Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🎁 | Isehara City conducts campaign to reduce electricity usage Isehara City


Photo City staff and Kururin planting bitter gourd seedlings

Isehara City implements a campaign to reduce electricity usage Isehara City

 
If you write the contents roughly
Since it also leads to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, which is the cause of global warming, it is attracting attention nationwide and its activities are expanding.
 

Isehara City is aiming to reduce the amount of electricity used in the city due to the spread of green curtains and to take measures against global warming. → Continue reading

 Town news


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    Carbon dioxide emissions

    Edit link

    Global warming

    Global warming(global warming English: global warming) Means that the average temperature of the Earth's climate system will rise over the long term.

    Global warmingClimate change(English: climate change) Is one of the main phenomena that occur in the natural cycle.[4], It is said that there is an artificial origin. Warming since the middle of the 20th century is of anthropogenic origincarbon dioxideSuch asGreenhouse gasIs considered to be the main cause, and it is said that it is occurring more rapidly than past phenomena, which has become a problem.[5].2021In 8 monthUnited Nations OfIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIt was determined for the first time that the cause of global warming was due to human activity.[6][7].

    Overview

    Global warmingClimate changeIt is a major aspect of, and has been demonstrated by direct measurement of temperature and measurement of various effects of global warming.[8]..Global warming and climate change are often interpreted interchangeably, but more precisely, global warming is primarily the prediction of an artificial rise in Earth's surface temperature and its continuation.[9], Climate change includes both global warming and its effects (such as changes in precipitation).[10]..Global warming has existed since prehistoric times[11]But changes since the mid-20th century have been at unprecedented speeds and scales.[12].

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeThe Fifth Assessment Report of the (IPCC) concluded that "human influences are very likely to be the main cause of warming observed since the mid-5th century."[13].

    In addition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeAccording to the IPCC's Sixth Assessment Report, anthropogenic GHG emissions have increased globally in all major sectors since 6.The proportion of emissions that can be identified in urban areas is increasing. Reducing CO2010 emissions from fossil fuels and industrial processes by improving GDP energy intensity and energy carbon intensity is due to increased global activity levels in industry, energy supply, transportation, agriculture, and buildings. Is below the increase in[14].

    It is highly probable that human influences were the dominant cause of warming observed since the mid-20th century, and since the mid-20th century "human influences have warmed the atmosphere, oceans and terrain. There is no doubt about that. "[15]..The greatest human influence iscarbon dioxide,methane,Nitrous oxideSuch asGreenhouse gasIs the emission of.Fossil fuelCombustion is the main source of these gases,Agriculture:Emissions from and deforestation also play an important role[16]..These findings are keyDeveloped country OfNational Academy of SciencesIt is recognized in Japan, and there is no objection from domestic and foreign scientific institutions.[17][18].

    In addition, Air pollutantsSome have a greenhouse effect, mainly SLCPs (Short-Lived Climate Pollutants), which have a short life in the atmosphere, and black carbon (BC, soot, black carbon aerosol), Ground level ozone, methane, someAlternative FreonThere are kinds etc.[19]..On the other hand, organic carbon (OC, Organic Carbon, soot),Inorganic saltOf aerosolSulfateBlocks sunlight from air pollutants such as aerosolsCold weatherHas the effect of promoting[20].

    The effects of global warming include inundation and submersion of low-lying land.sea ​​level rise, Regional changes in precipitation,heat waveAnd large-scale natural disastersAbnormal weatherFrequently,Progress of desertificationAnd so on[21].ArcticThen, the rise in the surface temperature is the largest, and this isGlacier,permafrost,Sea iceContributes to the melting of.Also, as glacier melting is promoted, sea levels rise.[15][22], Small island nations such as Kiribati and Tuvalu in low places will sink.However, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between the inundation damage currently occurring in Tuvalu and global warming.[23][22]..Overall, rising temperatures bring rain and snow, but in some areasDrought,Forest fireIs increasing (climate change)[24]..Climate change reduces crop yields andFood securityMay adversely affect sea level rise on the coastInfrastructureTo洪水May be forced to abandon many coastal cities[25]..The danger of submersion due to rising sea levels gradually progresses from coastal areas, and if warming is left unattended, it will take hundreds of years or more.Tokyo Bay,Ise bay,Osaka Bay OfZero meters above sea levelTo[26]..For environmental impact,EcosystemIncludes the extinction and relocation of many species associated with changes in the world, most directlyCoral reef, Mountains, Arctic Circle[27]..Decrease in snow cover, increase in water vapor,permafrostSome effects, such as melting, can cause feedback effects that further increase the rate of global warming.[28].

