also, due to the dietary habits of the Western folk culture, some of the overseas market products have shorter noodle lengths than domestic products, due to the history of the origin of the main meal described below.

History

Ando Baifu 1971/(Showa46 years)May 9Released inCup NoodlesIs the first product (excluding pre-trial sales)[Annotation 2]). Nowadays it is also eaten as a staple food, but initiallySnackHas been developed with a view to popularization asWesternWhen I went to sell instant noodles, I didn't have a bowl for ramen, so I put it in a paper cup.Chicken RamenThe idea was to cut in, pour hot water and sample with a fork.

It is a remnant that cup noodles have a smaller noodle capacity (noodle weight 90-100g) than regular bag noodles (about 60-70g).the 1980sUntil the second half, other manufacturers followed suit,1988/(Showa 63)Ace cockStarted selling the "Super Cup" series, which declared the "Large size" with a noodle capacity of 90g, which is equivalent to bag noodles, and after this became a big hit, each company followed suit.Staple foodLarge-capacity products (generally noodle weights of 80g or more), which are intended to be popularized as noodles, will also play a part in the mainstream of cup noodles.Later, it was decided to manufacture "large size" cup noodles.On the other hand, Tokyo Ramen Co., Ltd. also sells individually wrapped noodles and mini-cup noodles, which are about half the normal size of mini-sized products (about 30g of noodles) for the L class (female customers and young people).

1972/ OfAsama Sanso IncidentAt the time ofriot policeOn the TV, a worker is eating cup noodles given as emergency food in the coldLive broadcastSince it was broadcasted frequently in Japan, cup noodles became known and spread throughout Japan.[3].

In the European and American markets,chopsticksAt the beginning of the launch of Cup Noodles, it was a foldable type because the culture of Cup Noodles had not penetrated.forkThe product accompanied by was also present in Japan. There are still foreign market products with forks similar to this attached. In addition, because of this, there was a time when the cup noodles were sold with a plastic fork attached instead of the disposable chopsticks when they were purchased.

container

The container is usuallyStyrofoamOrpaperIs used.Styrofoam is used because it has good heat retention and heat insulation properties and is not hot when held.In the case of a paper container, this point is overcome by making the outside of the container cardboard-shaped.A typical one is "Sapporo Ichiban Cup star'[4]Is.Recent ones have a stepless container just by making the cup a double structure.In recent years, some paper products, such as Styrofoam, have a space (existing in the Nisshin Cup Noodle series).Compared to paper containers, Styrofoam can make more diverse shapes, and the early ones are all Styrofoam, but NISSIN FOODSPatentBecause of the application, latecomers mainly made paper containers.AlsoTokushima millingSome products, such as "Kin-chan Ramen", use multi-layered non-foamed styrene case cups even for domestic products.There are also single-layer styrene cup products in foreign products.

Most dried noodle types have noodles directly in the container,Raw type noodleVacuum packed all that noodles包装After that, it is in a state of being put in a container.

The main container is usually disposed of, but it may be reused, for example, "Eating chicken ramen in a cup noodle container" (however, the structure cannot be used for a long period of time, so it is only for simple use.[Annotation 3]).

Usually, the seal is made of paper or similar on the top surface, and this part is finally removed from the main container after eating.This is not the case if the container is made of plastic and the lid is also made of plastic. In this case, the main body container can be reused together with the lid.This can be used to reuse the entire container for another food item, or for simple storage other than food items.[Annotation 3].

Due to the manufacturing process of the sealing film that seals the main body of the cup noodles, it is unavoidable that the sealing film is penetrated by the transport gear (sprocket) of the conveyor, and regular small holes may be observed.In some cases, there may be marks on the seal paper.Some NISSIN FOODS products have a sealing sticker attached to the bottom of the sealing film for cooking, and this sticker also serves as an opening aid when removing the sealing film.

