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💳 | What is the most used place other than transportation IC cards and railroads?


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What is the most used place other than transportation IC cards and railroads?

 
If you write the contents roughly
According to the survey, 76% of people "own" transportation IC cards.
 

On April 4, Navit announced the results of a survey on "transportation IC cards."The survey was conducted in September 22 from 2021 to 9 ... → Continue reading

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Mynavi News is a comprehensive information news site with more than 100 categories updated daily. It consists of the latest news and analysis reports and columns from a wide range of genres such as business, digital, lifestyle, and entertainment to niche categories such as management, technology, railways, and cars.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Boarding card

Boarding cardWhat is a (josha card)?Train,busSuch asPublic transportWhen usingFareAvailable for payment,Magnetic stripe card,Prepaid CardDue toPrepaid or Post-pay typeIt is a (deferred payment type) card.The bus card is "Bus cardIs called.

Overview

When using public transportation, it is a card that allows you to pay the fare simply by having the reader read the information when getting on and off. You can pay the price in advance and purchase it like a normal prepaid card, and you can use it repeatedly until the balance becomes zero. In the case of an IC card, it can be charged (added) and the card can be used repeatedly.

bus·TramIn, passengersNumbered ticketTake coinsExchangeCheck the fareFare boxIt has the advantage of being freed from the hassle of putting it in. On the railroad, passengers are at the ticket gateAutomatic ticket vending machineLine up inticketThere is no need to purchase a ticket, and the business operator has the advantage of reducing the number of automatic ticket vending machines installed. Furthermore, in the case of contactless IC cards, there is no need to put the card in and out of a wallet.

Depending on the boarding card, premiums (extra) and points may be added (described later), and boarding information can be recorded using the card, so it is limited to boarding card users.Transfer discount systemSome businesses have set up.

In addition to using it directly with a reader / automatic ticket gate, depending on the fare card,Automatic ticket vending machineAtticket・ Toll ticket (Limited express ticketEtc.)Automatic checkout machineAtShortageIn some cases, it can also be used for settlement (passing over).

the way

The data storage method for railway tickets is a paper ticket (Hard ticket or Soft ticket), Magnetic tickets, stored fair cards, non-contact IC cards, digital tickets[1]..There are magnetic cards, stored fair cards, non-contact IC cards, and digital ticket methods for boarding cards.

The ticket has a payment proof function (proof of the fee paid by the user and terms of use) and an information display function (user specifies the section, route, date and time, expiration date, train and seat). In the digital ticket, both functions are processed by the application program of the mobile terminal.[1]..In addition, the stored fair card (SF card) can also handle usage history as an information display function.[1].

Magnetic card

A method that uses a magnetic card.Apply magnetic ink to a piece of paper or a plastic card, record the magnetically encoded data, and read it with an automatic ticket gate, etc.[1]..At the beginning of the introduction of fare cards, this method was common.

When getting on and off, insert it into a reader or an automatic ticket gate with a reading function. Depending on the type of card, information such as boarding date, boarding time, usage section, and payment amount may be printed on the magnetic surface on the back. The card is disposable, and when the balance is used up, dispose of it and buy a new card again.

In addition, in JapanYui Rail,Kitakyushu MonorailThen.QR codeThe reading method is adopted.

Stored fair card

The stored fair card (SF card) is a method that records the amount paid in advance as the fare and deducts the fare from the card balance according to the boarding section at the automatic ticket gate.[1]..Save the number of ridesStored ride system There is also a (stored ride system).

Since it is premised that an admission record exists, an automatic ticket gate capable of writing information at all ticket gates or a device equivalent thereto is required.In the case of a bus, the card reader installed in the car replaces the automatic ticket gate.

Depending on the railway operatorMujin-ekiIn some cases, the card is not handled at the station, or at a manned station without an automatic ticket gate, an entry / exit process may be performed by requesting a station clerk.Illegal rideIn order to prevent this, some businesses cannot pass through the ticket gate unless the card entry process and entry process are performed alternately at the automatic ticket gate.

Contactless IC card

Non-contact typePrepaid Card(Hereafter, simply "IC card")Method using. It is a method of wirelessly exchanging data by using a contactless card with a built-in CPU.[1].

Transportation that accepts Japanese IC card tickets (described later),OctopusHong Kong transportation that can be used,Oyster cardIt can be easily used by touching the automatic ticket gates or simple IC readers at the station at the time of entry at many railway stations and route buses, such as the London Transit Authority that can be used, and touching them again at the time of entry.[2][3].. For trams and fixed-route buses, IC readers are not installed at stations and stops, and can be used by touching the IC reader near the vehicle entrance / exit door when getting on / off.[4].

It is assumed that you will continue to use the same card for IC cards, and when the balance is used up, you can use the automatic ticket vending machines installed at stations and bus terminals.Charging machineCharge (additional) and reuse. To the usage amountdepositIt is often sold at the sum of the above, and when it is no longer needed, the deposit will be returned when the card is returned to the issuer.

Depending on the operator, it may be an IC cardCommuter Pass,One day ticketEtc. can be installed.Credit cardThere are also those that are integrated with and those that can be linked to a credit card. If you use the linked credit card, if the balance falls below a certain amount, it will be automatically charged through the credit card (Auto charge) Some can be set so that it can be done.

Depending on the card issuer and type, points will be added depending on the fare and number of times of use, the amount that is lower than the normal fare of the use section will be deducted only for card users, from the amount deposited In some cases, a slightly higher amount will be added.

Digital ticket

Digital tickets use the communication function of mobile terminals to purchase tickets, and some can not only purchase tickets but also reserve seats for trains.[1].. IC chip equivalent to an IC fare card (FeliCa,NFCEtc.)Mobile phone,SmartphoneIt may be possible to pay the fare by mounting it on the vehicle.

Use of mobile devices

With the introduction of digital tickets, it is possible to avoid congestion at the counters and ticket vending machines, and to pass through the ticket gates simply by holding the terminal over.[1]..In addition, it will be possible to introduce a system that allows you to purchase tickets (reserved tickets, etc.) from anywhere using a mobile terminal, and provides information (boarding information, etc.) from the station to the mobile terminal when passing through the gate.[1].

Support for mobile devices

JapaneseMobile SuicaIn Hong KongOctopus (Octopus), TaiwanYu card (EasyCard, EasyCard), SingaporeEC link,KoreanT moneyThere are services that can be used on mobile such as[5].. In the spring of 2020Mobile PASMOStarted service[6].

