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👩‍🎓 | Speak Buddy opens Q & A site where professional English coaches answer the worries of English learners


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Speak Buddy Opens Q & A Site for Professional English Coaches to Answer English Learners' Worries

 
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For answers to questions about learning English, coaches belonging to "Speak Buddy Personal Coaching" who have cleared strict screening selection criteria and have experience in coaching a lot, and prominent external English learning professionals carefully selected by the company. Do it.
 

Speak Buddy is a Q & A site where professional English coaches answer the worries of English learners "Speak Buddy English Learning ... → Continue reading

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    English education

    English education(Eikyo) isEnglishA general term for educational activities and contents related to.

    Theory and practice

    Two theoretical positions in English education

    In English equivalent to English education (law),(T) ESL と (T) EFL There is.

    • (T) ESL is "(Teaching) English as a Second Language(English as a second language)
    • (T) EFL is "(Teaching) English as a Foreign Language(English as a foreign language)

    Is an abbreviation for.

    "English as a second language"Has the following two meanings.

    • English as a second language to your mother tongue
    • English as a second language in an environment where English is widely used

    "English as a foreign language"Is for the latter meaning

    • English as a second language in environments where languages ​​other than English are widely used

    (It doesn't matter if English is the official language).

    T in the above notation (TeachingIf) is not written, it may mean "English class to be taken" from the student's point of view.

    In addition, in terms similar to(English edition)(British: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages). TESOL is the name of the world's largest academic society on English education, and at the same time, it is used as a general term for the field of English education like TESL.In addition to this, in Europe, "ELT(English Language TeachingThe term "" is also widely used.

    Representative teaching method

    Traditional teaching methods

    The traditional teaching method in English education is an application of activism, and the following procedure is used.

    Imitation[1]
    The teacher presents the correct sentence model (English grammar), and the learner repeats it.
    Assignment[2]
    The teacher presents a new word to the student, who uses it to make a sentence of the same structure.

    AL method

    AL method(Audio lingual mood,British: audio-lingual method) Is one of the teaching methods used in language instruction devised by the University of Michigan and others.In JapanOral approachOften referred to as. "Foreign language begins with oral practice"ActivismIt is a method based on (so-called direct method), and certain lifestyle habits are "habit enhancement" (Operant reaction). Thus correctCustomIf the habit is formed, a positive evaluation will be given, and if the wrong habit is formed, a negative evaluation will be given.

    In the AL method, there is no explicit explanation of grammar as described above,Pattern practiceA practice of a specific sentence structure called is performed.A method of simply storing "types" (patterns) is used and continues until it can be used automatically.In this method, lessons are based on constant repetitive practice, and the opportunity for learners to freely generate new language patterns is methodologically avoided.Teachers expect specific reactions based on language rules and do not encourage students to get negative reviews.The AL method is a teacher-centered teaching method in the sense that both the information provided and the information transmitted are limited.However, it has the advantage that both teachers and students can easily understand what is expected, and it is a fact that some people still prefer the AL method.

    The AL law is the product of three historical circumstances. In terms of language, "Sapir-Wharf hypothesisKnown asEdward Sapir,Leonard BloomfieldSuch as AmericaStructuralist linguisticsIt originated in the research by the researchers. The major interest of the American structural linguistics in the early 20th century wasAmerican EnglishWas to describe in detail. However, due to the lack of English teachers with the ability to make theoretical descriptions of American English,LinguistI had no choice but to rely on observation. For the same reason,SpokenThe interest in is increasing. The same era,Behavioral psychologyPerson ofBF SkinnerHas established the idea that all behaviors, including language, are learned through repetitive activities and positive/negative evaluations. And the third element that enabled the birth of the AL method isSecond World WarOutbreak.With the start of the war, it became necessary to deploy American military personnel around the world, so at least they had to acquire basic conversational skills.The new method had to rely on the mainstream scientific methodologies of the time: observation and repetition, and in fact it was well suited for education.Due to the influence of the army, the early form of AL law was the "Army method" (ASTP).[3]) Became known.