    Due to increased carbon dioxide concentrationOcean acidificationAre classified similarly to these effects, even though they are not due to temperature.

    Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies for mitigation efforts to combat global warming,Fossil fuelPolicies to reduce emissions, reforestation,Forest conservation, And even potentialClimate engineeringIncludes technology development.Also, society and government are better at improving coastline protection.Disaster management, Development of more resistant crops, etc.Efforts to adapt to the effects of global warming now and in the futureIs also going.

    Under these circumstances, Japan has announced that it will continue to take on the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2030% (compared to 46) and further 2013% in FY50, which is the Global Warming Countermeasures Plan.In addition, by clearly stating the realization of carbon neutrality by 2050 in the law, we will enhance the continuity and predictability of policies, accelerate efforts, investment and innovation for decarbonization, and utilize local renewable energy. The Cabinet has decided on a "Bill to partially revise the Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures" to promote decarbonization efforts and corporate decarbonization management.

    Each country came into effect in 1994, and almost the entire world is a member.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUnder the umbrella of (UNFCCC), we are cooperating in climate change measures.The ultimate goal of this Convention is to "prevent dangerous human intervention in the climate system".[29].. UNFCCC Parties Need Significant Reductions in Emissions[30]And in 2016Paris AgreementAgreed to keep global warming below 2 ° C (3.6 ° F)[31]However, the average surface temperature of the earth has already risen to about half of this threshold.[32]..Current policies and commitments predict that global warming by the end of this century will reach between just over 2 ° C and 4 ° C, depending on how sensitive the climate is to emissions.[33].. IPCC to avoid irreversible effects, global warmingIndustrial revolutionEmphasizes that it should be kept below 1.5 ° C compared to previous levels[34]..Given that current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 42 gigatons (Gt) per year, the carbon budget to keep the temperature below 1.5 ° C will be depleted by 2028.[35].

    Scientific understanding of the current situation

    地球On the surfaceatmosphere,oceanThe average temperature ofAverage temperatureIt is called "ground average temperature" and is used as an indicator of global climate change.19st centuryStatistics are taken based on scientific temperature observations that began in.The average temperature of the earth is 1906 in the 2005 years from 100 to 0.74.(Error is ± 0.18° C) It is rising, and it is evaluated that there is no doubt that it is on the rise in the long term.[37][38]..The pace of increase has been observed to accelerate since the latter half of the 20th century.[37]..Seems to be due to this,Sea level(Sea level) riseweatherChanges are observed,Ecosystem,(I.e.There are concerns about adverse effects on the activities of[37].

    This global warming can be divided into natural and anthropogenic factors.[Annotation 1].. Regarding global warming in the latter half of the 20th century, artificial emissions caused by human industrial activities, etc.Greenhouse gasSeems to be the main cause, and in February 2007, the United NationsIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIssued by (IPCC)Fourth Assessment ReportAs a result of the aggregation of a huge amount of academic (scientific) knowledge by (AR4), it is artificial.Greenhouse gasIs estimated to be the cause of global warming in excess of 9%[Annotation 2]. thisAR4The main conclusion of is unchanged, adding more dataFourth Assessment ReportIs being created[39].

