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👩‍🎓 | Programming education and training for teachers "First Step" will be held online on May 5th


Programming education and training for teachers "First Step" will be held online on May 5th

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In addition, we will introduce teaching guidelines that combine arithmetic, national language, and comprehensive learning using software and apps such as drones, Artec Robo, and Scratch.

Viling, which develops the STEAM education and programming school "STEMON" nationwide, is ... → Continue reading


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    Comprehensive learning time

    Japan OfComprehensive learning time(Sogouki Nagakushu no Jikan)Children,studentVoluntarily cross-cutting and comprehensiveTaskLearningIt's time to do.Course of StudyIs appliedDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAll of(primary school,Junior high school,high school,Secondary school,Special school)so2000/(HeiseiIt started in stages from 12 years).
    What is the total study time?CurriculumRepresents the time type ofthe termAnd the total study time at each schoolNameIs set independently by each school.
    In addition, in specialized departments that mainly focus on vocational education in high school, if the same results as taking the comprehensive study time can be expected in the required subject research, the subject research time is one of the comprehensive study time. Can replace part or all.

    This timeInternationalization,InformatizationIncluding社会Based on the changes inchildrenThe ability to learn and think for oneselfPower to liveAiming to nurtureSubjectCross-cutting and comprehensive beyond the framework ofLearningBorn to doYutori educationHas a close relationship with.
    feature is,active learning,Problem solving learningEmphasis on school家庭-RegionIt is to advocate cooperation of.Contents,International understanding,情报,Environment,welfare-HealthEtc. are illustrated in the course of study.
    On the other hand, since this class neglects basic knowledge, there are criticisms that it will lead to a decline in academic ability, and the number of class hours is currently reduced.

    Purpose and aim of comprehensive study time

    In the case of elementary school, the purpose and aim of the comprehensive study time is stipulated in the elementary school curriculum guidelines as follows.Other schools have the same purpose and aim.

    • "Effect"
      In the time of comprehensive learning, each school made use of ingenuity such as cross-sectional and comprehensive learning and learning based on children's interests, etc., according to the region, school, actual conditions of children, etc.EducationThe activity shall be carried out.
    • "aim"
    1. To develop the qualities and abilities to find problems by oneself, learn by oneself, think by oneself, make independent judgments, and solve problems better.
    2. To acquire the way of learning and the way of thinking of things, to develop an attitude of proactively and creatively engaging in problem solving and inquiry activities, and to be able to think about one's own way of life.
    3. Each subject,moralas well as the Special activityI wore it inknowledge,skillEtc. to correlate, learning andLifeMake use of them in order to make them work comprehensively.

    The actual time of comprehensive study

    There are two ways to develop at school: one is to work in grade units, and the other is to work in "vertically divided" groups regardless of grade (so to speak, lecture system).

    • Activities by grade
      A plan is made by the discussion of the teachers in charge of the grade, and the activities for one year are developed based on the plan.Depending on the content, teachers outside the grade may support.This style is adopted by many schools, as it may be carried out by having multiple teachers study and confirm the activity results.
    • Lecture system
      Independent courses will be offered to each faculty member, and students will be assigned to the desired courses regardless of grade.However, assuming a bias of applicants, for example, a method is adopted in which the desired course is selected up to the third choice and the allocation is adjusted by the consensus of the faculty members according to the desired distribution.In this case, it is not always assigned to the first choice, and it may be assigned to a course that you do not want.
      In the course system, each teacher is in charge of one course, so it is possible to reflect the experience and abilities of each teacher in the activity content, but depending on the content, it may be necessary to create original teaching materials, and conventional subject education In addition, the burden tends to increase.
      Therefore, as a method of reducing the burden, we will use an outside expert.Special part-time lecturerIn some cases, the invited lectures may be given a rich taste, or in some cases, the lectures conducted in the past may be inherited (in the case of one's own lectures, the contents of the previous year may be repeated).Schools that adopt such a system require deep knowledge and planning ability in the specialized field of teachers, but if they take over a course that does not, they will not leave it to the specialists, and they will be responsible for the course they are in charge of. Ingenuity is required, such as improvement over the previous year's results.

    Challenges in conducting comprehensive study time

    Describe the tasks involved in conducting "total study time".

    • Short preparation time due to busy teachers
      Sufficient preparation time is required to effectively carry out "comprehensive study time", but teachers are busy and there is not enough preparation time, so it is not possible to give satisfactory lessons.[1]..In recent years, the amount of paperwork required for public school teachers has increased dramatically.[2]The reality is that it is impossible for all schools to make meaningful use of the time of "comprehensive learning."For this reason, many schools have completed the search for school districts and the request of an easy-going outside instructor.
    • Insufficient basic knowledge of students
      It has been pointed out that the "thinking ability" and "applied ability to combine knowledge" aimed at by "total study time" can only be acquired if basic knowledge is provided as a foundation.[1], "If you don't have basic skills, you won't be able to acquire applied skills."[1][3]..Insufficient basic knowledge is not only a simple reduction in class time, but also at what stage of the educational hierarchy, such as teaching basic knowledge in elementary school and teaching applied skills at higher educational institutions such as universities. It is pointed out that the overall design was not enough.[1].