Topics about Styrofoam containers
1998/Ministry of the Environment (currentlyMinistry of the Environment) Submitted by the SPEED '98 list (“Environment Agency's response policy to the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals”), by pouring high-temperature hot water from a polystyrene foam containerEnvironmental hormones(Styrene dimer, styrene trimmer) was eluted, and it was criticized by the mass media that taking it with soup and noodles would have an effect on the human body, and each manufacturer urgently switched to a paper container, which became a big problem. It was.
Later, the theory was re-examined by the cup noodle industry and2000/OldMITI・The former Environment Agency announced that "no evidence of endocrine disrupting effects can be found" and "most reports denial of effects"2006/The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Health and Safety announced that animal experiments have confirmed its effects on living organisms. On the other hand, it was argued that the result was under the condition of ingesting 10 times or more of the usual amount, and it is unknown how much the actual effect on the human body is.
Styrofoam (polystyreneAs mentioned above, suspicion of substances related to endocrine disruptors was cleared in November 2000, and is excluded from the list. But,2004/Of the health food that was popular at the timePerilla oil(Sesame oil) Became a topic as melting this styrene cup,National Life CenterInvestigated, and found that when this perilla oil was put in a cup and poured with boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius, a certain amount of dissolution was observed, calling attention to consumers.[5].
2008/AlsoJapan Instant Food Industry AssociationNot only mustard oil and sesame oilFlaxseed oil,Coconut oil(Coconut oil) is also said to melt when placed in cup noodles in a styrene container.[6].

調理

Most products are boiled in water and cooked in 3-5 minutes (various widths of about 1-5 minutes). In the first half of the 1980s, companies released dry noodle type products with a cooking time of 1 minute, but the noodles grow before they finish eating[Annotation 4]Due to problems such as the above, it is not well received by consumers, and most of them have a short lifespan, and only some types of yakisoba survive.[Annotation 5].. In the case of yakisoba type that does not use soup, it is necessary to remove the hot water. There are also products such as raw type noodles that are boiled and then poured again. However, the one using raw type noodles tends to have a slightly shorter cooking time.[Annotation 6]..As a special cooking method, there is a so-called "Katayakisoba" series of yaki udon noodles, which is made by cooking noodles in hot water instead of cooking them in hot water, and then adding fried noodles to it. There are very few cup noodles with such a cooking method.

The attached soup and ingredientsFreeze dry manufacturing methodThe ones that are dried with are the mainstream, but for products in the relatively middle and high price rangeInstant noodles in a bagSimilar to the above, some soups and ingredients are attached.For those products, you can see various differences depending on the product, such as taking out the bag, placing it on the noodles and then pouring hot water, so it is recommended to read the instructions on the package before pouring hot water. Recommended[Annotation 7].. InsideRetort foodThere are also products that come with the ingredients and recommend heating the ingredients in a water bath or a separate pot.In addition, cup noodles2009/May 6Previously released productsJAS standardIt was classified by "standard" and "advanced" by. 6% or more based on the weight of noodles is the standard, 15% or higher is the advanced type, and in the case of cup yakisoba or spaghetti, 4% or more is the standard type and 10% or more is the advanced type. But 2009May 7These classifications have been abolished (discontinued) for the cup noodles that will be released from then on.[7].

Although few in Japan,microwaveCooking-only products (NISSIN FOODS “UFO"・DonbuProducts that can be selected from either "NEXT GENERATION" series) or hot water cooking / microwave cooking (""Cup Noodle My Range TimeThere are also products that can be cooked in a microwave oven, such as the <old Cup Noodle Range Style> series)the 2000sExists after[Annotation 8].. Others are stated on the package as not microwaveable.米 国Many of the products sold outside Japan are clearly marked as "microwavable".

Air mail OfIn-flight mealMade for (Japan Airlinesof"Udon"All Nippon Airwaysof"Very special udon, Etc.)(I.e.LowairplaneIt is made by a special manufacturing method that allows the noodles to return even with the low temperature water boiled inside.These low-pressure cookable products can be used as alpine foods and emergency foods even when climbing mountains.

There are various means for measuring cooking time, and even in applied software such as mobile phones and smartphones, there is a category called ramen timer (cup noodle timer).If the lid of most cup noodles is paper-based, it will be difficult to reseal it once it is peeled off, and usually it is often necessary to perform auxiliary sealing with another object (book, etc.) during cooking.For this reason, mascot items for auxiliary sealing of cup noodles are on sale, and some also serve as a timer for measuring cooking time. There are also items that incorporate the motif of existing cup noodles, such as "Telecoma Warrior Donburiman".Nisshin Foods is a modified robot item with a cup noodle motif for this purpose.Cup noodle robo timerIs planned and manufactured to coincide with the 40th anniversary of the release of Cup Noodles, and is distributed as a gift product.

