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Robot vacuum cleaners are a must-have item !? Compare the overwhelming recognition of the "Roomba" series

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This makes it easier for the j7 series to detect obstacles closer to the floor.

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Wikipedia related words

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Obstacle(Shogai) is a hindrance to the achievement or progress of things, and a hindrance to things.obstacle(Shoge, abbreviatedobstacle) Is a Buddhist termWorldly desiresSince it was used to refer to elements that cover the mind and hinder enlightenment, it was used to mean things such as disturbing, and in the Meiji era it was read as ginger.After that, in Japan, those notations were used without distinction in the sense of hindrance.

1940'sJapanese kanji tableOr, when the notation of disability was adopted, the word disability became less popular.The word "disability" has come to be applied by law to the disability of physical function.In recent years, there has been debate over the notation of persons with disabilities.

It means that damage, trouble, or problem caused by some kind of failure has occurred.It also refers to a state in which there is a problem.Medically, the impairment of physiological dysfunction and the disability of disability to carry out the resulting things are not distinguished in Japanese, and in psychiatric disorders, the word disorder, which means modulation, is a disability. Can be applied.A possible model of social welfare is a policy that focuses on disability in order to remove social constraints.

Notation / Usage

Both "disability" and "disability" have the same meaning of "touch / hindrance".It was later that the specific meaning of "there is an insufficiency in the organs and abilities of the body" as it is now was established.

"Disability" and "disability" are both pronounced as "shogai"JapanIs peculiar to.ChineseThen the former is "Chan Ai" (zhàng'aì), The latter is "Chang Hai" (zhàng hài) And againKoreanThen each "Chan-e" (obstacle; jang'ae), "Jang Mi-inae" (장해; Janghae) and pronunciation are also distinguished.

Sometimes referred to as "disability".

In addition, "碍"Is"礙"ofAbbreviationHowever, in order to avoid complications, it will be unified as "碍" below.

Term history

obstacleOrobstacleIs used from the Buddhist term to mean to disturb and touch, and was read as "shoge" from the end of the Heian period to the Meiji period.[1]..In the Meiji era, the word "shogai" was gradually read in Kan-on, and in the Taisho era, "disability" became more common.[1].

In Buddhist terminology, disability is two elements, anxiety and intellectual disability, which cover the mind and hinder enlightenment.

ObstacleHas been used in the late Edo period[1]..After that, disability was adopted by the kanji table for this purpose and the example of revision of legal terms by the Kokugo Shingikai, and the notation of disability became obsolete.[1].

Toyo kanji (common kanji)

in Japan,1945/Of the Cabinet NotificationJapanese kanji tableWhen,1956/ OfNational Language Councilreport"Rewriting with the same kanji", The notation of" disability "was officially denied, and it was unified into" disability ".

However, in the 1981 Cabinet NotificationRegular kanji tableAs a result, the compulsoryness of the old Toyo Kanji table has been weakened, and in some cases, "disability" is intentionally used in the private sector.[Note 1]..Takarazuka City, Hyogo Prefecture changed the notation in official documents to "disability" from April 2019.[2].

When the Jōyō Kanji table was revised in 2010, it was considered to add the character "碍" to the Jōyō Kanji, but it was postponed. 2021,Tokyo ParalympicsThe Agency for Cultural Affairs was also considering adding it before the event, but it was decided to postpone it.[2].

Current usage of disability

obstacleIt is a word that has been used a lot since the Meiji era.

  • Equestrian OfJumping competition(Show jumping)-Place "obstacles" in the course
Is still using "disability".
  • Horse racing OfObstacle race(Steeplechase) --Hedges, earthworks, water moats, etc. are placed in the course.
Central horse racingThen.1969/Until then, the "disability" notation was officially used.
  • AthleticsObstacle run(Hurdling)-Place a hurdle in the course
  • Athlete etc.Obstacle race(Obstacle course)
  • Special support educationIn the field, learning-inhibiting factors for children with disabilities, including the disability itself, are "noiseMay be called.
  • HandicappedIs often referred to as a person with a disability at present, as will be explained later, but it may also be referred to as a person with a disability.

Obstacles in the technical field

A technical term "fault" is an "abnormal condition that causes a decline or loss of the ability of a functional unit to perform a required function.[3]". According to the JIS definition, "Failure is an event and is distinguished from a fault that is a state.[4]".Therefore, failure or defect is considered to be a synonym for fault, but even among technical experts, failure is not used to distinguish between fault and failure / defect. Often.

Is a component of the systemhardware Ofmalfunction,software Ofバ グAnd other malfunctions that prevent the system from providing its intended functionality to the user.Even if a component fails, if the entire system can continue to provide functions by multiplexing or the like, the failure of the entire system will not occur. ((Fault tolerant[5])

Medical terminology

A state in which there is a functional problem.

  • Dysfunction is also translated as disability.
  • Dysphagia(Dysphagia)
  • Memory impairment is a condition in which there is a problem with memory.

Psychiatric psychiatric disorders, mental disorders

Mental disorders are called mental disorders in English.This "disorder" means "modulation" in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.[6][7].who "" By (WHO)International statistical classification of diseases and related health problemsThe 10th edition of "Mental and behavioral disorders』, Defined to use the word disorder, as the reason for the word disease or illness is" essential and serious [Mom] ”Because there is a problem.

Physical and other dysfunction

In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, impairment means physiological dysfunction, and disability means disability as a result of dysfunction, the ability to carry out things.[8]..For example, the physical fact that "feet cannot move" is called impairment, and the resulting state of "cannot walk" is called disability.And the inconvenient situation such as "I can't go to school" or "I can't get a job" caused by not being able to walk is called social disadvantage (handicap).[9].

