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🎁 | GW is a horse riding experience!Now, the first 30 groups (up to XNUMX people per group) are invited for free!


GW is a horse riding experience!Now, the first 30 groups (up to XNUMX people per group) are invited for free!

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・ Additional 1,860 yen is required for equipment rental fee (helmet, airbag vest, boots) and insurance premium.

Free horse riding experience (20 minutes) Provided by: Viten Horse Riding Club Crane Kanazawa Contents: Horse riding experience 20 minutes Application period: 202… → Continue reading


“Bonno” is a chat media that is updated almost every day, from everything in Ishikawa to big things (?). With food, with people, with culture. If you look through here, you can see the "now" of Ishikawa Prefecture! …maybe.

Wikipedia related words

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    Equipment rental fee (helmet, airbag vest, boots)


    insuranceIsaccidentalAccident (Insurance accident) In case of loss of property caused bymoney(Insurance premium) is exchanged andACCIDENTA system for paying money (insurance money) to people who have suffered from.


    Insurance isInsurance feeTo shareInsurance accidentWhen an accident occurs, to make up for the damage that has occurred,insuranceIs a system for paying. For insurance accidents covered by insurance,Traffic accident-Marine accident-火災-Earthquake-DeathThere are various events such as, and the stability of human life is lost.事件-ACCIDENT-disasterTo deal with such dangers.

    For insurance-related settingsAgreementTheInsurance contractAs a party to the insurance contract,Policyholder, Who will undertake to pay the insurance in case of an insurance accidentInsurerTo say[Note 1].. It will take effect on April 2010, 22.Insurance lawThen, regarding insurance contracts, "Insurance contracts,mutual aidRegardless of the contract or other name, one of the parties promises to make a property benefit on the condition that a certain reason has occurred.[Note 2], A contract in which the other party contracts to pay insurance premiums (including mutual aid premiums; the same applies hereinafter) depending on the possibility of occurrence of the certain reason. It is defined as ".

    Run an insurance business (insurance business) as an insurerCompanyTheInsurance companyGood,JapanThen.Insurance business lawIt is regulated by (Act No. 7 of 105). In addition, study the legal fields related to insuranceLearning, And insurancedecreeIs collectively called the insurance law in a broad sense. In Japan today, when it comes to insuranceCommercial law(Chapter 2 Chapter 10), etc.,lawIt wasn't, but today's regulations have been revisedInsurance law 2008/(20)5/30Established in the same year6/6Was promulgated in (20 Law No. 56).

    The insurance system is based on the following ideas. However, these cannot be used to position the operating income of insurance premiums.

    Law of large numbers

    It is not possible to predict whether or not an insurance accident will occur for a particular person, and when. However, if statistics are collected on a large number of people and past experience and materials are also taken into consideration, the probability that an insurance accident for a certain period will almost certainly occur can be calculated. It is the value of Omega written in the equation shown in the following principle.

    Benefits/Equal benefits

    In the insurance contract concluded between the policyholder and the insurance company, it is required that the following relationship be satisfied between the insurance money and the insurance premium.

    (However, P is the insurance unit price,Was quantifiedInsurance accidentRisk, Z is insurance)

    Principles of income and expenditure

    The total amount of insurance premiums an insurer has collected from a group of policyholders with the same risk must be equal to the total amount of insurance payable by the insurer within that group. No burns are recognized and insurance premiums not covered by insurance will be refunded.


    As a history of insurance,2 BC-3st century OfChugoku,BabyloniaAt the time, the merchant was compensated for lost or robbed luggage.[1]. Also,1th century BC OfRhodes IslandThen.Joint damageWas in operation.In Mediterranean trade(English editionThere was a mechanism called (bottomry), in which the insurance money was received before the departure of the merchant ship, and when the merchant ship successfully completed the business, the insurance money was returned with interest.

    The emergence of insurance isAncient romeIn(Italian version(Same trade funeral association,Latin: collegium) And medieval and early modern timesEuropeInguild(Organizations by profession of commerce and industry,British: guild) Etc. 1369,Republic of Genoa OfDoge(Head of State)(English editionIs the oldest in the worldMarine insuranceIt is said to have established the ordinance[2].. From the late 14th century to the 15th century,SpainThe widespread use of marine insurance in Barcelona was the 1432 Barcelona's oldest marine insurance ordinance (West: Ordenanzas de Magistrados de BarcelonaIt is clear from the enactment of) and the subsequent revisions and new enactments in each region.[3].BarcelonaThe commercial prosperity of地中海In shipping, the area is geographicallyItaly,PortugalIt had a strong influence on the fact that it was an important base for trade transactions with. In the 16th century, the center of the marine insurance marketSpanish EmpireStarted in 1538BurgosMarine insurance regulations have been established[3].. In BurgosMerino seedWool has accumulated and became a covered product[3].. Burgos protected by the royal familyCommerce officeLeft[3].. 1552Kingdom of CastileFinally allowed the export of precious metals[4], Exposed the weakness of the industrial structure in grain, etc. Around 1570LisbonPortoInsurance exchange (West: Casa dos Seguros) Was provided[3].. By this time the international market was alreadyConversoWith the migration ofKarl I OfAntwerpから Netherlands OfAmsterdamHad moved to[3].