Market

For some products sold all over Japan, there are cases where the seasoning is different for each region such as eastern Japan and western Japan ("Donbei" and "Donbei" and "Red fox and green raccoon"Such).There are also products that are sold only in regions.Aomori Prefecture is the number one purchaser of cup noodles.[9].

2000/From before and after in cup ramenconvenience storeA strong regional color centered on "Local ramen"And" Aoba "reproduce the taste of famous stores and incorporate similar ""[10], A high-quality, high-priced product group that was classified as 180 yen or more at that time was activated[11].

market shareHas appeared in the early stages such as "Cup Noodle" and "Red Fox" which are the main brands of each company.National brand (NB) productsHas been dominated by2008/In addition, cup noodles halved to -52% from the previous price increase due to the rise in selling prices of major manufacturers' products due to soaring raw material costs[12].. As a result, major companies operating at low pricesSuper chainOwn companyPrivate brand (PB) products,Manufacturers OfOpen price (OP) productsThe number of products has increased sharply and sales have increased significantly[12][13][14].2009/Is an NB product with quality improvement and aggressiveSales promotionAs a result, the flow of demand for PB and OP products settled down overall, and in the latter half, there was a tendency to return to NB products.[14][15].2010/Has continued to return to NB products in the first half of the year, and the main brands of each company have been appealing for value, so they have met strong demand.[15].

Commercialization isspaghetti,Fried noodles,Ramen,Udon,Soba,Somen Noodles,KishimenNoodles in general.This product groupmarketing researchNisshin Foods has released a product that has been released once in the past but has failed commercially.Black historyWas re-released in 2017.

Cup ramen is also produced and sold outside Japan. The main production and consumption areas areEast AsiaRegion, but North American continent (especiallyMexico) ButHispanicPopular among ancestors. Japanese manufacturers are also producing locally. As mentioned above, general noodles in the area are often made into cup foods.

About storage

In June 2008,Nissin FoodMade of "cup noodles" "CO/OP noodles" of the groupAkeboshi foodFrom "CO/OP Cup Ramen"Insect repellentIngredientParadichlorobenzeneWas detected, and the consumer who ate "Cup noodles" caused health problems. NISSIN FOODPolicemen,Health centerAs a result of the investigation, it was concluded that there was no paradichlorobenzene in factories, etc.[16].. Since then, it has been noted that it should not be stored together with insect repellents.

Also, as mentioned above, the physical strength of the cups is relatively low, and most cup noodles have a statement that they are easily damaged, and the handling of cartons for transportation and packaging is clearly broken. There is.

Emergency food

Electricity, gas, water,life lineIt is often difficult to obtain hot water in an emergency that affects people, but according to the Disaster Countermeasures Division, Security Department, Metropolitan Police Department, you can eat water even if you wait for 15 minutes.[17]..In addition, the use of fire immediately after a disaster has a high risk of causing a fire accident due to a gas leak, and it is often difficult to use fire in a group evacuation life, so cooking may be difficult.1989/ToNissin FoodMore, cup noodles that can be cooked simply by pouring water with a heating elementSuper voileWas tested and sold.

At least, cooking is easier than instant noodles, but the water, fuel, and simpleFurnaceOther preparations such as (cassette gas stove, etc.) are required.

Nisshin Foods always stocks 100 million cup noodles as running stock in its own factories and distribution warehouses for emergency disasters, and it is provided at any time even in the event of a major disaster in the past.

Health

Most of the cup noodlescarbohydrateIs the main componentsalt,fatIt contains a lot of ingredients (especially soup has high salt and high oil content),vitamin,fiberquality,mineralBecause it contains only a small amount ofNutritionIs said to be a biased food[18].Currently[When?]Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, calcium, etc. are added to compensate for the lack of nutritional value.[19][20].

National Research and Development AgencyInstitute for medical infrastructure, health and nutritionAnnounced that cup noodles were the number one food source for Japanese salt intake, and instant noodles in bags were number two."It has become clear that excessive salt intake is associated with elevated blood pressure, so please be careful," the institute said.