    AR4According to2100The average temperature is the best estimate of 1.8–4° C(Maximum estimate 6.4° C) Expected to rise[Annotation 3]..As an influential factor of global warming, "artificialGreenhouse gasRelease, especiallycarbon dioxide,methaneIs greatly affected. "[Annotation 4].. Meanwhile,Solar radiationIt has been pointed out that the contribution of changes due to natural factors such as these is only a few percent of human factors, and that the current rise in temperature cannot be explained by natural factors alone.[Annotation 4]..Long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide once increased in the environment will last for about 100 years (5–200 years) unless actively fixed.[40]) Will continue to affect the global climate and seawater, so measures within the next 20-30 years will greatly affect the magnitude of the adverse effects of warming.[Annotation 5].

    There are some factors that have a relatively low level of understanding and opinions that are divided among experts, and there are some opinions that criticize such uncertainty.however,AR4In, the conclusion is drawn after considering such uncertainties, and the degree of consensus, etc. is also described as information on reliability.[Annotation 6].

    Global warming changes the temperature and water temperature,sea ​​level rise,Precipitation amount(OrSnowfall) And its pattern changes are thought to occur[Annotation 7].洪水,drought,Extreme heat,HurricaneFierceAbnormal weatherPossibility to increase / enhanceSpeciesLargeextinctionIt has also been pointed out that it may cause[Annotation 7]..Overall, the whole planetclimate,EcosystemIs expected to have a significant impact on[Annotation 7]..However, it is currently very difficult to directly link each particular phenomenon to global warming.

    It is thought that such changes in the natural environment will have a great impact on human society.Depletion of freshwater resources,Agriculture:-Fishery:There are concerns about the impact on such things as the impact of changes in the biota.[Annotation 7].. 2–3° CIt is predicted that if the average temperature rises above, it is highly likely that profits will decrease or costs will increase in all regions.[Annotation 8]..If global warming is left unattended, 5–6 at the end of this century° CIt is said that there is a risk of suffering a loss equivalent to about 20% of the world's GDP due to global warming.Stern Report).

    Changes that appear to be the effects of global warming have already begun to be observed around the world.[Annotation 9].

    While it has been shown that the risk of global warming is enormous, the techniques and costs required to control (mitigate) it are also being predicted.Stern Report,AR4 WGIII, IEA, etc.[41]According to the report, human beings have effective mitigation measures, and it is economically possible to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the current level, and economic mitigation is also strong. It is considered appropriate to implement the measures.

    At the same time, mitigation efforts over the next 10–30 years are expected to have a decisive impact.[Annotation 10][41]It has been pointed out that there is an urgent need for measures on a larger scale than the current situation.[41].

    Based on such predictions, various measures (mitigation measures) are being promoted as measures against global warming, but at present, the effects are not enough to suppress global warming, and greenhouse gases are still present. Emissions continue to increase[41]..Due to the costs required for these measures, many countries and powers are reluctant to take such mitigation measures.

    As a countermeasureKyoto ProtocolIs the framework with the largest reduction obligations at the moment.In the current Protocol, while some countries have succeeded in achieving the Protocol target, some countries have withdrawn or failed, and the status of achievement of reduction obligations varies greatly from country to country, and there are many discussions on the content of the Protocol.However, it has already become a general international consensus that global warming is dangerous and that countermeasures are necessary.[42]..It has been pointed out that stronger mitigation measures than the current situation are necessary to curb future damage, including increased cost of countermeasures.[41].

    Historical history

    Regarding the climate of the earththe 1970sIsGlobal coolingThere was also the possibility of ".However, this cooling theory has little basis.[43]In the process of scientific investigation, it became clear that the earth is actually warming.

    The theory of cooling was widespread among the general public,1988ToUS SenateJ. Hansen's statement at the hearing of "It is 99% correct that recent extreme weather, especially hot weather, is related to global warming" is "due to global warming."Intense heatThe theory was reported, and this triggered the spread of the global warming theory to the general public.Even in the field of international politics19926 of the monthUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit)AtFramework Convention on Climate ChangeWas adopted, and the holding of regular meetings (Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, COP) was stipulated.