    1601 years,Kingdom of EnglandThe first insurance law was enacted in. 1622LombardyAs merchants pioneer the maritime insurance business in the Kingdom, British merchants will gain know-howThe NetherlandsTold[5].. afterwardsYeomanEmerged and took on the wool industry. 1666Great fire in LondonTriggered byNicholas BourbonIs the first in the worldFire insuranceOpened.Honorary revolutionIn 1688LloydsCoffee shop was born. 1696,(English edition(Current:Aviva) Was launched. 1710, Taiyo Insurance (currently:RSA Insurance Group) Opening. 10 years laterNankai foam incidentHappened, and the British and Marine Insurance Company was established by London Insurance Company and Royal Exchange Insurance Company.MonopolyIt was way(Details). 1752,(English editionWas launched. 1762,(English editionWas born. 1762,(English editionWas established[6].

    Also known as "Father of Lloyds" in 1802(English edition Royal Lifeboat AssociationHas established a fund of 4 pounds of public debt. By the time this fund was transferred to the country, not only Lloyds and Solar InsuranceBank of England,British East India CompanyGot money from[7].

    JapanHowever, since ancient timesCompany warehouse-Yoshikura,YoritomokoThere was a system similar to insurance, such as (Tanomoshi Ko), Haruka (Nagegane, throwing), and marine contracting. But today's insurance isMeiji RestorationIt started with the introduction of Western insurance systems. Japanese Marine Insurance Act, 1731HamburgIt inherited the German law, which is based on the insurance and marine damages regulations.Louis XVIThe Maritime Royal Decree issued byFranceOldFrank kingdomAll Marine Insurance Laws of the United States have the same source[2].

    1859/(Ansei6 years), just openedYokohamaso,ForeignerForeign insurance companies have begun to underwrite fire and marine insurance.1867/(Keio3 years)Fukuzawa YukichiBut"Western travel guideIn the appendix of “”, “Lifetime Contracting” (as “Disaster Contracting Issue Insurance”)Life insurance), "Fire contract" (Fire insurance), "Marine contract" (marine insurance) mechanism was widely introduced[8][Note 3]. Also,Natsume SosekiAlso recommends the spread of the insurance system in his book.1879/(MeijiIn 12, Tokio Marine Insurance Company (currently:Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd.)But,1881/(Meiji 14) Meiji Life Insurance Company (currently:Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company) Was founded and insurance began to be provided in earnest. In the latter half of the 19th centuryZurich insurance,TravelersAn insurance company like was born.

    France in 1816AXAWas established,Social insuranceHow popular isWorld War IUntil the endGerman EmpireLost to

    Throughout the 20th century, American insurance companiesInvestment trustWas the main purchasing layer.

    1957/Price Anderson methodBased on the enactment ofNuclear accidentInsurance system was set up in preparation for[10].

    Foreign banks avalanche into France in the 1970s (Details), insuranceBank teller salesHas started.

    1981-1982,Suspicion of loss(Insurance murderSuspected), 1993(English editionNew if foreign law specifically requiresAntitrust lawIs approved for extra-territorial application.

    2008 yearsWorld financial crisisOn the occasion ofFederal Reserve TheAIGAcquired 79% of the shares[6].


    The insurance system can be classified by focusing on the insurer, management purpose, insurance accident, and the like.Insurance productsThe classification as is different from this.

    • Operated by governments such as national and local governmentsPublic insuranceAnd run by a private companyPrivate insurance(Private insurance)
    • Social security systemForm part ofPublic insuranceAnd individuals voluntarily joinPrivate insurance[Note 4]
    • Required to joinCompulsory insuranceAnd policyholders voluntarily joinVoluntary insurance
    • For mutual assistanceMutual insuranceAnd for the purpose of profitCommercial insurance
    • Accidents such as life-threatening, injury or illness of a personPerson insurance(Jinhoken) and the loss/damage of property as an insurance accidentProperty insurance(Butsuhoken)
    • Damage caused by a ship or cargo due to a voyage accident is an insurance accidentMarine insuranceAnd various onshore insuranceLand insurance
    • Companies are the main policyholdersCorporate insuranceAnd individuals as the main policyholdersHousehold insurance

    Public insurance is insurance as social policy or social welfare.Social insuranceAnd insurance as an economic policyIndustrial insurance(Japanese agricultural insurance, fishery insurance, fishing boat insurance, export insurance, etc.) Japanese social insurance has the following systems.