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfareの2012年の国民健康・栄養調査のデータを基に、食塩摂取源となっている食品のランキングを作成したところ、1位のカップ麺からはスープを飲み干したと仮定して1日あたり5.5gの食塩を取っていた。2位はインスタントラーメン5.4g、3位は梅干し1.8g、4位は高菜の漬物1.2g、5位はキュウリの漬物1.2gだった[21]..It should be noted that these conditions are particularly difficult to control salt content and avoid overdose in cup noodle types that have been seasoned from the beginning with soups, and Peyang sauce and yakisoba types that are attached with liquid soup.[Annotation 9]However, with Kitsune Donbei type and ordinary bag noodle type instant noodles with powdered soup attached, it is possible to suppress salt content and avoid overdose by reducing the amount of powdered soup used. be.

In February 2020, MYOJO FOODS introduced the "Shio Care Cup", which can adjust the amount of salt intake by carving a line that serves as a guide for leaving soup inside the cup in response to the growing health consciousness of consumers.Introduced as needed, mainly for bowl types whose container shape is not a vertical cup[22].

It has been pointed out that leaving soup is good for your health, but it also leads to clogging of water pipes and environmental pollution.EspeciallyCampThen, it was regarded as a problem to dispose of the remaining soup directly into the river or soil.As a solution to such problems, March 2021Kobayashi PharmaceuticalAnd Nissin Foods jointly developed "Cup Noodle Remaining Soup Hardening Powder".Distributed sequentially through Nisshin Foods online shops, etc.[23].. In December 2021, the coagulant "Remaining Noodle Soup Hardened Pon" for the same purpose, which can harden the soup and dispose of it as burning garbage, was released.[24].

Major Japanese cup noodle makers and famous brands

Only items that cannot be directly derived from the company name are listed.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ This is true not only for cup noodles but for all instant noodles in general.
  2. ^ About the trial sale, it was introduced on a radio program, and Akeboshi tried and sold Meisei Fork fried noodles before the release of Cup Noodles, but at the time of sale it was not resistant to the cup and it was not for general sale. Radio theory "Hikari Ijuin/Sunday Secret BaseAccording to the survey, "the world's first cup ramen is cup noodles." There are patent lawsuits in this regard, however, the plaintiffs of the parties involvedAkeboshi foodIs the defendantNissin FoodAt the time of becoming a consolidated subsidiary, the patent disputes have been withdrawn along with the disappearance of the profits of the complaint (see the articles of both companies respectively).
  3. ^ a b Under normal circumstances, the lid is often removed, and if the main body is made of styrene foam, it does not have long-term load resistance and is easily damaged. In addition, if it is paper-based, it will infiltrate from the connection, and the strength will decrease extremely from there (even if it retains some strength when dry, it becomes extremely brittle when wet). Furthermore, the permeated liquid content may leak. In some cases, there is a risk of thermal deformation due to external heating or internal heat generation that does not depend on cooking, or due to external load stress, etc., easily deforming or damaging either the main body or the lid, resulting in sealing. May not be possible. This is the reason why, unlike bottles that are screwed, it is only temporarily stored or simply stored.
  4. ^ On the contrary, the Kyushu ramen line that requires boiling for 1 minute or less (Hakata Ramen,Nagahama RamenEtc), noodles will grow before eating after 1 minute or more.
  5. ^ However, the Kyushu-based ramen products that sell items such as Balikata and springfish also exist for the reasons described above.
  6. ^ In addition to reheating the noodles, it takes time to prepare and cook the juice separately, and as a result, the total cooking time tends to be longer than that of the dry type.
  7. ^ In some cases, these pouches may be buried and hidden under the noodles due to vibration during transportation, etc., so there is a note in the description of how to make them so that you always check the number of attached pouches.
  8. ^ The first cup noodles for microwave cooking to be released in Japan are said to be the Nissin Foods "e-noodle" series (three types of sauce yakisoba, roast pork soy sauce flavored ramen, and soy sauce tonkotsu ramen).[8].
  9. ^ However, if you don't drink the soup at the end and reuse it in some way, you can control the salt intake once even if the total amount of salt intake per day does not change.