Mobile services in Japanfeature phoneOn some mobile phones and PHS modelsMobile walletAs a responseMobile SuicaEtc. are available[Note 1].. Smartphones have become mainstream, and iPhones were not available on some older generation devices,FeliCaWith the advent of the equipped iPhone, mobile Suica etc. became available (Apple Pay Suica). For Android devices, some devices that support Osaifu-Keitai, such as Mobile Suica, orGoogle Pay SuicaIt is available as. Compatible with Android devices in the spring of 2020Mobile PASMOStarted service[6].

Advantages of digital tickets

In the case of conventional tickets such as paper tickets, there are problems with purchasing means, problems with carrying, and risk of loss.[1].

In the case of conventional tickets such as paper tickets, the place of purchase is limited, such as stations and travel agencies.[1].Tel,インターネットIt is possible to make a reservation at the station, but you need to exchange tickets at the station etc.[1]..In the case of digital tickets, tickets as actual media are not required, and tickets such as reservation tickets, one-time tickets, period tickets, and coupon tickets can be purchased using the communication function of mobile terminals.[1]..In the case of digital tickets, purchased reservation tickets, one-time tickets, period tickets, coupon tickets, and other tickets are stored on the mobile terminal, reducing the hassle of carrying and the risk of loss.[1].

Furthermore, in the concept of an information distribution service linked to automatic ticket gates, in addition to the ID number of the commuter pass, the user's e-mail address and desired information can be registered on the mobile terminal, and the advertiser can register the user who uses transportation. It will be possible to deliver advertisements according to location and time, and transportation companies such as railway companies will be able to earn not only fares but also advertising fees.[1].

History

History of magnetic card tickets

History of introduction of each business

Depends on the transportation companyprepaid cardAs an example of1985/At that timeJapan National Railway(JNR)Orange cardIn addition to the sale of, similar cards were also released by other transportation companies.These are not boarding cardsAutomatic ticket vending machineIt is a prepaid card (indirect type) of the gold ticket type that you put in and purchase a ticket, and you can leave the card as it isAutomatic ticket gateI couldn't put it in.

Transit BusMagnetism inBus cardIt is,the 1980sSince then, there have been examples of introduction on routes with a flat fare system.[Where?]As a full-scale and large-scale introduction example,1988/5/9ToKanagawa Central TransportationIntroduced byKananaka bus card"ButMulti-section fare systemThen it is the first in Japan.the systemSanyo Electric Works(Current:Reshipment) Joint development withBus common card,PASMO-SuicaInBus use privilege serviceWill be taken over byPremium(Discount) included. afterwards,Bus common cardIt has been integrated into and has been issued.With this as a starting point, bus operators in various regions have introduced bus cards.

Next day1989/10/4[7],Nara KotsuIntroduces Magnetic Bus Card[7]..We have also introduced multi-segment fare routes.Vehicles that accept bus cards have a round "bus card" mark on the front of the vehicle, similar to Kanagawa Chuo Kotsu, and can only be used on vehicles with this mark.[7].

1990/IsNagasaki MotorIs an automatic payment formula that supports magnetic bus cardsFare boxIntroduced[8].. Next day1991/Installation completed on all vehicles by the end of January[8].Numbered ticketPrinted onbarcodeIs read in the fare box and deducted from the bus card.[8].

In addition, when introducing the bus card of Kanagawa Chuo Kotsu and Nagasaki Bus,Ministry of TransportFrom "Showa 63Degree bus traffic activation assistance "was issued[8]..With the introduction of the bus cardSubsidyThese are the first cases in Japan that were targeted.[8].

In the railway companyNagoya City Transportation Bureau 1988/3/1"Lily cardIs released,4/1からNagoya Municipal SubwayStarted to use on all lines.However, when boarding the subway with a lily card, use the card directly.Automatic ticket gateCannot be thrown intoAutomatic ticket vending machineIt was a method of purchasing a ticket by inserting a lily card into the card (similar to the orange card).Next time1989/9/10Municipal subwaySakuradori LineSubway at the same time as openingTicket BookIs made into a magnetic cardTicket cardIt became.This is the first magnetic fare card on the Nagoya Municipal Subway that can be inserted directly into an automatic ticket gate.Use of lily cardNagoya City BusAlso expanded to 198910/2ThanMain busTest introduction to No. 1 system,1991/10/1Was introduced to all municipal bus lines.On the busFare boxIt was possible to pay by inserting it directly into the magnetic card reader of.Next time1992/ToMeitetsu busWith the Lily Card on the Key Route 2 system that operates jointly withNagoya Railwayof"Panorama card"ofCommon useIs now possible.afterwards,1998/5/6To the stored fairYurikaHas been discontinued due to the release of.

また1989/In May,Enshu RailwayMagnetic ride card ofET cardHas started the service (ET stands for Entetsu Traffic). Like the Lily Card, the ET Card was initially only for railways,1992/2/20ToEntetsu busWas also expanded.As with the Lily Card, the ticket was purchased at an automatic ticket vending machine on the railroad, and the fare was paid by inserting it directly into the fare box on the bus.IC fare card described later "EG1CARD (easy one card)(Introduced in 2002, full-scale introduction in 2003) and "Nice pass(Full-scale introduction in the form of transition from EG2004 CARD in 1), it has been abolished.

1991/3/1,East Japan Railway(JR East) is a stored fair system that can be directly inserted into automatic ticket gates.Io cardTheYamanote LineIt started to be used at some stations in the area, and then introduced to each station in the metropolitan area.

1991/In May,Niigata Transportationso"Bus cardService has started.The company's IC card bus ticket "RyutoTo promote usage2013/9/30The service has ended.

1992/3/16,Fukushima Transportation TheFukushima branchMagnetic type on the route bus in the jurisdictionBus cardBy introducing the system, it became possible to use a magnetic bus card in a dedicated medium-sized car operated on a specific route in the center of Fukushima city.2001/ToKoriyama branch officeIn the jurisdictionBus ic cardIt was still present after the introduction of the new bus IC card "NORUCAIs replaced by2010/Has been abolished.