    Example of learning content

    Comprehensive scientific learning and lifelong learning

    KyotoKyoto CityAt a research and development schoolJapanPrior to the nationwide implementation in Japan, we have examined comprehensive study, but we are making unique efforts to make the best use of the comprehensive study time of 3 hours a week.Comprehensive in each grade (Comprehensive science) The learning content and the learning content that can be used for a consistent life from the 3rd grade to the 6th grade are divided into "A" and "B", respectively, and are provided as follows.

    • B information,English,welfare
      10 school hours per year according to the actual situation of the gradeCurriculumIs uniquely organized.English education is also provided in elementary schools.Teachers examine and prepare the teaching materials before learning EnglishMother tongueTolecturerI am devising.I use the same educational books that I use in countries other than Japan, and once a monthLessonBut you can maximize your child's abilities.The child is "in the futureForeign countriesI want to go to""Occupation"I want to learn English well" "I want to tell you the way when asked" voluntarily希望State,communicationmain bodyIt expresses the results of learning.

    Comprehensive study time begins in the 3rd grade of elementary school, but at this research designated school, the unit of life science in the 1st and 2nd grades is systematically promoted with the study of the 3rd grade and above. There is.In particular, as a preliminary step to reach English in area B, we invite volunteers from international students living nearby to teach us the play that is handed down in that country, and to interact with people while having a chat at the time of lunch. Is going.Fostering communication skills is said to be action rather than words.Councils from the community to schools are also active, and education is a good example of facilitating regional exchanges, such as the establishment of educational support groups by local residents.

    Comprehensive understanding of humans

    At a school in Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture, which is different from the above, we have been working outside the subject before the comprehensive study time began.human rightsThe learning to think about is replaced with the time for comprehensive learning.In the past, it was difficult to manage class time, but once it was secured as a comprehensive study time, it became easier to carry out educational activities.Human rights education, international understanding education,Sex educationThe school has its own curriculum for 10 schools a year.VisualThe child himself tried to introduce it using typical materials, and finally, referring to the teacher's ideas.A humanIt is desirable to search for what it should be.

    The field of sex education is based on the learning of the day after the child returns homeGuardianIt is expected to talk about various things, but it is undeveloped in the field and from the lower gradesReproductionTheBiologyIt is not widespread enough because parents may be surprised about teaching.The learning goals in the field of sex education are how important the children have been raised (for example, having the children talk to their parents after giving due consideration to their family circumstances). And assuming that you will be a guardian in the futuremen and womenIt is important to understand the importance of being a member of a society where people can build a family and live a life with care.

    Understanding of local industry

    Of the studentsgrandmotherMost ofAmaI am doing[4],Oyster OfAquacultureIs thrivingRegionIt is inToba City Kagamiura Junior High SchoolThen,1999/I started oyster farming experience in 11, but2001/From (13), we started to use the comprehensive study time (called THE KAGAMIURA).[5]..This will give you a fishing experienceDried fishThe range of activities such as making oyster dishes and selling oysters has expanded.2010/In (22), various practical training and research activities were incorporated throughout the year.[4]..From the same year, the localFishermanIs going to Ikuura BayEelgrassFor the preservation and regeneration business of the placeEnvironmental educationBegan to be actively involved with[6][7]..This activity is near the schoolSea museumCollaboration with[4].

    2011/(23)2/17"Aiming to revitalize the eelgrass field-exchange between fishermen and participating junior high school students" was held at the Sea Museum and participated in the event.[6][8]..For this meetingMatoya BayAlso doing eelgrass field regeneration inShima Municipal Ya Junior High SchoolAnd fishermen,Mie UniversityFaculty of Bioresources Of教授About 120 people participatedRegionwhile·generationIn addition to the cross-cutting exchanges, students from Kagamiura Junior High School announced the survey results in front of adults.[6][8].

    Example of cooperation with each subject

    In each subject, the range of teaching materials that can be handled is limited because the learning objectives and learning contents are set in advance in the course of study.For example, the diversity of the world to learn about human culturecultural heritageEven if I try to touch on, only a part of it can be handled in class.In the comprehensive study time, each school sets learning goals and learning contents, so it is possible to handle teaching materials according to the actual situation of the learner, and the learner can further explore what he / she has learned in each subject.

    • Cooperation with Japanese language department
      Currently, there is no way to spend hours reading the Japanese language class itself, and after understanding the outline of the story, you can think about the conversation of the characters in the class or perform the story using a toy or picture-story show. do.Recently, I sometimes draw pictures, but I often can't draw without careful guidance, and when I don't like it, I often stop drawing.As an advanced treatment of the story in the national language, read the English version of the story and first familiarize yourself with the voice.Next, the English sentence is easily translated, but it is said that it is better to translate the feelings of the characters into a friendly and childish translation according to the situation according to the learner's age.For example, it is often published in textbooks for the second grade of elementary school.Arnold LobelIn "Letter", I will examine the possibility of creativity as a translator, considering the translation of "If Gama-kun and Kaeru-kun were 2 years old" about the friendship between the two frogs.
    • Cooperation with social studies
      InspectionSword huntWe will think about Japanese society and its safety by investigating whether or not Sekisho has contributed to the basics of the tax system and the establishment of a safe society, and by learning through learning.
      Also, knowing the differences in values ​​between religions is necessary for understanding different cultures in modern society.International understanding educationBy thinking by the learner based on the research conducted in the above, it is possible to study without conducting religious education for a specific religion.
    • Cooperation with home economics
      とVenetian beadsBy comparing the colors, the difference in color development is the temperature, the voice quality of the material (quartz mix), and the existence of female skilled workers, so you can learn from a young age the appeal of continuing to work even after getting married.