Source

  1. ^ a b Fair competition rules for the display of instant noodles (PDF)
  2. ^ "Momofuku Ando: Mr. Noodle that changed the world's food culture”(Japanese). Nippon.com (September 2018, 4). 2021/3/25Browse.
  3. ^ "NISSIN HISTORY”(Jp). NISSIN FOODS Group. 2020/3/24Browse.
  4. ^ Sanyo Food "Sapporo Ichiban Cup Star"
  5. ^ Possibility of hot water leakage when adding perilla oil or perilla oil to a polystyrene foam container - Ministry of Agriculture[Broken link]
    Possibility of hot water leakage when adding perilla oil or perilla oil to a polystyrene foam container -Japan Instant Food Industry Association 2004/May 2
    Possibility of hot water leakage when adding perilla oil or perilla oil to a polystyrene foam container -Styrofoam sheet industry association Polystyrene paper molding industry association Food container molding conference 2004May 3
  6. ^ News|Instant Ramen Navi_Japan Instant Food Industry Association (2008/10)
  7. ^ Japanese Agricultural Standards for Instant Noodles: All revised April 21, 4 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. 9 (PDF)
  8. ^ Nissin How about "e-noodle"? IT revolution of cup noodles - All About 2001/May 3
  9. ^ What is the number of cup noodles purchased and the key in Japan?
  10. ^ Taro Nitta Postwar Japan “Monozukuri” fashion history #8 Instant Ramen: “National food” born after World War II (Nippon style)
    [Japanese Cultural History of Ideas] Instant Ramen (below) (Page 2/2) -MSN Sankei News 2010/May 5[Broken link]
  11. ^ October 2002, 10 <Information on new release of renewal> Adopted "Jet Yugiri" "Nissin Raoh Soy Sauce / Miso / Tonkotsu" -Nissin Foods News Release
  12. ^ a b “Price increase” cup catastrophe PB breakthrough, Nissin, Akeboshi etc. -J-CAST News September 2008, 6
  13. ^ "Sales reduction of price-increased foods Nikkei survey, preference for self-planned products with a saving intention"- Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2008/May 6Morning newspaper
  14. ^ a b Immediate noodle market regains NB reinforcement of both hardware and software Improving noodle quality through technological innovation -Yahoo! On Business ·Japan Food Newspaper 2009/May 10[Broken link]
  15. ^ a b Improving quality in instant noodle market Expanding new demand -Yahoo! On Business Japan Food Newspaper 2010May 7[Broken link]
  16. ^ About the findings of the police, public health centers, etc. regarding the "transfer incense" case - Nissin Food 2008/May 11
  17. ^ @ The Metropolitan Police Department Security Department Disaster Countermeasures Section Verified account (August 2017, 8). "I tried to make a cup of noodles with water, which I had thought to try once in the event of a disaster! Prepare cup noodles with seasoned noodles and pour water for 15 minutes. However, the soup also oozes out properly and the taste is nice (amazing)!" (Tweet). TwitterThan. In the Cite web template|access-date=Argument is required. (Description)
  18. ^ "Still beriberi". Women's Nutrition University (September 2013, 6). 2016/9/19Browse.
  19. ^ "Foods high in vitamin B1 and content list”. Easy! Nutrition and calorie calculation (operated by Nutrition Calculation Co., Ltd.) (2015). 2017/6/14Browse.[Source invalid]
  20. ^ "Let's take a look at the ingredient list of instant noodles". Japan Instant Food Industry Association (2017). 2017/6/14Browse.
  21. ^ Tokyo Shimbun May 2017, 5 Morning edition
  22. ^ "Introduction with all cup noodles Meisei Foods aims to dispel" cup noodles = unhealthy "?What is "Shio Care Cup" that supports salt reduction?. ITmedia Business Online (ITmedia). (August 2020, 1). https://www.itmedia.co.jp/business/articles/2001/16/news087.html 2021/1/12Browse. 
  23. ^ I don't have to worry about where to throw away the soup anymore. Collaborative development of "Cup Noodle Soup Hardening Powder" with Kobayashi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. !!
  24. ^ "Coagulant for cup noodles" Remaining noodle soup solidified and pon "released on December 12 Easy processing of remaining juice in the office or outdoors". Netorabo (ITmedia). (August 2021, 12). https://nlab.itmedia.co.jp/nl/articles/2112/03/news141.html 2021/3/2Browse. 