Commonization of magnetic fare cards

Bus cardWith regard to, the standardization of boarding cards for each operator within the same area was promoted in various places from early on,Capital Area1 prefecture 3 prefectures (Tokyo-Kanagawa-Saitama-Chiba) InBus common cardThere was also a widespread standardized one. Bus common card,1992/In 3 month横 浜 市-Kawasaki CityCommon use begins within the uniform fare section of (Yokohama Municipal Bus-Kawasaki City Bus・Kanagawa Central Transportation・Enoshima Electric Railway4 company stations),Yokohama City Transportation Bureau OfMarine cardCommon use with1994/In 10 monthTokyoUniform fare section within the ward (Tokyo 23 Ward-Musashino-Mitaka City-Chofu City-Komae) The scope of common use has expanded to each company station, and then in stages in TokyoTama areaIt has also become available in Saitama and Chiba prefectures with multi-fare systems. With the transition to PASMO2010/Sales and use at each company's station have been suspended.

またHiroshimaBut,1993/3/25ToHiroshima Electric Railway(Bus only)Hiroshima bus-Hiroshima Transportation-Geiyo Bus-Bihoku Kotsu-China JR BusMagnetic boarding card that can be used by all six bus operatorsBus card common to 6 companiesIs introduced. Next day1994/8/20ToHiroshima Expressway(Astram line) Has entered,1997/3/31Hiroshima Electric Railway was also introduced to the train line, and it became a common use for buses and rail tracks. Also1996/8/31ToPublic operatorIsKure City Transportation BureauHas also entered.

Kansai OfPrivate railway・ For public enterprises1992/4/1ToHankyu CorporationBut"Lagar cardStarted the stored fair system at.This is Japan's first stored fair system that can be used at all stations on its own line.1994/4/1, With a la girl cardNose Electric Railway"Pastoral Card" of the common use started. further1996/3/20,Hanshin Electric Railway,Osaka City Transportation Bureau,Kita Osaka Express Electric Railway3 company stations participated in this, and 5 Kansai company stations jointly "Surutto KANSAI(Surutto KANSAI is the system name, and the card name is different for each company station).This is Japan's first wide-area railway / bus common use system for multiple operators, and laterPost payType IC cardPiTaPaLeading to.

KantoThen in 1991, the same year as the release of Io Card11/29,Teito High Speed ​​Transportation Corps(CurrentTokyo MetroFrom)Namboku Line OfKomagome Station - Akabane Iwabuchi StationOf the stored fair system during the opening ofNS metro cardWas released and adopted the same system as the Iocard with a view to standardization in the future. At that time, it was a card limited to the Namboku line (NS is multiplying "North/South" and "New Service"). Also1993/11/1ToTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation OfT cardWas released,Toden-Toei BusThe card is the same system as the Kanagawa bus card,Toei SubwayThe card used the same system as the Io card and was not compatible.The Toden / Toei Bus card was abolished due to the expansion of the use of common bus cards in the uniform section of the metropolitan area.1996/3/26Toei Subway and Teito Rapid Transit Authority started a common stored fair system, and from Teito Rapid Transit AuthoritySF metro cardHas been released (SF stands for Stored Fair). Based on this2000/10/14ToPassnetThe service started, and initially 17 companies from the Tokyo metropolitan area participated. It was an Iocard-based system, but JR EastSuicaDid not participate in the Passnet Council as it was under development. For public and private businesses in the Tokyo metropolitan area, passnet and bus common cards are integrated.PASMOWill be moved to.

History of IC card tickets

In Japan from 1996 to 1999, a general-purpose electronic ticket development project using an IC card was carried out by the public and private sectors,政府(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) And a private railway operator and equipment manufacturer. Based on the results, the oldNational railwayDraw the flow ofJapan Railway Cybernetics CouncilBy2000/Common standard for transportation IC cards in March (commonly known as ""Cybernet standard)) was enacted. this isSonyNon-contact type developed byPrepaid Cardstandard"FeliCa(FeliCa, Type-C) is adopted as standard.2001/Is a transportation IC card that conforms to the cybernet standardSuicaHas appeared. After that, the cybernet standard of Japanese transportation IC cardDe facto standardAnd,Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use serviceConnect to[9].

1997/9/1,Hong Kong OfPublic transportToOctopus(Octopus) was introduced. This is an IC card ticket for public transportation including railways世界It was the first and also the first transportation IC card equipped with FeliCa.[10].

Introduced by each Japanese operator

1997 in Japan10/1,ShizuokaIwata-gunToyota Town(Current:Iwata)ofCommunity bus"Yubus(Abolished, operationEntetsu bus(Consigned to), Japan's first IC card ticket "Youbus cardWas introduced[9].. Communication method of U-bus card is different from FeliCaPhillipsContactless IC card advocated by the companyISO14443 Type-AWas adopted. Starting with this, transportation IC cards will spread all over the country[9].. Yubus is alsoEnshuIt was also the first community bus in the region.

1998/7/28,Tokyu busSubsidiaryTokyu TransceDaikanyama Loop LineAt the same time as the start of the service, a dedicated bus IC card ticket "Transce cardWill be introduced. This was Japan's first transportation IC card equipped with FeliCa.[9].

1998/8/28,Sky railHiroshima Short-distance Transportation Seno Line Midoriguchi-The whole line opens between Midori Central. September of the same year,Skyrail service New transportation systemSky railTo ICCommuter Pass"Skyrail IC card" introduced (FeliCa adopted)[9]..This was Japan's first contactless IC card ticket on an iron track[11].

1999/January,Dohoku BusIC card ticket "Do cardIntroduced (FeliCa adopted)[9][12].HokkaidoWith the introduction of the first transportation IC card, the magnetic card "bus card" has started its services at the same time.2014/After the system update in November,2015/2/1ThanAsahikawa Electric Orbitof"Asaca CARDAnd started mutual use[13].

2000/2/28,Yamanashi Transportationso"Bus ic card"Start of introduction1999/From October). Adopting FeliCa[9]..This is the first bus IC card in Japan that has been introduced company-wide from the beginning.Also2002/4/1ToCredit cardIntegrated typeBus OMC cardAlso started service.OMC cardWith a tie-up card withmaster CardbrandIs. Yamanashi Kotsu refers to this as "the world's first credit card integrated with a transportation IC card" (Yamanashi Kotsu # Japan's first bus IC card full-scale introductionSee also).

2001/January,Sapporo metropolitan areaAtSMAP cardDemonstration experiment started[9].. Adopt FeliCa[9].Sapporo City Transportation Bureau(Sapporo Municipal Subway) IC card ticket, but it doesn't stop thereLocal currencyIt has a unique character and was implemented in PiTaPa.Post-pay type electronic moneyExperiments were also conducted. The proof experiment2004/Ending in March,2009/1/30ThanSAPICAWas introduced, but the post-pay system was not adopted.