    Private insurance is insurance that is sold and operated by a private insurance company and mainly deals with life insurance and non-life insurance.Life insuranceIs insurance that pays a certain amount of insurance for life and death,Non-life insuranceIs insurance that covers damages that can be caused by certain accidents. .. In some countries, insurance companies impose insured regulations and regulate infringing insurance products. The Japanese governmentInsurance business lawWith the exception of some exceptions, a foreign insurance company that does not have a branch office in Japan will conclude an insurance contract for a person who has an address or residence in Japan, a property located in Japan, or a ship or airplane with Japanese nationality. Stipulates that it must not be.[11]

    An insurance company that sells insurance in Japan received a life insurance business license under the Insurance Business Law.Life insurance companyReceived a non-life insurance business licenseNon-life insurance companyOf foreign insurance companiesPrime MinisterLicensedForeign insurance companyIt is divided into For Japanese insurance companies,ShareholderAttributable to profit and loss)Ltd.Mutual insurance (attributable to the policyholder)Mutual companyThere are insurance companies that take the form of. Mutual companies are the only corporate forms permitted by insurance companies, and are theoretically positioned as non-profit corporations (intermediate corporations). Currently, mutual companies exist only in life insurance companies, and non-life insurance companies do not exist.

    However,1995/Promulgated in (7)1996/Due to the new Insurance Business Law enforced in (8), mutual companies and stock companies have been made close to each other in many respects, and it has become possible to make bilateral organizational changes between mutual companies and stock companies (previously It was only possible to change the organization from a company to a mutual company), but the difference between the two is not so large. In addition, under this new insurance business law, both life insurance companies and non-life insurance companies can handle both insurance fields (so-calledThird sector insurance) Has been set. Third-sector insurance is insurance that covers both the life insurance and non-life insurance fields.medical insurance,Long-term care insurance,Cancer insuranceAnd so on.

    Even with private insurance,Car Liability Insurance (Personal Liability Insurance),Earthquake insuranceThere are also insurances that have been established for social policy purposes. It was once run by the governmentSimple insurance (simple life insurance)Was one of the public insurance. But,2007/From February 19, 10Japan Post Insurance Co., Ltd.Classified as private insurance because it is handled by[Note 5].

    other than this,ReinsuranceThere is also insurance. Reinsurance is insurance aimed at having other insurers insure part or all of the liability underwritten by an insurance contract (primary insurance). Reinsurance has the effect of further enhancing the risk diversification function of insurance. Reinsurance is not a life insurance because it covers insurance, but exceptionally, life insurance companies can handle reinsurance for life insurance. Reinsurance is run as private insurance, and there is also reinsurance as public insurance (Earthquake Insurance LawArticle 3).

    Insurance products

    Insurance products,Insurance policyIt is an insurance contract concluded based on. The insurance policy is a contract clause established by the insurance company. It consists of an ordinary insurance policy that defines the basic contents of the contract and a special insurance policy (special contract) that modifies or supplements the rules of the ordinary insurance policy. It is not possible to negotiate individually with the insurance company any changes to the individual terms of the agreement. Since insurance policies can be disadvantageous to policyholders and insureds, they are regulated as follows.

    • Regulation of insurance policy contents by law such as commercial law (legislation)
    • FSA approval and notification system for insurance policies (administration)
    • If the interpretation is different,Creator's disadvantage principleProtects the contractor by ", and remarkably unfair provisions are invalid in court (judiciary)

    The main insurance products are as follows. However,Islamic area TheinterestPoint to usegamblingInsurance based on sexShariaTo think that it is againstTakafulWe sell products similar to Kyosai and Yoritomoko.

    Life insurance(Life insurance: first field)

     Virtually long-term insurance premiumsInvestment trust.
     Life insurance-Endowment insurance-Personal pension insurance-Term insurance.. Survival insurance does not exist on its own, but some kind of death insurance is attached.

    Non-life insurance(Sompo: Second sector)
    • Accident insurance
      • Ordinary accident insurance
      • Family accident insurance
      • Family traffic accident insurance
      • Domestic travel accident insurance
      • Overseas travel accident insurance
      • Golfer insurance
    • More informations
      • Personal property insurance
        • Yacht and motor boat comprehensive insurance
        • Computer general insurance
        • Smartphone insurance
      • Pet insurance
    Third sector insurance(Insurance and sickness fixed insurance) (Life insurance, non-life insurance)

    Insurance companies and their list

    Insurance business lawAccording to the provisions of Article 3, insurance companies are divided into life insurance companies and non-life insurance companies, and only a person licensed by the Prime Minister can do them. Moreover, it is understood that one company cannot carry out life insurance business and non-life insurance business at the same time because the quality of life insurance and non-life insurance are different in quality. There are similar regulations when a foreign insurance company opens a branch or branch in Japan and operates in Japan, and a license is required (Insurance Business Law, Article 185).