Related item

birthday

birthday(Tanjo) is a specificPeopleWas bornDayOr every yearBirth OfanniversaryThat thing. DerivativelyAnimal-Object-ServicesIt may also be used for such purposes. Sometimes it indicates the date of birth of a specific person, etc. with a "year" part such as "○ year ○ month ○ day", or it can indicate an anniversary only by "○ month ○ day". is there. The usage of the former "○ year ○ month ○ day" isDate of BirthSynonymous with (Seengengappi).

It is generally believed that people add one year of age when they reach their birthday, but this is slightly different from legal standards (see below). The antonym isDeath day.

Date of birth (specific day)

JapanIn developed countries such asBirth registrationA system to record the date of birth at the stage ofResident card,Driver's licenseSuch as公 文書To be listed in[Annotation 1], My birthday (date of birth)ageThere are many people who can recognize "Birthday" and "Birthday" and "Age", but some countries and cultures do not attach great importance to recognition[2]. Also,(I.e.In areas where there is not much difference between the two, there are many cases where the identity of the birth year is ambiguous.

In China there was no custom of celebrating birthdays in ancient times.Buddha society,ChristmasUnlikeConfuciusThere is no custom of celebrating his birthday, and there is no established theory that Confucius's birthday is in the first place and that Confucius himself is not a celebrity's child. The custom of celebrating birthdays came to be held in ChinaNorthern and Northern DynastiesToNorthern WeiCelebrating the Emperor's birthday is the oldest recorded example[3].. In Confucianism, there is the idea that one's birthday is the day when the life of the mother was at risk.Rape root』In the 120th post, "Mother is dangerous to be born a child", and the nobleman does not celebrate his birthday[4].

Saudi Arabiaな どArabian PeninsulaCountries and other developing countries do not necessarily have a system for recording birth dates in family registers, and many people grow up without being able to accurately grasp their birth dates and age. Because of this, in Saudi ArabiapassportIn the (passport), the entry of the date of birth is "optional", and most people do not enter it.

遊牧民 TheカレンダーSince it is normal to live without having to know what month and day is today, there is no custom such as a birthday or anniversary.

Muammar al-KazafiThe birthdays of nomads such as (Gaddafi)家族It's not uncommon to find the right date to fill in an item on the paper, as I don't know.

Every birthday (anniversary)

Often on birthdays家族By this dayblessingHas been done. A birthday party (birthday)party) Etc. may be opened.According to Eiji Oguma, a historical sociologist, birthdays were celebrated in monthly salary houses before the war, but in rural and commercial and industrial households, everyone was aware of the number of years they had spent one year on New Year's Day. Therefore, it is said that the birthday was not celebrated ("The man who came back alive").

In Japan, at a birthday party, the seat for one person on the short side of the rectangular table on which the guest of honor (birthday person) sitsBirthday seats,Birthday seatSometimes called[5].. This word is also used as a metaphor at other dinner parties.

There are various styles of birthday events, but one of the typical Western styles is to light a candle on a birthday cake (birthday cake),Happy Birthday to youWhile everyone was singing and singing a national language version of, or something similar to it, the birthday person blows out the candle at once,cakeIs to eat together. On rare occasions, a playful event is sometimes performed where a friend suddenly gathers (hidden) and suddenly appears, celebrating "Happy birthday!" After that, when the present is given to them, it is the task of the parties concerned to make them feel happy by opening their faces and showing their happy faces.

Also in Japan,Senior citizensIs celebrating his birthday,Local governmentYou may receive gifts from us. Especiallylongevity(Old ageIn the case of ), the head of a local government directly visits their home to celebrate,public relationsAnd areaNews (Chinese)It is also reported in.

Customs of each place

Various things that are held on birthdays around the worldCustomThere is. For example:

Meaning of the birthday

When it comes to the meaning of a birthday and the thoughts of a birthday,parentIn general, he celebrates with the feeling that his child lived safely until that day.SaintAs for his birthday, people celebrate with joy and appreciation for the saint's birth in this world.

Birthday and law

Age calculation

The date on which the full age is legally added is the day before the birthday (24:XNUMX).

The full age at birth is 0 years old, and that day becomes the "1st day" of 2 years old (regardless of the time), and when the day changes, it becomes the "365nd day", and the 366th day (in the case of a leap year). , 1 days), he will be one year old.In other words, every time the day before your birthday ends, you will increase by one year.