20014/2,Fukushima Transportationso"Bus ic cardIntroduced.Koriyama branch officeIn the jurisdictionKoriyama StationOperation started on 8 general routes that started and arrived in the same year10/1ToKoriyamaExpand operations to all general routes within.Tohoku regionWas the first time to introduce a transportation IC card, and adopted the same Type-A as the U-bus card.[9].. Later the parent companyMichinori HoldingsIn order to standardize on FeliCa2010/10/30More new bus IC card "NORUCAWas introduced[14], Updated IC card system (Fukushima Kotsu #Bus Card (Magnetic/IC)See also).

September 2001,Kitakyushu City Transportation BureauSunflower bus cardIntroduced (adopted FeliCa)[9][15].KyusyuIt will be the first introduction of transportation IC cards in[16].. IC card systemOdawara EquipmentMade.

2001/11/18,JR East Capital AreaContactless IC card ticket compliant with Cybane standards at 424 stationsSuicaService started.

2002/1/21, Common IC card "Nagasaki smart cardIs now available[17].. Adopt Felica[17]..It became Japan's first common bus IC card by digitizing paper-type bus common coupon tickets.[17].2005/It will be installed in all vehicles of bus operators by March.Later expanded to trams and railroadsNagasaki10 of the offices participated.Introducing Yamanashi Kotsu's "Bus ic cardWas referred to[17]..In December 2005, the "Mobile Nagasaki Smart Card" service was launched, the first in Japan.Mobile walletIt became a compatible common bus IC card[17].

20023/1, On the Enshu Railway train and Entetsu BusEG1CARD (easy one card)”Demonstration experiment started. Compliant with Cybane standard, adopts FeliCa[9].. Next day2003/4/1Full-scale operation of "EG1 CARD" started on the Entetsu bus (full-scale operation is only for buses).2004/8/20Than"Nice pass, And started operation on all Enshu Railway trains and buses. This is the first full-scale IC fare card common to railways and buses in Japan. Also with Nicepass2009/9/1,Suica-PASMO-nimoca4th in Japan's IC fare cardAuto chargeThe service has started, but it is the first time in Japan that auto-charging on a bus vehicle.

20027/7,Tokyu Electric RailwaySetagaya LineDedicated IC card ticket "Setamaru"Start of the service[18].. Adopt FeliCa[9].. There are two types, "Setamaru coupon ticket" and "Setamaru commuter pass".Point serviceThere was also an attempt to use it as a local currency.

2003/11/1,JR West Japan OfICOCA Urban networkThe service will start within the area, and the area will be gradually expanded thereafter.

2004/8/1, By Surutto KANSAIPiTaPaStarted service. Initially, Hankyu Electric Railway, Nose Electric Railway,Keihan Electric RailwayIntroduced by three railway companies in Japan.Post payIt is characterized by adopting the method (Adoption of PiTaPa # postpay methodSee also).

2005/XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Iyo RailwayBut"IC cardIntroduced "Mobile IC IC e-card" compatible with Osaifu-Keitai.Magnetic "IC e-cardThis is the first IC fare card compatible with Osaifu-Keitai in Japan.[19](Mobile Nagasaki Smart Card service started in December of the same year).Iyo RailwayIyotetsu BusIn addition toIyotetsu TaxiBut can be used in common[20],Electronic moneyFunctions are also added,Iyotetsu TakashimayaIt can also be used for shopping at group companies[20].

2006/1/21In the Kansai areaICOCA-PiTaPaMutual use has started. same year2/1ToOsaka City Transportation Bureau-Hanshin Electric Railway-Osaka Monorail-Kita Osaka Express Electric RailwayIntroduced additionally, at the same timeHankyu bus-Shinki BusIt was also introduced on some routes of the city and started to be used by bus.

20061/28, JR East used Osaifu-Keitai functionMobile SuicaHas started the service.

2007/3/18, In the form of integrating passnet and bus common cardPASMOStarted service.at the same timeMetropolitan IC card mutual use serviceAs a result, mutual use with Suica has started.

2013/3/23,Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use servicestart. Suica / PASMO / ICOCA / PiTaPa /kitaca-TOICA-sense of-SUGOCA-nimoca-HayakakenCan be used interchangeably with. Since then, the number of companies participating in the nationwide mutual use service has increased, and the nationwide mutual use of a large number of IC card tickets, including local private railway and bus companies, is progressing.

List of boarding cards for each country

Japanese ones will be described later. (→ →#Japanese boarding card system,#Japanese IC card ticket

IC card ticket

Magnetic card ticket

Japanese boarding card system

Deposit obligation

PheasantWill exceed 1000 million yenCash voucherThe person who issued the (prepayment certificate) (business operator) must usually deposit more than half of the balance with the Legal Affairs Bureau, but in the case of a boarding card (since it is interpreted as a boarding ticket), no deposit is required. ing.Electronic moneyIf the card has a character like a voucher, such as a functional boarding card, the deposit obligation may occur.

expiration date

Some fare cards have an expiration date.That is, even if it is charged as SF, its value may be lost after a certain period of time without using it.Particular attention should be paid to IC cards that can be used repeatedly.

Many transportation IC cards are stipulated to expire even if they have never been used for 10 years, but the actual handling depends on the card.[21].

  • SuicaIs treated as the card being suspended (invalidated).If there is a balance, it can be transferred to a new Suica regardless of whether it is registered or bearer.[Note 2]..If no new card is issued, the deposit will be returned.note that,Tokyo MonorailIssued "Monorail Suica" is treated in the same way[22].. on the other hand,Tokyo Seaside High Speed ​​RailThere is no specific validity period for the issued "Rinkai Suica".[23].
  • PASMOExpires, including the deposit.
  • TOICACan be used as is unless it becomes unusable on the system[24].ICOCACan be used without any problem.

In case of loss

If the passenger card is lost or stolen, the handling varies depending on the business operator.Suica,PASMOFor other Suica-compliant boarding cards, we usually accept reissues of signing ceremony and commuter pass (a fee may be charged). In the case of a bearer type, it often becomes invalid (no reissue).

When a failure such as damage (read failure, etc.) occurs, the response differs depending on the business operator.