    As research progresses地球Is warming up, and it is a scientific consensus as discussions and research progress that greenhouse gases emitted by humankind play an important role in it.consensus).This consensus is2001(TAR), 2006Stern Report, 2007IPCC Fourth Assessment ReportIt was aggregated by (AR4) and so on.

    Seems to be the main cause of global warming[Annotation 11]ArtificialGreenhouse gasTo reduce the amount of emissionsKyoto ProtocolWas voted in 1997 and came into effect in 2005, and reductions have been made with the aim of achieving the goals of the Protocol.In Europe, reductions are steadily progressing, and there is a prospect of achieving the target.

    However, the United States, a major emitter, has not participated, and Canada, a developed country, has given up on achieving the target.Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentJapan, which later increased the ratio of coal gas-fired power generation, is in a situation where it is likely to fail to achieve the reduction obligation.

    There is no way to curb emissions from developing countries such as China and India, which emit a lot of carbon dioxide.On the other hand, to minimize the damage caused by global warming,Kyoto ProtocolAn order of magnitude higher greenhouse gas emission reduction rate is needed. 2007Heiligendamm SummitThe goal was to "halve greenhouse gases by 2050".

    However, the specific reduction methods and burden ratios of each country could not be adjusted, and in December 2007,Global Warming Prevention Bali Conference (COP13)And even more recently in Madrid in 2019(COP25),However, it was not possible to set numerical targets for each country.

    Changes in temperature in recent years

    Currently, the average temperature of the atmosphere and ocean on the surface of the earth is1896から19005 compared to those days (0.75-year average)° C(± 0.18° C) It's getting warmer1979In the subsequent observations, the lower partTroposphere10 to 0.12 per 0.22 years at temperature° CContinues to rise at the rate of.

    1850Before,Last two yearsから2000 年前During that time, the temperature on the surface of the earthMedieval warm season,Little Ice AgeIt remained in a relatively stable state while repeating such fluctuations.However, recent warming is an example of the past 1300 years, due to the various past sediments obtained from boring and the temperature changes over the past 1300 years restored using natural proxies such as tree rings, ice sheets, and shells. It became clear that it showed a rise without a proxy (AR4[Annotation 12].

    As a means of measuring temperature, past temperatures are restored using a proxy in the natural world as described above, while direct observation of temperature on a global scale using measuring equipment is possible.1860It started around that time.Especially in the last 50 years, the most detailed data has been obtained, since 1979.TroposphereOf temperaturesatelliteObservations have begun.AR4For the "World Average Temperature" of the cityHeat island phenomenonThe observation points are selected so that the influence of the above is minimized, and the value of the average surface temperature is calculated.

    There is still some debate about measurement accuracy.[Annotation 13]However, even considering such error factors, recent warming is abnormal, and it is evaluated that there is no doubt that the temperature rise of the climate system will occur.[Annotation 14].

    August 2019, 2,World Meteorological Organization(WMO) Confirmed that the world temperature for four years from 2015 was the highest in the history of observation.It also announced that the average global temperature in 4 rose by 2018 degree compared to before the Industrial Revolution, the fourth highest in the past. It is said that it is evidence that the unusually high temperature has continued for four consecutive years since 1, the upward trend has continued, and global warming is progressing.

    According to the WMO, the average temperature rise in 2016 was 1.2 degrees Celsius, the highest in the history of observation. WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas said that the top 20 single-year records have been concentrated in the last 22 years, "long-term temperature trends are far more important than single-year rankings. "The long-term trend is showing an increase," he said. "The temperature rise over the last four years has been at unusual levels both on land and at sea level."He points out that it also contributed to extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts and floods.[44][45]. But,Skepticism about global warmingThere are also deep-rooted dissenting opinions.

    Cause

    Global warming was emitted with human industrial activitiesGreenhouse gasThe main cause is the theory that it is caused by. ""Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIssued by the (IPCC)IPCC Fourth Assessment ReportBy artificialGreenhouse gasIs said to be the cause of global warming "more than 90%".