    Since the 1960s, the AL law has been questioned for its value as an effective language teaching theory. This was in the 1950sNoam ChomskyLinguists have pointed out the limitations of American structuralist linguistics and the validity of behavioral psychology in language learning.[Note 1].. Since then, the usage of AL law has changed from classroom activities to individual instruction.[Source required]Due to the teacher-centered advantages mentioned above, this lesson system is still being used today.

    CLT

    As it is in JapaneseCommunicative Language Teaching[4]It is often said that the term "language education for communication" is included. Focus on interaction using language as a means, interaction to learn language, bothSecond language,Foreign language educationTechnique for. Sometimes referred to as a "communicative approach to foreign language education" or simply "communicative approach."

    CLT is "Concept / function syllabus'[5]It is positioned as an evolved version of.The emphasis will be on the ability of students to use the target language in a variety of situations, and the focus will also be on learning "the workings of words". Unlike the AL method, its main goal is to help learners generate meaning themselves, rather than learning perfect grammatical structures or imitating the pronunciation of native speakers.Learners are successful in learningcommunication abilityIt depends on how much you raise. "Communicative competence" is simply the ability to combine knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of language with sufficient skill to communicate.

    CLT is often seen as a broader method for teaching, rather than a well-defined classroom practice-based teaching method. Therefore, it is usually defined as a list of general principles and features. Of these, the five features created by are best known[6].

    • Focus on learning communication through interaction using the target language.
    • Introduce correct sentences into the learning scene.
    • Provide opportunities to focus on the learning process as well as language.
    • Improve the learner's own personal experience as an important factor contributing to classroom learning.
    • Associate in-class language learning with out-of-class language activities.

    From these five characteristics, CLT practitioners not only relate to “words learned in the classroom” and “words used outside the classroom” but also to the needs and desires of learners. However, it can be seen that he is interested. Under this loose definition, all educational practices that help students develop their communication skills in real-world situations are considered to be good and informative forms of teaching. Therefore, in the actual classroom, CLT learns pair activities and group activities that require negotiations and collaboration between learning, activities that emphasize fluency for developing self-confidence, and language work.Role playAt the same time, you will learn to use grammar and pronunciation wisely in your activities.

    At CLT, the problem is that if a teacher understands what a student is saying, it would be a great conversation. For example, if a student makes a mistake because of the influence of the first language, there may be a situation in which even if a teacher from the same area can understand it, students around the target language cannot understand the mistake as a mistake. This is an issue to be noted in CLT. In CLT that solves this problem, it should be a simulated place in which the teacher behaves so as to understand at first only what the students in the target language classroom can understand and respond accordingly. Is. This is one of the challenges for CLT.

    Other

    Oral method,Communicative approach,SuggestpediaSuch. For more informationLanguage teaching methodSee.

    According to the Mainichi Shimbun, it is better to teach everyday conversational English than to teach grammar English.By the way, automatic translation such as DeepL and Google is convenient, so it becomes a factor to wonder if it is correct to spend a lot of money on English education.[7].

    School education in each country

    Korean school education

    In Korea, from 1981, English education was provided at the discretion of each school in the “special activity” class for elementary school students 4th grade and above.[8].. Since joining the WTO in 1994, in 1995, at the discretion of the principal, it became possible to open English as an elective subject.[8].. In 1997, English was gradually introduced as a compulsory subject for third graders and above.[8].

    School education in Taiwan

    In Taiwan, English was a compulsory subject in secondary education in 1945[8].. In 2001, English education was compulsory for 5th grade and above, and in 2005, English education was compulsory from 3rd grade.[8].

    School education in china

    1949 yearsPeople's Republic of ChinaThe education system at the beginning of the country was modeled on the Soviet UnionRussianWas the mainstream, and English was only a foreign language to selectively learn[8].. After that, when China and the Soviet Union moved away from each other, the 1963st foreign language in foreign language education was English in the 1964 "Full-day Middle School English Teaching Outline (draft)" and the 7 "Foreign Language Education 1 Year Plan Outline". And lessons in Russian were reduced[8].. But from 1966Cultural RevolutionAs a result, the English course of school education was almost stopped, and the seven-year plan was stalled.[8].