In the event of a large-scale power outage or communication failure due to a large-scale disaster, the electronic money function of the boarding card or the auto-charging function of the IC boarding card will not function until it is restored, and its value will be reduced. Unable to exercise[25].. However, in such cases, most of the railway and station facilities are suspended or suspended, and for buses, depending on the system, IC boarding cards (except auto charge) may be available. Magnetic cards can be used in principle.

More informations

Simply redeem your ticket at an automatic ticket vending machineprepaid cardAs an (indirect) type,JR GroupEach company handlesOrange cardThere is. It was once issued at various places such as major private railways, but in recent years the transition to SF function cards is progressing, and the issuing companies are decreasing. In order to cope with special cases such as deficiency of balance, multiple passengers, children's fare, etc. even with a boarding card with SF function[Note 3], You can redeem a ticket at a vending machine like a prepaid card[Note 4].

Also, most passengers cannot use the boarding card as an admission ticket.

Japanese IC card ticket

JapanThen.the 1980s - the 1990sOr later,bus,TrainSuch asFareAs a system, it has been introduced in various parts of Japan.In Japan, it has been non-contact type since 2001.Prepaid CardThe thing by is becoming popular.

Corporation subwayAnd then ofTokyo MetroRide card used inSF metro cardAnd the "SF" displayed on the ticket gateStored Fare (stored fair, put the fare on the cardPrepayment)ofInitialsDerived from. The stored fair is abbreviated as "SF" in this item as well.

How to Use

Matsuura RailwayEtc., some JapaneseLocal lineThen.stationThere is no IC reader installed in, which will be described later.bus,TramIt can be used by touching the IC reader near the door of the vehicle when getting on and off.However, it is in the Suica areaYokohama StationTouch the IC card to enter and enter the TOICA area.Shizuoka StationIt is not possible to touch the IC card with (you need to make a payment at the station where you got off or get off at the station that is the boundary of the IC card usage area).

In addition, Toyama regional railwayThen.Manned stationAutomatic ticket gateOr easily touchMujin-ekiIt uses a combined method of touching the IC reader near the entrance / exit door of the vehicle.[26].TOICAExcept for some areas, you need to have a small balance on your card to enter, for example.Suica,PASMOThen the balance is the first fare[2], ICOCA is more than 1 yen,PiTaPa,IruCaThen you can not enter unless you have 10 yen left (you need to charge before you can enter)[3][27].

Buses and tramsFlat fareIn the case of, you can use it by touching the IC reader once when getting on or off.If the fare is uneven due to the distance system, you can use it by touching the IC reader when getting on and touching the IC reader when getting off.[28].

ShipIn other transportation facilities, it may be treated as electronic money, and the ticket fee and usage fee are paid with an IC card.Therefore, the method of the electronic money part is different.PiTaPaThen.Mutual use nationwideThere are cases where you cannot do it.

Mutual use/single use between IC cards

In the magnetic card, there are many cases where the same type of card has been introduced by each business operator in the area so that it can be shared by multiple business operators. There are examples of services that can be used in the IC card ticket service area. For example, card A can be used in the area of ​​card B, and card B can be used in the area of ​​card A mutually.Mutual useMost areas (Suica, ICOCA, TOICA areas, etc.) can be used in the area of ​​card B using card A, but cannot be used in the area of ​​card A using card B.Single useIn some cases (ICOCA → PASPY, etc.). From March 2013, 3,Kitaca-Suica-PASMO-TOICA-sense of-ICOCA-PiTaPa-SUGOCA-nimoca-HayakakenMutual use of 10 types of cards as passenger cards has started (Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use service).

Since these are alliances between businesses, there is a combination of whether or not mutual use (hereinafter, including single use) is possible. There are also combinations of whether or not they can be used as a ticket (transportation) and electronic money (see the figure). As for some of the services that can be received when using cards, other services that are mutually used may not be available.

In the case of railroads, many operators assume that all the stations to get on, routes along the way, and stations to get off are in the same service area (for IC card tickets) (if the above-mentioned mutual use is possible. However, it is often not possible to use them across service areas). In such a case, a normal ticket or the like will be purchased using cash or the like or an IC card ticket.

In addition, in the transportation IC card nationwide mutual use service,Electronic moneyRegarding the service, it is mutually used with 9 types of IC card tickets except PiTaPa. This is because the payment method of PiTaPa is postpay, and the mechanism of the IC card reader in the store is different. Therefore, ICOCA is being introduced to existing PiTaPa installation stores, and PiTaPa is being introduced to some ICOCA installation stores.[29].

About ownership of card

The ownership of the IC card belongs to the issuer, and is "loan" from the operator/issuer to the user. However, as a guide, even in the case of IC card tickets, the business operator/issuer themselves often use terms such as “buy”, “sale”, and “release”. In addition to the usage amount that can be used for transportation when lendingdepositIs collected and the IC card is returned to the operator, the deposit is returned.

Problems with the boarding history inquiry service

In March 2012, some transportation IC card providers had a temporary suspension of services that allowed them to inquire ride history from the Internet. PASMO[30]And SAPICA3/1, Nimoca[31]Then.3/2Decided to stop the inquiry service. Of these, PASMO is the same year5/18Announced the end of the inquiry service[32].. The problem is that anyone can inquire the boarding history simply by inputting the IC card number and personal information of the card registrant (general personal information such as name, phone number, date of birth) from the web.

About charge

Most railway operators charge in 1000 yen units, but some JR West and JR East ticket vending machines and transfer settlement machines cost 500 yen, Kyoto Municipal Subway and Tokyo Metro, and Tokyu Electric Railway ticket vending machines. Also, the boarding settlement machine accepts charges in units of 10 yen. In addition, there are companies that can charge only the shortfall at the boarding machine if the charge balance is insufficient.

List of IC card tickets for each region

Below is a list of Japanese IC card tickets.TaiziStuff isMobile walletWait[Note 5]Compatible with SF function, those with ★ are "Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use serviceCards that can be used by each other (hereinafter simply referred to as "national mutual correspondence cards, etc.")[Note 6].. Write "" for the service name that is not the boarding card itself.

Please refer to the relevant item for details of the card business operators operating across multiple business operators. (About nested items, etc.[Note 7]Indicates)

eachShinkansenCurrently, the IC card service that can be used on routes isEX-ICCards registered in the service,Mobile SuicaLimited express ticket (after March 2020, 3, "Shinkansen e-ticket service'[33]), orTouch the Go! ShinkansenLimited to Please refer to each item for details, including the conditions of use on each Shinkansen line and the conditions for new connections.