    IPCC Fourth Assessment Report(AR4) is currently the most academically recognized report in the world, and it is the main axis when discussions on the causes are held.

    Analysis of the cause requires a simulation over a long time axis on a global scale, which requires a huge amount of calculation.In the calculation, in addition to the results of direct observations, various estimation results of the climate over the past tens of thousands of years are taken into consideration.Climate modelThe analysis is performed using.As a result of the analysis, it has a long life in the environment as an influential factor of global warming.carbon dioxide-methaneSuch asGreenhouse gasThe amount of influence is said to be the most important.Besides this,aerosol, It is said that various factors such as changes in land use will have an effect.In these analyses, there are some areas of low scientific understanding and uncertainties that can be the subject of criticism and skepticism.[Annotation 15].

    In fact, looking back hundreds of millions of years ago, carbon dioxide levels are overwhelmingly higher than they are today.However, it has been pointed out that the risk of global warming is high even when such uncertainty is taken into consideration.

    ArtificialGreenhouse gasThe food system has been pointed out as one of the major sources of (GHG). It is estimated that approximately 21-37% of total GHG emissions are due to the food system.Emissions from crop and livestock activities on the farm are 9-14%, and emissions from land use and changes in land use, including deforestation and flark degradation, are 5-14%. 5-10% is due to supply chain activities[46]..Of these food systems, livestock emissions are estimated to be 2 Gt in terms of CO7.1, which is equivalent to 14.5% of total emissions.[47]..Methane is 2 times more than CO28.[48]Although it is said to have a greenhouse effect, 44% of anthropogenic methane emissions are derived from livestock.[49].

    In addition, food loss and emissions from waste are also high, accounting for 8-10% of the total GHG, and 25-30% of the food produced is said to be discarded.[46].

    IPCC evaluation results

    Report by IPCC First Working Group (WG I) "The Physical Science Basis"(Natural Science Basis, AR4 WG I) was published.

    This report assesses the climate system and climate change.Based on many observations and simulation results, by humansFossil fuelis considered to be the main cause of global warming, pointing out that it cannot be explained by natural factors alone.

    • The increase in carbon dioxide is mainly due to humansFossil fuelIt is pointed out that this is due to the use of
    • Carbon dioxide is of anthropogenic originGreenhouse gasAmong them, it has the greatest impact.Besides this,methane,Nitrous oxide, and halocarbons are also thought to have had an effect.
    • Human activities since 1750 have the effect of global warming (positive)Radiative forcing) Is brought.
    • It is said that it is highly likely that the increase in average temperature seen since the middle of the 20th century is due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases.

    There are different levels of scientific understanding of the impact of each cause on climate.Although the scientific understanding of greenhouse gases is relatively high,(I.e.And changes in solar radiation, etc.Climate factorThe level of understanding is still relatively low.Opinions are divided among experts, and the report also describes the evaluation results as "degree of consensus."

    Influential factors and mechanism

    Annual average of carbon dioxide concentration
    Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[50]1987 – 2020

    Climate systemIt is,NATUREInternal process and from the outsideCompulsionIt depends on both the response to and.There are artificial factors and non-artificial (natural) factors in external coercion.The external coercion force is as follows.

    The impact on global warming differs depending on the factors,Radiative forcingIt is represented by.When radiative forcing increases, it enters the earthSolar radiationEnergy and out of the earthEarth radiationIt is thought that the temperature will rise until the balance with energy is lost and the balance is achieved, and global warming will progress.carbon dioxide,methaneIs said to have a long life in the environment and has a great influence, whilewater vaporSome have contradictory effects such as.Ozone is thought to work differently in the troposphere and stratosphere.

    When handling multiple greenhouse gases togethercarbon dioxide or carbonIt is often converted to the amount of.

    影響

    Many things are still under evaluation when it comes to the effects of global warming.But among themAR4, And issued in the United KingdomStern Report[51]Is a very influential report.