例えば、1月1日生まれの場合、前日の12月31日の24時に1つ、年をとる。4月1日生まれは、3月31日の24時に年をとる。

そのため、日本では、4月1日生まれ人は、3月31日(24時)に満6歳になり、4月1日には、同年の1月1日から3月31日生まれの満6歳の人たち(早生まれ)と同じ学年として小学1年生となる。そして、同年の4月2日から12月31日生まれの人たちとは学年が異なる[Annotation 2].

Under the current Japanese law, "age iscalendarCalculate according to"[7]However, in the calendar0There is no "day" and counts from 1. Therefore, in the age calculation, the time less than one day after birth is advanced to one day, and the day of birth is set as the first day. In other words, even if the birth is one minute before midnight, the day of birth is the first day, and after midnight (one minute after birth), it is the second day. 1th day[8]The date is the day before the birthday, and the end is 24:12 (XNUMX:XNUMX pm) the day before the birthday.

Furthermore, according to judicial precedent, the time is not taken into account when based on the date, and the addition of full age extends to the entire period of the day before the birthday.In the example of the person who was born on April 4st and is 1 years old, he will be 5 years old after 3:31 on March 24st.

In case of February 2 (deemed birthday)

NormalIn the case of (1 year is 365 days)leap year OfMay 2(Leap day) Has no birthday.

However, as the legally full age is as above, it is normal because it is aged on the day before the birthday (24:XNUMX).leap yearRegardless ofMay 2Aging at 24:XNUMX, legally common in normal years[9]AlsoMay 3It will be aged at the same time as the person born.

On top of that, if you decide something based on your birthday[Annotation 3]Since there is no birthday in a normal year, it is necessary to "consider the day before or after (February 2 or March 28) as a birthday or a day to celebrate the birth".

Birthday as a holiday

Many in the worldCountryso,saint,monarchNamed after his birthdaypublic holidayIs provided. In addition, at the timeHeadIn some countries, holidays move according to birthdays such as (Japan's ""Emperor's birthday holiday"Such).

Saint's birthday

"Christmas TheJesus Christ OfbirthdayThe customary way of thinking世界Famously, but in realityMay 12It has been known that the settings have been added later in history,BibleThere is no record of Christ's birthday in such sutras. With ChristSun godAs a result of being mixed with the idea ofwinter solsticeDay (≒(I.e.It is said that around that day, when it was newly born, was applied to it.

IslamThen,ProphetMuhammadThere is no record of his birthday,EgyptStarted withProphet BirthdayCelebrate the Prophet's birthday with the influence ofMuslimOpinions are divided among those who deny the birthday itself.

Also, in some countries it is prohibited to celebrate the birthday of the Prophet MuhammadlawThere,ApostasyでDeath penaltyThere is also possible.

キ リ ス ト 教The anniversary is a fixed date,Orthodox churchThen.Julian calendarBecause I am usingGregorian calendar13 days behind the area where[10]Becomes

ReligiousDateNameOrigin
Buddhism(Japan)May 4Buddha societyBuddha of BuddhaBirthday (originallyOld calendar)
Buddhism(Chugoku)Lunar calendar November 4Buddha of Shakyamuni
Theravada BuddhismApril-JuneWe Circa FestivalBuddha of Shakyamuni
キ リ ス ト 教May 6St. John's DaySt. JohnBirthday
キ リ ス ト 教May 12ChristmasJesus ChristThe day of celebrating the birth of
(Note that “ナ ザ レ の イ エ スIs my birthday reallyMay 12"Nanaka" is still controversial.)
IslamRabbie al-Auwar12 daysMaurid Ann-NaviMuhammadBirthday

Monarch/head of state

Many republican nations do not celebrate the birthday of the incumbent president nationwide.