    When an insurance company goes bankrupt, the "insurance policyholder protection system" is the name of the insurance company that protects the policyholders who have an insurance contract.Safety netIs applied. The policyholder protection mechanism is supposed to provide financial assistance and pay the policyholder's insurance payments and termination payments. Insurance covered by the Japanese branch of a foreign company is also included.[12]

    The non-life insurance companies that have acquired an insurance business license in Japan are listed below. For non-life insurance companies, industry groupsJapan General Insurance AssociationForeign General Insurance AssociationAnd some companies are not affiliated with either[Note 7].. Life insurance companies transfer to another section (Details). Restricted to insurance with a certain amount of insurance and insurance period, and relaxed regulations such as changing from a license system to a registration system.Small amount short-term insurance(Commonly known as mini insurance) has been institutionalized since 2008 and is not included in the list below. However, it is possible to establish a small-scale short-term insurance company or to operate as a subsidiary of the following insurance company (or insurance holding company) that has been licensed.Tokio Marine Millea Small amount short-term insuranceThere are examples such as. In the name "Ltd.""Mutual companyIs omitted. In addition, as for the insurance company that once existed, the insurance company that became the saucer is not listed belowDaiichi Fire Marine InsuranceThere is.

    Japan General Insurance Association member companies

    Foreign General Insurance Association member companies

    *If there is a company name in parentheses, the parentheses are the licensed company name or group company name in Japan. ※Alphabetical order

    Case of administrative sanction

    Non-payment of insurance claimsIn recent years, fraudulent acts at insurance companies and agents handling their products have frequently occurred, such as the occurrence of large-scale fraud, and the Financial Services Agency often times against insurers who have found unforgivable fraud.Administrative sanctionsHas been given. The FSA has published a collection of cases of administrative penalties for fraudulent acts committed by financial institutions. The following is a simplified version of this case study that narrows down to insurance companies that have received administrative sanctions due to fraudulent acts by insurance companies and agents.

    Administrative disposal of life insurance companies

    Insurance companyDisposition dateDisposal typeCause of disposal
    AXA life insurance
    AXA Group Life Life Insurance
    2002/9/25Business improvement orderViolation of law (provision of special profit)
    Nippon Life Insurance2003/5/13Business improvement orderConflict of laws and regulations (insurance solicitation using improperly labeled insurance solicitation materials)
    Nipponkoa Life Insurance2003/11/6Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws and regulations, inadequate internal control system for recruitment, oversight of inappropriate recruitment by agents
    PCA life insurance2003/11/6Business improvement orderNot submitted for scandal case
    Meiji Life Insurance2003/12/2Business improvement orderUnderpayment of dividends
    Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance2005/2/25Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws and regulations due to improper payment of insurance claims and insurance solicitation
    Mitsui Life Insurance2005/6/10Business improvement orderNon-member contract
    Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance
    Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Agency
    2005/10/28Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Non-payment of inappropriate insurance claims, insurance solicitation, delay in responding to business improvement orders, etc.
    Nippon Life Insurance2006/7/26Business improvement orderDefects in insurance payment management system and business management system (problems in user protection)
    Arico Japan2007/11/16Business improvement orderViolation of the premium labeling law and insurance business law for advertising of insurance products (including pamphlets)
    Nippon Life Insurance
    Dai-ichi Life Insurance
    Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance
    Sumitomo Life Insurance
    Asahi Life Insurance
    Fukoku Life Insurance
    Mitsui Life Insurance
    Daido Life Insurance
    American family
    Arico Japan
    2008/7/3Business improvement orderDeficiencies in business management system and business management system,
    Measures against a large number of 37 companies out of 10 confirmed non-payment of insurance claims