    Foreign language education was resumed under the reform and open policy of 1978, and in 1978, the full-time ten-year system for teaching elementary and middle school (trial draft) was promulgated.[8].

    Danish school education

    Education costs are free in Denmark, but at the university, the classes are all taught in English, not Danish. The problem is that even in Denmark, the importance of the Danish language is declining, and children who have been educated free of charge by the tax of the Danish citizens leave the country and do not remain in Denmark. In 2018, the Danish Minister of Education said that “it is not possible to educate the public on behalf of other countries,” and called on the university to reduce its English lessons. 8 out of 6 accepted request[9].

    Japanese school education

    JapanInJunior high school-high schoolFor 6 years,University-Junior college-Vocational schoolsIn many cases, English classes are also given.Public educationRefers to an English professor at an institution. But besides this,primary schoolAnd earlierearly educationAs English (children's English),High school exam-College entrance examAnd so onExam English,Eiken-TOEIC-TOEFLSuch asEnglish testMeasures, and even hobbies to various specialized fields regardless of ageEnglish ClassesThere are various related fields, such asmarketIs formed.

    Research fields related to English education"English Education"CalledPedagogy(Subject Education) Is positioned as a field. Also, together with multilingual foreign language education"Foreign Language Education"Sometimes called.

    History

    In OsakaVocational school[Note 2]It has been pointed out that the Dutch teaching method established in Japan was inherited as a method for teaching and learning English thereafter.[10][11].

    OpeningAs a result, the research target of scholars is also "Dutch studies"English studiesA wide range includingWestern studiesShifts to."Edo Shogunate OfWestern studiesAs an educational research instituteForeign bookshop, And the successor to itKaiseishoIs installed and will be described laterYuri MoriLearned.

    American OfRanald McDonald(1824-1894) is Japan's firstNative speakers OfEnglishIt is called a teacher.

    1873In the governmentForeign language schoolAs the firstFormer Tokyo Foreign Language School(CurrentTokyo University of Foreign Studies) Was established. In the same year, a private school “Kayrin Gakukan” was opened in Nagasaki, where you can study both Chinese and English.[12].

    1886The first ofElementary school decreePeriod (WoodsDuring the Bunsei period, English education was promoted.Yuri MoriIt is,Japanese language foreign language theoryAlso chanted[Note 3].. Such extreme Europeanization has the right side's antipathy, and the forest will later be assassinated. After the death of the forest, radical English education was reduced, and foreign language education at elementary schoolsHigher elementary schoolIt is said that it will be limited to (current elementary school upper grade ~ middle school)[13].

    On the other hand, children of the imperial family and upper classes attendGakuinIn the school, English education was provided from the elementary school, but during the time of Director Nogi1912(Meiji 45), once abolished.1922(Taisho 11), it was revived by a British female teacher.1938(Showa 13) and abolished again[14]It was swayed by the times.

    1924 OfJapanese Immigration LawAs a result of the enforcement, English abolitionism, including anti-American sentiment, appeared in public opinion.[15].

    19509IsJapan English Education Association(In 2009Japan English Proficiency AssociationWas dissolved and merged) was established.

    2011From the degree, English became a compulsory subject in the fifth and sixth grades of elementary school.Ministry of educationIs considering compulsory less than 4[16].

    Issues related to English education discussion

    In principle, introduce English learning in elementary schools and teach English in high schoolsCourse of StudyThe discussion about English education, such as the description, is more likely to be a topic than other subjects. This includes English educationEducation industryBig in the field ofmarketIt seems that there is a high degree of interest in forming the. Although there are some things that affect the course of study, such as the extension of English learning time in school education and the content of learning that emphasizes conversation and disregards grammar, there are many criticisms from experts in English education. In addition, there are experts who call this situation "English education enthusiasm" and call for calm discussion.[17].

    Issues related to teacher training

    As a general rule, in order to teach English at a Japanese school, a license for elementary school/junior high school “foreign language (English)” and high school “foreign language (English)” is required.

    primary school

    It is necessary to acquire credits for acquiring a teacher's license from an elementary school.Elementary school teacherSee.