For details on automatic fare settlement for conventional lines of new connections, see the card items in the relevant area for details, including availability.

Hokkaido

In the Asahikawa area, the following two types of IC boarding cards can be used interchangeably.

Tohoku

Kanto

Central part

Kinki

In each of the above areas, one-sided use of cards compatible with each other throughout the country is possible.

Chugoku, Shikoku

Kyushu・Okinawa

  • Enutas T Card(Nagasaki Bus,Traffic) --Start of operation from September 2019, 9. From February 16, 2020, one-sided use of nationwide mutual correspondence cards, etc. will start.[54].

In the Kagoshima area, the following two types of IC boarding cards can be used interchangeably.

Wide area

Commercial electronic money

The railroads, buses, and ships that can be used with commercial electronic money are shown below.In addition, it may be available to taxi operators (some operators, some vehicles) all over the country.allMobile walletな ど[Note 5]It also supports the electronic money function of. Note that it is not a SF card, so it is not strictly a boarding card.

Contactless service of credit card companies

Cards to be issued

  • (Name undecided) (Funaki Railway-Defense traffic-Blue line traffic)-Scheduled to be introduced in 2020. In addition, it will be possible to use one side with each card compatible with "nationwide mutual use service" such as Suica/PASMO.

IC cards that were issued in the past

It does not include those that are introduced only for trials.

  • EG1 card(Enshu Railway)- Nice passDisappears in the form of transitioning to. Unlike the nice pass, there was no rewrite function. No commuter pass was issued.
  • Transce card(Tokyu Transce)- PASMOWith the introduction. As an alternativeDaikanyama loop line cardFor sale.
  • Town bus card (Peaceful traffic)-It was available on the company's midnight express bus.PASMOWith the introduction.
  • IC card coupon (Kanto Railway)- Toride Sales OfficeIt was available in service. Use ends on March 2010, 3. In general route busPASMOHas been introduced by September 2017, 9.
  • Bus ic card(Fukushima Kotsu <Koriyama/Sukagawa area>)-From October 2010, 10, the company's new IC boarding card (for all areas)NORUCA(Norca)” was introduced, and the product was released on November 11st of the same year, and ended on July 1, 2011.
  • Setamaru(Tokyu Electric RailwaySetagaya Line) Single-use treatment with PASMO/Suica- 2012/3/16End of sale, same year9/30End of use.
  • Miyako Busca(Miyazaki Kotsu) --With the introduction of Miyako nimoca, the use ended on March 2016, 3.[69].
  • Bus ic card(Yamanashi TransportationGroup companies)-Started service on February 2000, 2. Replaced by PASMO and terminated on December 28, 2016.
  • passca(Pascal) (Toyama Light Rail) ... The symbol on the back is TL. -Introduced on April 2006, 4, started mutual use with ecomyca from March 29, 2010. Due to the merger of Toyama Light Rail and Toyama Regional Railway on February 3, 14, sales will end on October 2020, 2. Functions are integrated into ecomyca, and can be used for the time being even after the sale ends.
  • Nagasaki smart card(Nagasaki Motor, Saikai Transportation, Nagasaki Electric Tramway, Matsuura Railway, Nagasaki Prefectural Transportation Bureau, Nagasaki Prefectural Central Bus, Sasebo City Transportation Bureau, Sasebo Bus, Saihi Motor, Shimabara Railway) -Abolished in 2020, "nimoca" Move to[70][54].
  • Omi Railway Bus IC Card (Omi Railway) --Some of the route buses under the jurisdiction of the Otsu Sales Office (Otsu CityWith the Seta areaKusatsu CityIntroduced on some routes). It will be discontinued on March 2021, 3 and will be transferred to ICOCA.
  • ICOUSA (Town development Fukui)- 2011/3/20ToFukui City内 のCommunity bus"Smile"(Keifuku BusWas introduced to the service contract).2021/9/30Ends handling with[71].
  • Sunflower bus card(Kitakyushu City Transportation Bureau)-September 2001, as a boarding cardOdawara EquipmentMade ofPrepaid Card"Sunflower bus cardWas introduced[15].2021/10/30End of use. Moved to nimoca.

Japanese magnetic card ticket

Current card

Cards to be abolished due to the introduction of IC cards

Chutetsu Bus<Excluding some routes> End of use
Iwakuni City Transportation Bureau-Iwaku busIssued bus cards cannot be used.
Sanden Transportation・ Chugoku JR Bus <Yamaguchi Prefecture Route> End of use
Hinomaru Motor End of use

Magnetic card ticket issued in the past

For details such as handling after issuance, if there are items, refer to the corresponding items.