    Administrative disposition of non-life insurance company

    Insurance companyDisposition dateDisposal typeCause of disposal
    Nichido Fire Marine Insurance2002/4/25Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of basic documents (application for approval of basic documents due to false explanation)
    Nichido Fire Marine Insurance2002/8/1Business improvement orderViolation of business suspension order (insufficient control of the head office for agents)
    Sompo Japan2002/8/2Business improvement orderAbandonment of corrective actions for improper contracts
    Yunam Japan2003/1/9Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws and regulations (offering special interests, recruitment without registration, etc.)
    Aioi General Insurance2003/5/29Business improvement orderViolation of laws and regulations (provision of special profit, etc.)
    Nipponkoa Insurance2003/11/6Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws and regulations, inadequate internal control system for recruitment, oversight of inappropriate recruitment by agents
    Nichido Fire Marine Insurance2004/8/20Business improvement orderViolation of laws and regulations (recruitment, provision of special profit, etc.)
    Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance
    Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Co., Ltd.
    Sompo Japan
    Nipponkoa Insurance
    Aioi General Insurance
    Nissay Dowa General Insurance
    Fuji Fire Marine Insurance
    Kyoei Fire Marine Insurance
    Nissin Fire Marine Insurance
    Asahi Fire and Marine Insurance
    SECOM General Insurance
    Meiji Yasuda General Insurance
    Smithy Insurance
    Daido Fire Marine Insurance
    Sony Insurance
    Saison car fire insurance
    Mitsui Direct General Insurance
    Sonpo 24 General Insurance
    Ace insurance
    AXA insurance
    JAI Property and Fire Insurance
    American home insurance
    AIU insurance
    Zurich insurance
    Acicular thion generali insurance
    New India Insurance
    2005/11/25Business improvement orderInadequate payment management system
    Zurich insurance2005/11/30Business improvement orderInsufficient explanation of important matters, long-term retention of insurance payment processing, etc.
    Sompo Japan2006/5/25Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws, compliance with laws and regulations (violation of laws and regulations in recruitment activities), inadequate management system, etc.
    Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Co., Ltd.2006/6/21Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Violation of laws and regulations, insurance payment management system
    (A large number of inappropriate payments of insurance money related to third sector products), deficiencies in business management systems, etc.
    Daido Fire Marine Insurance2006/11/24Business improvement orderDeficiencies in legal compliance, business management, etc.
    Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance
    Nipponkoa Insurance
    Aioi General Insurance
    Fuji Fire Marine Insurance
    Kyoei Fire Marine Insurance
    Nissin Fire Marine Insurance
    2007/3/14Business stop order
    Business improvement order
    Numerous inappropriate and non-payment of insurance claims for third sector products
    Nissay Dowa General Insurance
    Hitachi Capital General Insurance
    American home insurance
    AIU insurance
    2007/3/14Business improvement orderNumerous inappropriate and non-payment of insurance claims for third sector products

    Problems with insurance

    Insurance fraud

    Insurance is a system that covers financial losses, but there are a number of cases of illegally using it to earn money. In the first place, the relationship between the policyholder and the insurance company isPrincipal = Agent relationshipIs consideredReverse selection,Moral HazardIt can be said that he always bears the risk of occurrence. Counter-selection in insurance refers to people with greater risk having a stronger motivation to join the insurance, and as a result, the insurers tend to be occupied with those with greater risk. , It means that the subscriber refrains from avoiding the risks because the insurance (compensation) is obtained by joining the insurance.

    For example, in the case of life insurance, the person who is the insured is insured excessively and the person is intentionallykill-suicideAggression, or severeObstacleBy incurringinsuranceGet insurance money by falsely reporting that the target item was intentionally damaged or damaged in the case of non-life insurance, buy a new product or connect it to actual income There is a case (case[13][14][Note 8]). In some cases, the actual costs (such as repair costs) may be overstated, and the amount of the difference may be sought.

    These are the acts of deceiving insurance money,Insurance fraudWorthy ofcrimeBecomes In order to prevent such criminal acts, insurance companies should examine contract details or claims at the time of enrollment or payment, exchange contract information or accident information between insurance companies, or outsource the investigation to the investigation company. We may investigate whether the accident is justified. In life insurance for children, the upper limit of insurance money is kept low so as not to attract crime. In addition, even when targeting adults, if the insurance amount exceeds a certain amount, information will be exchanged between the insurance companies to investigate whether the insured is covered by a large amount of insurance from multiple life insurance companies. Has become.

    Refusal of insurance payment

    The examples of administrative sanctions listed above are the cases where payment was refused for unjust reasons, not for legitimate reasons (Non-payment of insurance claims).

    Niigata Chuetsu EarthquakeThen I investigated the compensation for the collapse of the house,ArchitectureIn order to avoid paying insurance money even though it is completely destroyed, it is said that some insurance companies treat half of them as apparently half left. It is said that this is due to the structural problem that the number of personnel in the accident assessment (damage investigation) department was reduced compared to the sales department, and the business was outsourced to a specialized subsidiary.

    In addition, some major casualty insurance companies were exposed to a series of omissions in automobile insurance payments, and some companies were severely punished by the FSA overseeing them. This is also due to the attitude that even if there is damage, we will not pay unless there is a request from the contractor, but although various special contracts were created due to excessive product development competition, due to the constitution of the business top priority Lack of guidance to the accident assessment department and failure to develop the system check function are also considered to be major factors.

    Recruitment fee system

    Mutual fundWith the prosperity of the insurance company, insurance companies are welcoming their own salesmen and contract sales companies in an attempt to gain profits by opening new contracts. Some insurance salespeople, recruiters, and insurance agents have also become more enthusiastic about new contracts and profits, and more and more people are willing to do illegal acts to conclude new contracts. ing.