CountryDateNameOrigin
DPR KoreaMay 1General Secretary of the Korean Labor Party-金正恩Birthday
DPR KoreaMay 4Sun sectionFirst PresidentKim Il SungOn his birthday, he will have two days off.
JordanMay 1Royal birthdayCurrent kingAbdullah IIBirthday
America2Third MondayWashington birthday
(Presidents Day, President's Day, Washington's Birthday)
First generationPresidentGeorge WashingtonBirthday (the original birthday wasMay 2<Julian calendarMay 2>).
Then the 16th presidentAbraham LincolnBirthdayMay 2It became the current method in a complex form with.
JapanMay 2Emperor's birthday holidayTokujinBirthday of the 126th Emperor
NetherlandsMay 4Royal birthdayCurrent kingWillem-AlexanderBirthday.
It is Koningsdag (King's Day) in Dutch and does not originally mean "birthday".
ThailandMay 5Royal birthdayRama 10Birthday (Father's Day วันพ่อ)
Republic of ChinaMay 11(Chinese version,English edition)The first extraordinaryPresident-GrandchildBirthday

Songs and novels dealing with birthdays

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Music

Publications, novels, etc.

One book issued every 366 days

More informations

  • It is known that the death rate of a person on that birthday is higher than on other days. EspeciallySuicide rateIs more than 50% more than other days[11].. This phenomenon is also seen in areas other than Japan[12].

The problem is, "When several people get together, the probability that some of them have the same birthday is more than half the time when some people get together."The correct answer is 1 people.There is a discrepancy between the sensory answer and the mathematically calculated answer.paradoxIt is a good example of the problem.By the way, if 70 people gather, the probability exceeds 99.9%.

  • BibleThe contents clearly described as a birthday celebration in theParoBirthday" and "Herod"Birthday", but both are executed[13][14].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japan,Japanese nationalityIn case ofpassportWith exceptions such asJapanese CalendarIt is written as, but people with nationalities other than JapanDriver's licenseWith exceptions such asADIs often used.For examplePersonal number cardThe date of birth of (My Number Card) is shown in the Japanese calendar for Japanese nationals, and in the Western calendar for non-Japanese nationals[1].
  2. ^ Article XNUMX of the School Education Law Parents must keep their children in elementary school from the beginning of the first academic year after the day after the child reaches the age of six to the end of the academic year to which the child reaches the age of twelve. Obligated to attend school
  3. ^ Administrative procedures, events such as birthday parties, benefits such as discounts, etc.

Source

  1. ^ Local Government Information Systems OrganizationNumber Migration Support Center. “Q & A about number system (pdf) ”. As of January 2019, 1originalMore archives.2020/7/19Browse. -See question 3.
  2. ^ Most Nigerian birthdays are January 1st 2008.8 Yohei Sasakawa Nippon Foundation
  3. ^ Miyazaki city fixed"New Year's Day and Birthday"Iwanami modern library"Dongfeng West Masasho" P235-236. But Bei Wei is not a Han Dynasty
  4. ^ Kunihiro Yuasa "Beginners Classic Chinese Classics Tanane Tan" Kadokawa Sophia Library 7th edition 2015 (first edition 14th year) p.217.
  5. ^ Meaning of "Birthday seat" -goo dictionary (Digital Daijisen)
  6. ^ Astrid Lindgren"Karlson on the Roof"Iwanami ShotenTranslationOtsuka Yuzo Lindgrain Works 7 1965:ISBN 4001150670
  7. ^ Age calculation
  8. ^ 間 にLeap day366th day when sandwiching
  9. ^ 「2月28日」は誕生日より前であり、「3月1日」は誕生日より後であるため、2月28日を過ぎて3月1日になった瞬間(3月1日0時)を一般的には加齢のタイミングとみなされる。
  10. ^ To be exact, it is as follows. February 1900, 2 in the Gregorian calendar is February 28, 1900 in the Julian calendar (12 days off)。グレゴリオ暦1900年3月1日〜3月13日は、ユリウス暦1900年2月17日〜2月29日に相当する。Gregorian calendar March 1900, 3-February 14, 2100It is,Julian calendar March 1900, 3-February 1, 2100Equivalent to (13 days off)。グレゴリオ暦2100年3月1日〜3月14日は、ユリウス暦2100年2月16日〜2月29日に相当する。グレゴリオ暦2100年3月15日は、ユリウス暦では2100年3月1日である(14 days off).
  11. ^ According to Osaka University research, suicide and accident death increase on birthday (2016 6 年 月 日 6)
  12. ^ Accident/Suicide/Illness-Statistical survey reveals the day with the highest mortality rate in a year
  13. ^ Genesis (colloquial translation) #40:20-22
  14. ^ Matthew Gospel (KJV) #14:6-12

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