Social models in the United Kingdom and the United States focus on disability rather than impairment and prioritize removing restrictions on participation in society, especially in the United Kingdom, where disability incapacity is caused by social institutions. Terms such as disablement are also used[1][9].

In Japan

Enforced in 1950 "Welfare Act for the Disabled"handicappedAnd because the word disability was used, the new word "disabled" and the new usage of the word "disability" replaced the previously used words "disabled" and "defeated". Was generally established[Note 2]..After that, these terms came to be used in the fields of "intellectual disability (person)" and "mental disorder (person)".

recent years[When?]With respect to these wordshuman rightsRespectdiscriminative termIt is said that it has becomeharmAvoid the character ""People with disabilities""DisabledThe movement to write "is spreading from the parties and their surroundings.In particular, since Tama City, Tokyo adopted the mazegaki "Persons with Disabilities" and "Disability" in 2000, the mazegaki has become widespread mainly in local governments.[10]..However, some criticize these, including some of the parties, saying that they do not lead to the elimination of essential discrimination or improvement of treatment.[11]..Also, at least "Handicapped""obstacleShould be used,SagaGovernor-Furukawa YasushiThere are also criticisms that the mazegaki itself is not preferable.[12].

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayCultural CouncilNational Language SubcommitteeIn the revised Jōyō Kanji Table, which was reported to the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, there were many opinions requesting the addition of "碍" in the public comments conducted twice in March and November 2009, but the result of the deliberation. It was decided to refuse to add "Science"[13]..However, the Cabinet Office established in December 2009Person with a disability system reform promotion headquartersSince the revision of the notation of "disability" in official documents is being discussed in, if the Council for Cultural Affairs is requested to add "Cabinet" by the Council for Cultural Affairs for Persons with Disabilities, which is set up at the headquarters, It is supposed to be discussed again before the Cabinet Notice scheduled for November.[14].

Types of medical disorders

For disability studies, see.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ For companies / organizations that use "disability" in the private sectorIBM Japan : IBM develops collaboration software to promote web accessibility,Microsoft : http://www.microsoft.com/japan/enable/products/vmanual/default.mspx Simple manual for the visually impaired],KOKUYO : Acquired certification as a special subsidiary, Kokuyo K Heart, an excellent company for hiring people with disabilities,:Delivering books to the blind The visually impaired reading software and dotbook join hands,Japan Video Software Association : Q20. Some video software does not include audio guides or Japanese subtitles.Is there any software that even people with disabilities in their eyes and ears can enjoy?,Visually Impaired Reading Support Associationand so on.
  2. ^ But according to[Needs verification], The expression "person with mental or physical disability" has already been used in the "Relief Act" enforced in 1932 (Showa 7), and "disability" is used before "disability" as a word with this meaning. There is no mistake that it was done.However, it has already been used for both disabilities and disabilities under the laws and regulations of the Meiji era.[Needs verification]In the medical field, for example, "nutrition disorder" has been used together with "nutrition disorder" since the Meiji era, and both have been mixed.In 1946, prior to the enforcement of the Welfare Law for the Physically Handicapped.KanjiWas announced, and it was stated that the character "碍" should no longer be used in official documents.


  1. ^ a b c d e Working team on the notation of "disability" "Results of examination on the notation of" disability "" 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Evening Yomiuri Shimbun" February 2021, 2 26th edition
  3. ^ JIS X 0014: 1999(Japanese Industrial Standards Committee,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) (ISO / IEC 2382-14: 1997)
  4. ^ JIS Z 8115: 2000(Japanese Industrial Standards Committee,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)
  5. ^ Yoshihiro Toma, Takashi Minamiya, Hideo Fujiwara, "Structure and Design of Fault Tolerant System", Maki Shoten, 1991.
  6. ^ Ueda Satoshi"From International Disability Classification First Edition (ICIDH) to International Living Function Classification (ICF): Figure 1"Normalization Welfare for Persons with Disabilities," June 2002,Public interest incorporated foundationJapan Rehabilitation Society for Persons with Disabilities.
  7. ^ Planning Division, Disability Health and Welfare Department, Social and Assistance Bureau "Posting of "International Classification of Living Functions-International Revised Classification-" (Japanese version) on the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare websiteMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare, April 2002, 8.https://www.mhlw.go.jp/houdou/2002/08/h0805-1.html. 
  8. ^ Hisao Sato "Contents of WHO International Disability Classification Draft"Rehabilitation Studies STUDY OF CURRENT REHABILITATION" No. 71,Public interest incorporated foundationJapan Rehabilitation Society for Persons with Disabilities, February 1992.
  9. ^ a b Tetsuro Shimura Fumiya Nakamura (eds.) "Human Theory of Life and Death: Between Social Welfare and Sociology" Okurou Publishing 2009,ISBN 978-4-86186-377-6 p.58.
  10. ^ "About the use of the notation of" disability "and" disabled person "".Yamagata Prefectural Government. http://www.pref.yamagata.jp/health/handicap/6090004publicdocument200703157555717731.html 2010/8/22Browse. 
  11. ^ Handa City "Persons with disabilities" and hiragana notation (Chunichi Shimbun, December 2008, 12)
  12. ^ Announcement item: Request to review the notation of "disability"
  13. ^ About the handling of "玻 ・ 碍 ・ hawk" which was often requested
  14. ^ Revised regular kanji table (report) 12 pages.


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