    For example, in life insurance, the solicitation fee system paid to solicitors and agents greatly reduces the quality of customer service. To pay the feeL-shaped paymentThat unique system has become established[Note 9].. This is a system that "makes new contracts the most important". In addition to making the customer service worse, it actually damages the customer.

    Consumer Group Credit Life Insurance

    2006/8A problem that has been revealed since then is consumer credit life insurance.

    Majorconsumer loanThis is a problem in which each company insured the debtor with life insurance using the company as the recipient. To the debtorI had life insurance without noticeThere are cases. This is due to the death of the debtorNight escapeThe risk of bad debts due to such risks and the avoidance of stricter examination due to it, reduction of burden on the bereaved family who inherited debt, and no inconvenience related to repayment after the death of the debtor, etc.2005/There are just under 4 cases where this consumer group credit life insurance received insurance, and 2 cases of half of the causes of death are unknown, 1% of which are unknownsuicideIt turned out that it was. In addition, it was revealed that consumer finance companies received a total of 300 billion yen in this insurance, and in some cases they received insurance over their repayment.

    On the other hand, the insurance company also considers the large amount of premium income from major consumer finance companies and does not fully investigate the cause of death when paying insurance claims more than two years after the contract, and casualty insurance It is also known that he was accepting payment of money.

    Consumer lenders claim that they notify contractors via contracts that they will be insured, but in reality the obligor is insured to his life. There are also survey results that show that things are not fully recognized.

    Under these circumstances, if the probability of normal repayment is low, it is pointed out that it may lead to severe debt collection with a view to repayment by insurance money, giving priority to collection and not considering the life of the debtor. There was a growing voice. Receiving such criticism,Financial Services Agency The2006/9/15, How to provide insurance companies and Life Insurance Association with easy-to-understand explanations to insured debtors when enrolling in consumer group credit life insurance, and how to confirm with the bereaved family when paying insurance claims I was instructed to do such things strictly. In contrast to thisconsumer loan OfPromiseRather than offending public criticism and aiming for proper operation to reduce damage to the debtor's family,2006/10/1More consumer group credit life insurance has been canceled and announced that it will not be handled in the future. Other consumer finance companies are moving in much the same way.

    However, as well as banks and loan companies (especiallyHousing loan), etc., there are many cases in which group credit life insurance is used as a guarantee at the time of financing. These are not much of a problem.

    Life insurance companies give to employees

    Company becomes an employeeWithout noticeThere is an example of having life insurance. The company argues that it is to make up for the loss of work caused by lack of labor and to obtain the cost of filling vacancies, but it is accused of earning profits from the lives of employees. There are also voices. On the other hand, it is also known that the insurance companies did not fully investigate the circumstances and causes of death when paying the insurance money, and easily accepted the death insurance money payment. For the bereaved family, they often feel a strong resentment about the exchange of money in unfamiliar places and the handling of death certificates etc. There is also a voice that allowing the act of insuring others to red, as it were, promotes the murder of insurance money. There is also concern that the death of overwork due to unintentional oversight may be overlooked.

    Fire insurance

    As a general rule, the insurance amount for fire insurance is set up to the evaluation value of the target building. Generally, the valuation value gradually decreases over the years, but the contract itself is maintained and it is not necessary to review the insurance amount even when renewing, and the excessive insurance amount against the valuation value and the premium are maintained. Is not uncommon. However, when paying insurance, the building's market value is the standard, so even in the case of total loss, there are cases where the insurance amount is not paid in full and is reduced. However, since the portion corresponding to the insurance amount that exceeds the evaluation amount becomes invalid, the insurance premium overpaid by the contractor will be refunded. On the contrary, there is a significant difference in insurance amount <market priceSome insuranceIn the case of, since it is reduced according to the ratio,Excess insuranceThere is also the aspect that this will protect consumers' interests.

    Originally, renewal should be used as an opportunity to reassess and reset the insurance amount appropriately, but this has not been done sufficiently.

    Transfer contract/conversion contract

    Transfer contractMeans to cancel the products of other companies and switch to their own products. It may also take place between own products.Conversion contractOf your productLiability reserveIs a system for allocating new insurance to policy reserves, which is also called "insurance trade-in".

    Originally, the insurance contracts used up to that time are used when revising the contents of insurance due to changes in lifestyle, but recently due to low interest ratesPlanned interest rateIs set low, there are many cases where a contract with a high expected interest rate (low insurance premium) is changed to a contract with a low expected interest rate (low insurance premium). There are also cases in which sales staff and agents force transfer or conversion in order to earn fees.

    As stated above, if the coverage is not changed, the insurance premium will generally be high, so in order to make the apparent insurance premium look cheaper, the insurance period is shortened or the special contract that was added until then is removed. Sometimes. The disadvantages to these customers are not fully explained and often cause problems later.