Nationwide

Hokkaido

Tohoku

Kanto

Central part

Kinki

Chugoku, Shikoku

Kyushu・Okinawa

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ From around 2020, support for feature phone mobile phones and PHS will be discontinued.
  2. ^ In this case, the invalidated Suica will be collected by JR. Note that this is the same even with the Memorial Suica card.
  3. ^ For many SF functions, the fare payment is an adult fare.
  4. ^ In the case of in-car fare payment such as buses and trams, you may be able to make these payments with one boarding card if you declare it at the time of payment.
  5. ^ a b FeliCapowered byiPhoneincluding. same as below
  6. ^ In terms of payment system connection,Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use serviceThe 10 IC cards (as of 2017) located in are mainly used, and the 10 IC cards are in principle mutually used. There is also a pattern in which any one of these 10 IC cards and the regional IC card are connected to the system. In that case, there is a one-sided relationship with the mutual use IC card.
  7. ^ To be precise, (1) the relationship between the main and sub-brands (subspecies) when the issuers of the same value issuer are different, or (2) Transportation IC card nationwide mutual use serviceSystem interconnection destination of the regional IC card that will be used one-way with ( [1] p.19) is shown.
  8. ^ Bus cards issued by Chutetsu Bus can only be used on Chutetsu Northern Bus.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Toshiro Nakao, Masaki Arao, Koichi Fujimoto, Masahiko Hosono, Masahiro Taniguchi, Tatsuya Ishikawa "Development of railway digital ticket system using mobile terminalsIPSJ Research Report. MBL [Mobile Computing and Wireless Communication], Vol. 18, IPSJ, September 2001, pp. 9-15, ISSN 09196072, NOT 110004028951,2021/4/30Browse.
  2. ^ a b Passing the automatic ticket gate -JR East
  3. ^ a b Passing the automatic ticket gate -JR Odekake Net
  4. ^ [2] (PDF) -Nagasaki smart card
  5. ^ Suzuki), Junya Suzuki (Junya. “Considering Japan's Cashless Boom from New York's Transportation IC: Mobile Payment Frontline-Engadget Japanese”(Japanese). Engadget JP.As of August 2018, 3original[Broken link]More archives.2020/1/21Browse.
  6. ^ a b https://www.pasmo.co.jp/pressrelease/pdf/mobilePASMO_PressRelease_Jan21%2C2020.pdf
  7. ^ a b c Published by Nara Kotsu "Very Trendy-Nara Kotsu Bus Card New Appearance October 10, 14" AdvertisementLeafletThan.
  8. ^ a b c d e Satoshi Suzuki "Bus Japan No. 9 "Introduction of card system to shared bus and activation of bus traffic"Bus Japan Publishing Association, August 1988, pp. 7-50.ISBN 4795277648. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Regarding the spread of transportation IC cards and the status of capital investment (PDF) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Viewed May 2019, 9.
  10. ^ “Sony Japan achieved a cumulative shipment of 100,000,000 FeliCa IC chips by Sony's contactless IC card technology” (Press release), Sony, (March 2005, 10), http://www.sony.co.jp/SonyInfo/News/Press/200510/05-055/index.html 2017/5/14Browse. 
  11. ^ Skyrail IC card (PDF) (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  12. ^ “Just hold the fare and pay the fare IC card. From the end of this month, the Dohoku Bus in Asahikawa”. Hokkaido Shimbun (Hokkaido Shimbun). (May 1999, 11)
  13. ^ Asahikawa Electric Orbit and Dohoku Bus to share IC ticket next spring Hokkaido Shimbun 2014/4/26
  14. ^ About new IC card name decision Fukushima Kotsu News Retrieved September 2010, 9, September 10, 2010.
  15. ^ a b I want to know about IC bus cards (sunflower bus cards). (About card type and amount)
  16. ^ I. Efforts against global warming 2. Construction of transportation system with low environmental load (2) Promotion of use of public transportation 25 Kyushu Transport Bureau traffic environment measures action plan
  17. ^ a b c d e "A fierce battlefield, so "FeliCa / Osaifu-Keitai compatible" ── Ask the Nagasaki Prefecture Bus Association”(Japanese). ITmedia Business Online (September 2005, 12). 2020/12/29Browse.
  18. ^ "Railway Record Book" "RAIL FAN" Vol. 49, No. 10, Japan Railfan Club, January 2002, p. 10.
  19. ^ "For the first time in Japan, you can take a train with Osaifu-Keitai ── Iyo Railway”(Japanese). ITmedia Business Online. 2020/12/29Browse.
  20. ^ a b "Why did Iyotetsu decide to "adopt FeliCa" (Part XNUMX)”(Japanese). ITmedia Business Online. 2020/12/29Browse.
  21. ^ "Pit" of cashless payments Electronic money balance disappears in 2 years !? Be careful of "sleeping IC cards" --May 2019, 5 IZA (Sankei Digital)
  22. ^ For customers with a monorail Suica card that has not been used for a long time (PDF) --Tokyo Monorail
  23. ^ Rinkai Suica --Tokyo Rinkai High Speed ​​Railway
  24. ^ Frequently Asked Questions> About TOICA -Tokai Passenger Railway
  25. ^ "Weak cashless society in the event of a disaster, cash is important. From the case of Seiko Mart (Hiroyuki Kubota)-Yahoo! News" (Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/kubotahiroyuki/20180908-00096089/ 2018/9/13Browse. 
  26. ^ [3] (PDF) - EcomycaUser guide,Toyama regional railway
  27. ^ Take the train at IruCa - Kotoden Group
  28. ^ How to use the bus -PASMO official site
  29. ^ Request regarding mutual use of PiTaPa's electronic money such as at the Transportation Bureau : Osaka City Government 8th (November 23, 11)[Broken link]
  30. ^ "PASMO" history to review specifications that others can see, suspend inquiry service
  31. ^ Specifications that can be viewed by others on the Internet even in Sapporo "SAPICA" and Fukuoka "nimoca"
  32. ^ PASMO abandoned restart of web history inquiry service
  33. ^ a b Impress Corporation (September 2020, 2). “"Shinkansen e-ticket service" where you can make a reservation with a smartphone and get on with an IC card touch”(Japanese). Travel Watch. 2020/2/22Browse.
  34. ^ [4]"Nagano City Bus Common IC Card" (Kururu) will open: Nagano City/Traffic Policy Division website December 2011, 12.
  35. ^ IC card introduced ・Starts on October 10:Shinano Mainichi ShimbunJune 2012, 6.
  36. ^ ""KURURU" point inquiry (the symbol on the back side is described in the description immediately below the title)”. Nagano City Public Transport Revitalization / Regeneration Council. 2019/5/23Browse.
  37. ^ "Start of services such as ICOCA commuter pass and distribution of PR leaflets”. Ainokaze Toyama Railway (April 2016, 1). 2016/3/3Browse.
  38. ^ Notice of the start of the IC card ticket "ICOCA" service IR Ishikawa Railway, January 2017, 1
  39. ^ H24/4/1 Hankyu/Hanshin Bus common IC card "hanica" (Hanika) is now available! Hanshin Bus News Release January 2012, 1