    The effects of global warming are widespread and are expected to "hinder development everywhere on Earth" (AR4).Some of the effects have already begun to appear, and it has been observed that ice and snow are decreasing at a pace faster than previously predicted by the IPCC and others.AR4 WGIIAccording to the report, global warming changes the temperature and water temperature, and the sea level rises.Precipitation amountIt is said to cause changes in the pattern and its patterns.洪水,drought,Intense heat,HurricaneFierceAbnormal weatherTo increase / enhanceSpeciesLargeextinctionIt has been pointed out that it may cause.

    Global warming is globalclimate,EcosystemIs expected to have a significant impact on.It is currently difficult to directly link individual specific phenomena to global warming, but statistically, an increase in extreme meteorological phenomena such as heat waves and heavy rains has already been observed, and it is expected to increase further in the future.[52][53].

    Such changes in the natural environment have a great impact on human society.Depletion of freshwater resources,Agriculture:-Fishery:There are concerns about the aggravation of food problems and the impact of changes in biota due to the impact on such factors, and the amount of impact is being estimated.AR4Then "2–3° CRising average temperatures above that are quite likely to reduce profits or increase costs in all regions. "Stern ReportSo 5–6° CPredicting that the world is at risk of losing about 20% of GDP in the event of global warming, pointing out that the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions will be much lower. are doing.

    in JapanNational Institute for Environmental StudiesImpact prediction due to[54]Is being promoted, heavy rains and heat waves are increasing, agricultural water shortages, vegetation changes, tidal flats and sandy beaches disappearing, groundwater levels andsea ​​level riseIt has been reported that the damage caused by such factors will increase.

    Rice cannot be harvested in agriculture, and abalone, turban shells, and sockeye salmon are expected to decrease in catch.Profit is expected in some areas such as reduction of cold damage and improvement of rice production in northern Japan, but the damage is expected to be significantly higher.[Annotation 16].

    Impact on temperature

    There is concern that the temperature will rise further and the following phenomena will progress according to the artificial tendency of greenhouse gas emissions.

    • Average temperature between 1990 and 2100 was 1.1–6.4° Crise.This is abnormal even in light of the temperature reproduction results of the past 1 years.
    • ArcticThe average temperature in the region has risen almost twice as fast as the world average over the last 100 years.The average annual sea ice area in the Arctic has shrunk by 2% –10% (2.1% on average) per decade.
    • On landhighest-(I.e.Rise, temperatureDaily rangeReduction of.
    • Warming promotes the release of carbon dioxide and methane from the environment, further accelerating warming (positive feedback effect).
    • Decline in gravel supply capacity due to coral reef bleaching (deterioration of coral reefs).Submerged island made of coral reefs.
    • Impacts on human systems such as changes in crop yields and increased heat stroke.
    • Impacts on natural systems such as changes in natural vegetation and wildlife distribution.

    Impact on meteorological phenomena

    The impact on meteorological phenomena is collectively "Abnormal weather"Increase in climate" and its impact on climate are sometimes described as "climate extremes."With global warmingPressure patternIt is expected that different meteorological phenomena will occur and the appearance of meteorological phenomena will change.For example, there are concerns about the following changes.

    • WesterliesMeandering,Abnormal weatherincrease of.It may have a great impact on the climate around Japan.
    • Due to rising seawater temperatures in the southeastern and eastern United States竜 巻The area of ​​occurrence spreads to the southeastern and eastern parts.
    • The number of hot days and hot nights will increase, and the temperature will tend to rise overall.Increased frequency of high temperatures, heat waves and heavy rains, increased drought areas, increased powerful tropical cyclones, and increased storm surges.

    Although there are some disagreements about precipitation, there are concerns about the following effects, for example.

    Sea level rise

    Due to rising temperatures in Greenland and Antarcticaice sheet-Glacier meltingIs accelerated[Annotation 17], When the seawater warms and expandssea ​​level riseOccurs[55]..The following predictions and estimates have been made regarding this.