    Stagnation of learning content

    There may be a stagnation in the learning content during the comprehensive study time.

    It is difficult for teachers to handle various contents in the time of comprehensive study due to lack of leadership for advanced learning, lack of understanding of the purpose of each area, and differences in opinions on setting learning goals.In addition, the characteristics of the comprehensive study time are that it is a special time with a concept different from the subject time, that the lessons learned in various educational activities are comprehensively utilized, and that independent activities are carried out. The content may be tailored to the learner's interests.For this reason, teachers are required to have a high level of skill, and learners are also required to have sufficient guidance.Therefore, there is an idea to reduce the burden on teachers by simplifying the learning content and to devote that amount to the detailed and fulfilling learning guidance to the learner, but if the content is made too simple, the learner will get bored. There is also the risk of losing the attractiveness of comprehensive study time.

    Self-training to cultivate teachers' self-exploration ability and advanced skills is always necessary for conducting comprehensive study time.It is said that advanced teaching material research and the ability to explore issues in society arise from the active participation of teachers themselves in training and social tours.

    Relationship with the theory of academic decline

    A certain number of parents argue that the school that provides education is responsible for the decline in children's academic ability.From this standpoint, criticisms have been raised regarding the time for comprehensive study, and confusion has arisen in considering the direction of time for comprehensive study.In short, it is a typical argument of this position that the time for comprehensive study does not contribute to the improvement of academic ability and should be abolished.

    On the other hand, as a counterargument to these claims, the tendency to be interested only in academic ability (only interested in the number of test scores) is increasing, and the role that comprehensive study time should play is increasing. There is also an opinion.

    Effect of comprehensive learning

    There is the following debate on the question of what kind of effect the comprehensive study time will have.Positive opinions about comprehensive learning include "learning the development of what was learned in the subject in comprehensive learning" and "learning in detail in each subject after learning the outline in the time of comprehensive learning". It is possible to organically connect various activities depending on the form of.In addition, "In task learning, there is individual power and comprehensive feedback within the group, and the significance of learning can be greatly enhanced." "Children's academic ability depends on the efforts of each teacher and parents in the future. There is room for increase, and comprehensive study time is meaningful for teachers and parents to think about what their children need. "

    On the other hand, from a critical standpoint of comprehensive learning, "While academic ability can be evaluated objectively, the effect of comprehensive learning is immeasurable. Isn't it just play time? Opinions such as "The range of effects due to differences in schools and teachers is too large" have been submitted.

    Active learning

    Scheduled to be implemented from 2020Course of StudyThen,Active learningThe adoption of the learning method is being considered[9]..This educational method focuses on "what can be done" and is different from the conventional "what to teach" educational method.Since this teaching method is an idea close to the time for comprehensive study, it has been pointed out that it may be introduced in the form of strengthening the time for comprehensive study.[10].


    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ a b c d "Why did" Yutori Education "fail? -School is a "finite" resource [Part 2007] "delivered on November 11, 30 Nikkei Business Online
    2. ^ Okazaki 2006, "What is happening in the field of education now", "World" February 2007 issue, etc.
    3. ^ "The actual situation of" declining academic ability "":ISBN-978 4000092784 2002 Takehiko Kariya, Mutsumi Shimizu, Kokichi Shimizu, Yuko Moroda
    4. ^ a b c Ministry of Agriculture(2010) "Junior high school students experience full-course meals and study local fishing throughout the year"(Retrieved June 2011, 8.)
    5. ^ Mie Prefecture (2007) "19 Kagamiura Junior High School Environmental Education Program Creation"(Retrieved June 2011, 8.)
    6. ^ a b c Ise-Shima Sightseeing Tour ""Aiming to revitalize the eelgrass field" Toba and Shima junior high school students cross-regional exchange meeting"(Retrieved June 2011, 8.)
    7. ^ Asahi Shimbun"Let's protect the cradle of the sea Mie / Toba junior high school student, eelgrass transplantMarch 2011, 6 (Retrieved January 7, 2011.)
    8. ^ a b Mie Prefecture Environmental and Ecosystem Conservation Activity Support Council "Exchange presentation between fishermen and junior high school students ・ ・ ・ 2/17 Toba Shima eelgrass field regenerationMarch 2011, 3 (Retrieved January 16, 2011.)
    9. ^ From the next course of study, "What to teach" to "What can be done"-Atsushi Watanabe-
    10. ^ What is "active learning"? Attention in the next course of study-Atsushi Watanabe-


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