    Like other elementary school subjects, although English is not listed as a specialized subject in the license acquisition conditions, English credits are required for general liberal arts subjects. In addition, the conditions for obtaining a teacher's license include graduation from a university for a one-class license and graduation from a junior college for a two-class license (or 2 credits at the university for two years or more, and required credits). In many cases, it is necessary to take a second foreign language, so in most cases it is necessary to take a language other than English at the time of obtaining a license.

    Middle school/High school

    in JapanJunior high schoolandhigh school"Foreign language (English)"Teacher licenseWhen you getEducation Staff License Act Enforcement RegulationsBased on Articles XNUMX and XNUMX, it is necessary to acquire more than the specified number of credits for subjects that include the following:[18].. Teacher licenses for junior high and high school "foreign languages ​​(English)" are available at many universities in teacher training, literature, and language (Distance learningIs included)[19].

    In addition to this, the teaching method of "English" as the "teaching method of each subject" prescribed in Article XNUMX, fourth column (also called the English education method, etc., basically includes English pedagogy) It is necessary to acquire the credits of.

    Incidentally,2007Degree (FY19)Ministry of educationAccording to a survey byEikenQuasi 1st grade or higher,TOEIC730 points or more,TOEFLThe percentage of English teachers who received more than 550 points was only 26.6% in middle school and 50.6% in high school. In addition, 3% of all third-grade junior high school students have Eiken Level 3 or higher, and 33.7% of third-grade high school students are in Eiken Level 3 or higher.[20].

    Comments/quotes

    1. ^ British: mimicry-memorization
    2. ^ British: substitution
    3. ^ British: army specialized training program
    4. ^ British: communicative language teaching
    5. ^ British: notional-functional syllabus
    6. ^ Nunan, David. 1991. Communicative tasks and the language curriculum.TESOL Quarterly 25(2), 279-295
    7. ^ “Life in Japan: This country wastes a lot of money teaching English” (English). Mainichi Daily News(July 2022, 3). https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20220314/p2a/00m/0op/008000c 2022/6/26Browse. 
    8. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Research Report on Elementary School English Education". National Institute for Educational Policy Research. 2019/5/4Browse.
    9. ^ “Denmark to cut places on English-language university programs” (English). (June 2018, 8). https://www.thelocal.dk/20180823/denmark-to-make-cuts-to-english-language-university-programmes/ 2018/8/24Browse. 
    10. ^ Minoru Shimizu, "About foreign language learning and education in Japan from the perspective of acceptance of foreign cultures"Faculty of Literature, 2010, Issue 94, p.1-14, Faculty of Literature, Bukkyo University
    11. ^ Looking Back on the History of Japanese Foreign Language Learning and Education: Rethinking Japanese Learning and Educational Objectives Yoshitaka Sato Bulletin No. 31 (2002.3)
    12. ^ Discover "Nagajin"! How to walk in Nagasaki
    13. ^ Transition of Elementary School English Education in Japan (1)-Meiji Period- Kyoritsu Women's University Nishimura Fumiko
    14. ^ Completely abolishing English in elementary school and enhancing moral education "Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbun" (March 13, 3) "Showa News Dictionary Vol. Published 28
    15. ^ A Study on Internationalization of English and English Education in Japan
    16. ^ Elementary school 4 or less is also required for English, study by the Ministry of Education Study on teaching method: Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2012/9/9
    17. ^ Ken Kanaya "English Education Fever: Cooling your heating mind with common sense", Kenkyusha, 2008
    18. ^ "Education Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations”. E-Gov. 2020/1/26Browse.
    19. ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology "Universities that can obtain a license for junior high and high school teachers (English)"andPrivate University Correspondence Education Association "List of Teacher's Licenses That Can Be Acquired"
    20. ^ About the 19 elementary school English activity implementation status survey and English education improvement implementation status survey (junior high school/high school)
    note
    1. ^ It is well known that Chomsky reconsidered Skinner's "verbal behavior" in 1959.
    2. ^ Fukuzawa YukichiDutch studies school that we learned.
    3. ^ Immediately after the end of the war, "God of Constitution"Yukio OzakiReplied as well.

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