    Death margin

    As the three elements of insurance money management, the profit/loss of profit (the difference between the operating profit in the market and the interest rate of payment), the profit/loss of expenses (the difference between the budget of the operating cost and the actual cost, so-called savings), And there is a difference in profit and loss (the difference between the mortality rate in product design and the actual mortality rate). Among them, for profit and loss difference, while designing products based on the mortality rate calculated from demographics, etc. It has been pointed out that the mortality rate tends to be low in the range of contractors, and it always makes a profit. In addition, it has been pointed out that post-war Japan generally continues to prolong life and the mortality rate tends to decrease, whereas the statistic used in product design has a high mortality rate, which in turn makes a consistent profit. ..

    On the other hand, when appealing for the plight of management after the bubble burst (Lost ten years), allegedly justifying the move to reduce the expected interest rate by the above-mentioned "transfer" by appealing the limit of cost reduction and corporate efforts for cost gains/losses, and the reverse margin of profits/losses. Furthermore, after appealing the reverse rate of interest rates, an attempt is being made to establish a scheme for unilaterally changing the expected interest rate (reducing the expected interest rate) by insurance companies for existing contracts. On the other hand, it is pointed out that he does not mention the difference in profit and loss and passes on the detriment to customers by hiding the elements that constantly generate profit.

    Variable insurance

    Variable insurance is insurance in which the amount of insurance money increases or decreases depending on the investment performance, and a certain amount of death insurance is guaranteed, but the amount of maturity insurance is often not guaranteed. In the bubble period, the amount of insurance used increased and the amount of insurance increased sharply.Therefore, there is also a sales method in which a future increase in stock prices, that is, an increase in the amount of insurance, is used to borrow money and take out insurance. I was seen. The variable insurance sold in this way isBubble burstAt the same time, it became impossible to repay the loan with insurance money due to a decline in the operating record, and there were cases where the insured chose to commit suicide. Detail isVariable insurance,Bubble economychecking ...

    Problems related to insurance examination

    2013/ToMizuho Bankso,GangsterAfter discovering the problem of leaving it while knowing the existence of a loan toFinancial Services AgencyIs a major non-life insurance company and three major life insurance companies (Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance, Sompo Japan, Mitsui Sumitomo Marine Fire Insurance, Aioi Nissay Dowa General Insurance, Nippon Koa Insurance, Mitsui Life Insurance, Fukukuni Life Insurance, Taiyo Life Insurance ), we conducted a survey to determine whether the lenders were properly assessed.Credit companyPartly because it was left to theMedia OfNews reportFound out. The Financial Services Agency has provided loans to gangsters and related parties.antisocial forcesHas not been included, or has started a fact-finding survey[15].

    Bank sales

    Insurance bank bancassurance was completely lifted in Japan in 2007, but started in France in the 1970s.[16].

    The first Japanese version from 1996 to 2001Financial bangAccording to the above, banks are allowed to carry out agency sales of insurance, securities, etc. at the time of mutual participation in the financial industry. The ban was gradually lifted from the judgment that it must be done carefully. The moral risk here is that a financial institution that understands the asset status such as the customer's deposit balance sells a financial product that the contractor originally does not need or understand, to obtain a commission. It is a moral and ethical risk. Mainly in savings-related products such as housing-related credit life insurance (group credit life insurance) in April 2001, individual annuity insurance/property insurance from October 4, and temporary payment whole life insurance/temporary payment endowment insurance from December 2002. Since December 10, regular payments such as term insurance, whole life insurance, medical insurance, and long-term care insurance have also been lifted.

    Immediately after the ban was lifted, insurance products such as individual annuities and variable annuities became popular, and life insurance companies specialized in individual annuities and variable annuities began to enter the market.[Note 10], The benefits of being able to perform one-stop procedures for asset formation after retirement and pension receiving accounts have been demonstrated. In Japan, which has been lifted since 2005, such as one-time payment whole life insurance and one-time payment endowment insurance, Japan has been booming with low interest rate policies, such as smooth sales by each company. Sales of insurance and long-term care insurance were slow to grow at bank counters. When the negative interest rate policy began, the one-time payment life insurance, which had been the mainstay of sales, stopped selling one after another. According to Nippon Life,World financial crisisSince then, restrictions on bank over-the-counter sales have been gradually tightened in China. 2017 came to JapanFinancial Services AgencyIt is said that the bank's window sales were slowed down by the guidance of[17]On the other hand, investment trust sales by Japan Post Bank are being leveraged.