  40. ^ Takamatsu Kotohira Electric Railway-Kotoden Bus-Shodoshima Olive Bus-Okawa Bus
  41. ^ Utsumi Ferry Kusakabe Port~Takamatsu Port,Takamatsu Port - ShodoshimaRoute,Shikoku Ferry Tonosho Port~Takamatsu Port
  42. ^ Tosaden Transportation-Prefectural traffic-Kochi Eastern Transportation-Kochi Koryo Transportation-Kochi station square sightseeing-Kochi southwest traffic-JR Shikoku Bus-Shimanto Traffic・ ・
  43. ^ About nickname and design decision of IC card ticket "SUGOCA" scheduled to be issued by Kitakyushu Monorail Kitakyushu Monorail Information November 2014, 11
  44. ^ IC card ticket "introduction" 75% Kumamoto city surveyKumamoto Nichinichi Shimbun November 2012, 11
  45. ^ Introduction of "Kumamoto area promotion IC card"Kyushu Sanko Bus Co., Ltd. Sanko Bus Co., Ltd. November 2014, 11
  46. ^ a b One-sided transportation card, Kumamoto mayor without full payment -Kumamoto Nichinichi Shimbun June 2013, 6
  47. ^ "Kumamoto Electric Railway official website "" Kumamon IC card "application form (signature)" page (listed under "back card number" under "sales company entry field" at the bottom left) (PDF)”. Kumamoto Electric Railway Co., Ltd. (June 2021, 6). 2021/6/17Browse.
  48. ^ About name decision of Kumamoto City Tram IC card -Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau October 2013, 10
  49. ^ Nimoca will be available on the Kumamoto City Tram! (PDF(Nimoka Co., Ltd. October 2013, 10)
  50. ^ From November 2015, 11 (Saturday), we will start the service of the transportation IC card "nimoca".Miyazaki Kotsu News October 2015, 10
  51. ^ "Nagasaki Electric Tramway, which will be used on the Matsuura Railway, will be sold as a commemorative card.". Nagasaki Shimbun(July 2020, 3). https://this.kiji.is/607034056722105441?c=39546741839462401 2020/3/5Browse. 
  52. ^ “The service will start on March 2020, 3! The nagasaki nimoca will be available on the Kyushu issue.” (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Kyushu Kyuko Bus / Nimoca, (February 2020, 2), originalArchived as of October 2020, 6., https://web.archive.org/web/20200609160651/http://www.nishitetsu.ne.jp/kyushugo/db/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/01e31ef99244bac6f20d6dfaf2c24157.pdf 2020/6/9Browse. 
  53. ^ “The service will start in March 2020! Nimoca will be available at 3 transportation companies in Nagasaki Prefecture.” (Press Release), Nimoca, (January 2020, 1), https://www.nimoca.jp/files/optionallink/長崎エリアnimocaサービス開始決定.pdf 2020/3/23Browse. 
  54. ^ a b Nagasaki Shimbun (July 2019, 6). “Successor to Nagasaki Smart Card “Two Cards” Mutual use prospects | Nagasaki Shimbun”(Japanese). Nagasaki Shimbun. 2019/9/22Browse.
  55. ^ ""PDF version User's Guide" on the OKICA official website, page 17 (described in item 3 of "Registration method" on the upper right) (PDF)”. Okinawa IC Card Co., Ltd. (June 2021, 6). 2021/6/17Browse.
  56. ^ Impress Corporation (September 2020, 2). “Yui Rail, compatible with "Suica" and other transportation IC cards from March 3”(Japanese). Travel Watch. 2020/2/22Browse.
  57. ^ https://www.yui-rail.co.jp/common/uploads/656e84ca9c8c145822f3427adab4d2e8-1.pdf
  58. ^ "Echizen introduces cashless payment, purchases tickets, Juraka, etc.". Fukui Shimbun ONLINE(November 2020, 7). originalArchived as of October 2020, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200717175409/https://www.fukuishimbun.co.jp/articles/-/1125325 2021/7/27Browse. 
  59. ^ AEON MALL Toin
  60. ^ "Notice of end of handling of electronic money WAON on AEON MALL Toin Line (Sangi Bus)" (PDF) (Press Release), Sangi Railway, (February 2022, 2), https://www.sangirail.co.jp/contents/annai/news/waonsyuryo.pdf 2022/2/5Browse. 
  61. ^ Circular bus "Kururi": Introducing electronic money from April next year Advantages of not having to exchange money / Mainichi Shimbun Tottori Branch Office September 4, 2012 (viewed September 9, 8).
  62. ^ "Notice of Visa's touch payment operation start-Available on all airport shuttle buses from April 4-" (PDF) (Press Release), Hokuto Kotsu, (April 2021, 4), https://www.hokto.co.jp/pdf/visa_touch.pdf 2021/7/27Browse. 
  63. ^ "Fukushima Transportation / Aizu Bus: Development of Cashless Payment on Highway Bus / Route Bus" (PDF) (Press Release), Michinori Holdings, Fukushima Transportation, Aizu Noriai Motor, Odawara Equipment, (October 2020, 10), https://www.michinori.co.jp/pdf/20201023_PR_michinori.pdf 2021/7/27Browse. 
  64. ^ “Introducing Visa's touch payment in the car of public transportation for the first time in Japan!” (Press Release), Sumitomo Mitsui Card Visa Worldwide Japan, (July 2020, 7), https://www.visa.co.jp/about-visa/newsroom/press-releases/nr-jp-200721.html 2021/7/27Browse. 
  65. ^ "First in the Hokuriku region, introduced" Visa touch payment "by bus. The service will be available from March 2021, 3. ” (Press Release), Keifuku Bus, Hokkoku Bank, Hokkoku Credit Service, QUADRAC, Visa, Worldwide Japan, (March 2021, 3), originalArchived as of October 2021, 3., https://web.archive.org/web/20210312033413/https://www.hokkokubank.co.jp/other/news/2021/pdf/20210312.pdf 2021/7/27Browse. 
  66. ^ “Touch payment on Keifuku Bus Hokkoku Bank non-contact, with foreign demand”. Hokoku newspaper(November 2021, 3). originalArchived as of October 2021, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210313123545/https://www.hokkoku.co.jp/articles/-/353905 2021/7/27Browse. 
  67. ^ “Hokkoku Bank introduces Visa touch payment on Fukui bus”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2021, 3). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXZQOJB127BY0S1A310C2000000/ 2021/7/27Browse. 
  68. ^ "Introducing Visa's touch payment on the railroad for the first time in Japan-You can get on the train just by touching it! The first is Kyoto Tango Railway-" (PDF) (Press Release), Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, (November 2020, 11), https://www.smbc.co.jp/news/pdf/j20201120_01.pdf 2021/7/27Browse. 
  69. ^ "Nimoca" Starts simultaneous service in autumn 27!Miyazaki Kotsu News October 2015, 6
  70. ^ "Introduced “nimoca”, a station of 7 companies such as Nagasaki Electric Railway and Matsuura Railway.”(Japanese). Vehicle news. 2019/9/22Browse.
  71. ^ "Information on the end of handling of IC card ICOUSA and refund implementation" (PDF) (Press Release), Town development Fukui, originalArchived as of October 2022, 1., https://web.archive.org/web/20220118035208/http://www.ftmo.co.jp/000_adm/data/20217182415.pdf 2022/2/10Browse. 
  72. ^ Termination of magnetic card service (PDF(Hanshin Bus August 2015, 8)

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