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Incidentally,被 保 険 者The meaning of,Life insuranceNon-life insurance,Social insuranceIt depends on each. In life insurance, the person who is specified in the contract as a life or death of that person is called the insured person, and in non-life insurance, the person who has the right to receive insurance payment when an insurance accident occurs is called the insured person. In social insurance, a person who bears the obligation to pay insurance premiums and who receives insurance benefits when an insurance accident occurs is called an insured person.
    2. ^ For life insurance contracts and fixed-amount injury and illness insurance contracts, payment is limited to money.Hereinafter referred to as "insurance benefits".
    3. ^ The previous year when "Western Travel Guide" was published1866/(2nd year of Keio), written by FukuzawaWestern circumstances』Although it mentions" fire contractor, maritime contractor ", but does not explain its contents.[9].
    4. ^ Public insurance and public insurance, private insurance and private insurance are not the same. Examples of private insurance but public insurance include automobile liability insurance, and examples of public insurance private insurance include simplified insurance before privatization.
    5. ^ Incidentally,Privatization of postal servicesThe simple insurance sold before isIndependent administrative agencyPostal Saving Simple Life Insurance Management/Post Office Network Support OrganizationIt has been succeeded by (Postal Administration and Support Organization).
    6. ^ Individual subscription is not possible. Be sure to take out insurance along with home fire insurance.
    7. ^ RG Reinsurance Company (United States), Assurance Foraningen Guard Jensidig (Norway), The Britannia Steamship Insurance Association Limited (UK), The United Kingdom Mutual Steamship Assurance Association (Bermuda), Limited (British Bermuda).
    8. ^ 1998/7/25Occurred inWakayama poison curry case OfCriminalMasumi Hayashi, who was suspected of being a co-conspirator of the case, said that the couple's family was living in this way by repeating this insurance fraud with her husband Kenji, who was thought to be an accomplice in this case.
    9. ^ When you conclude a new contract, a large fee is paid first, and then a fixed fee is paid over the next few years.Some insurance companies say that the commission for the first year is equal to or greater than the premium paid by the customer for the first year.
    10. ^ Tokio Marine & Nichido Financial Life, Sony Life Agon Life, Manulife Life, SBI Life, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance, Cardif Life, etc.


    1. ^ See, eg, Vaughan, EJ, 1997, Risk Management, New York: Wiley.
    2. ^ a b Masahiko Chimi. "Study of Marine Insurance Ordinance and Principle of Law in the 14th and 5th Century Mediterranean Era (PDF)". Department of Business Administration Graduate School of Business AdministrationHitotsubashi Business School. As of November 2017, 11originalMore archives.2017/11/16Browse.
    3. ^ a b c d e f Masafumi Wakato "Portugal Marine Insurance in the Age of Discovery" Insurance magazine 628 (issued in March 27)
    4. ^ Tetsuyuki Seki and 2 others "World History Spanish History 1" Yamakawa Publishing Co., Ltd. 2008, page 311
    5. ^ Johann Beckmann, A History of Inventions, Discovery, and Origins, London, 1846, pp.239-240.
    6. ^ a b "Brief History". III. Insurance Information Institute. 2021/9/28Browse.
    7. ^ Kenji Sono Maritime protection industry in England History 11 (2), 1932, pp. 32-33
    8. ^ "Western travel guide. Above F7-A04-01 (PDF)". Read digitally Yukichi Fukuzawa. Keio University Media Center Digital Collections of Keio University Libraries. P. 6. 2021/9/28Browse.
    9. ^ "Western affairs. First part. I F7-A02-01 (PDF)". Read digitally Yukichi Fukuzawa. Keio University Media Center Digital Collections of Keio University Libraries. P. 31. 2021/9/28Browse.
    10. ^ Richard D. McClure (1968). “A Review of Nuclear Energy Insurance (PDF)" (English). Vol. LV. Casualty Actuarial Society Proceedings. Pp. 255-294. 2021/9/28Browse. Note: Excerpt from the target page only
    11. ^ "Limits on foreign direct insurance",Financial Services Agency.
    12. ^ "Policyholder protection mechanism system (safety net of insurance companies)". Financial Services Agency. 2012/12/4Browse.
    13. ^ “Judo Reduction Master Certificated, 20 Accident Insurance Scams Arrested”. Yomiuri Shimbun(November 2011, 7). originalArchived as of October 2011, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110705115438/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20110702-OYT1T00509.htm 
    14. ^ Arson suspected man arrested at arson pachinko parlor Mainichi Newspaper March 2019, 3
    15. ^ “Insurance 8 companies, credit examination left tie-up loan “gangster loan” investigation hurry”. Sankei Shimbun(November 2013, 10). originalArchived as of October 2013, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20131027113516/http://sankei.jp.msn.com/economy/news/131027/fnc13102710070000-n1.htm 
    16. ^ "Why medical insurance cannot be sold in France"(July 2014, 8). http://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/46173 2014/9/8Browse. 
    17. ^ "Weekly Diamond" April 2017, 4 issue pp. 29-70


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