    • The sea level rise observed between 1993 and 2003 is most contributed by thermal expansion (1.6 ± 0.5 mm / year).Then with the glacierIce cap(0.77 ± 0.22 mm / year), (0.21 ± 0.07 mm / year),Antarctic ice sheetContinued (0.21 ± 0.35 mm / year).
    • An increase rate of (3.3 mm / year) has been observed along the coast of Japan.[56]
    • 4th reportIn (2007), the rise is at least 18-59 cm, but this is a value that does not consider the possibility of accelerating glacier runoff speed.[57].. A report considering changes in the melting rate of ice sheets after AR4 points out that the amount of sea level rise during this century may exceed 1 to 2 m.[58][Annotation 18].

    There is concern that this will have the following effects.

    • Increased inundation damage.OceaniaIsland country(I.e.,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アIncluding the historical buildings of Tokyo, submerged low land including Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, etc.
    • Brackish waterNeedNori,Oyster,ClamsSerious damage to coastal fisheries such as.
    • Increased spending on countermeasure equipment such as tide doors, embankments and drainage pumps.
    • Risk of destruction of underground structures due to rising groundwater level, increase in countermeasure costs.
    • Impact on industrial, agricultural, and domestic water due to salt contamination in groundwater.

    Impact on seawater temperature and ocean circulation

    As the global temperature rises, so does the seawater temperature.As a result, there are concerns about the following effects.

    • Ecosystem changes.
    • Increase in abnormal water temperature phenomenon due to widening fluctuation range of water temperature.In the Pacific tropicsEl Nino phenomenonEnhancement.
    • Large-scale changes in ocean currents, cessation of deep circulation.And the drastic changes in climate that accompany them.

    Impact on ecosystem and natural environment

    There is concern that the effects of global warming will also have a significant impact on ecosystems.

    • carbon dioxideActivation of photosynthesis in living organisms due to the increase in the number of organisms.
    • Changes in the habitat of living things.
    • Animals that live in cold regions (Polar bear,sealExtinction over several percent of species, including).
    • CoralChlorosis and northward (northern hemisphere) / southward (southern hemisphere).
    • In Japan,Beech forestSignificant reduction in distribution area and serious impact on agriculture.

    Impact on society

    There is concern that the following physical, human, and economic impacts and damages will occur to human society.

    • Increased meteorological disasters (tropical cyclones, storms and torrential rains)
    • Due to climate changeHealthImpact onLifechange of

    Heat stroke is an example of the effects on health.The mechanism by which heat stroke occurs is that "when the outside temperature rises significantly above a certain threshold, the core body temperature rises due to a decrease in the body temperature maintenance function of the central nervous system's thermal center and effectors such as thermogenic organs and sweat glands. . "[59]It has become.For this reason, the rise in temperature due to global warming will increase the number of such heat stroke patients.

    • Low latitudeInfection(malariaEtc.) expansion
    • Depletion of water resources depending on thaw water
    • Deterioration of food situation through agriculture, fishing, etc.

    Global warming also has the effect of causing malnutrition.It is believed that this is caused by the poor growth of crops due to global warming and the shortage of food due to the occurrence of disasters such as floods.Others, "Infants are most affected, food becomes harder to obtain and malnutrition spreads."[60]It is stated that.Especially in developing countries, it is susceptible to this.

    • permafrostDestruction of buildings due to melting
    • JapanHowever, since it imports 60% of food, it is vulnerable to poor crops, poor fishing, and price fluctuations abroad, and it is expected that food supply problems will occur.

    (I.e.

    Countermeasures against global warming can be broadly divided into two types, "mitigation" to control global warming and "adaptation" to global warming, depending on the direction.

    Various voluntary efforts and policy measures have been promoted as mitigation measures for global warming, and some of them have been recognized for their effectiveness.At present, its effect is not enough to control global warming, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are still increasing.However, if combined with the mitigation measures that humankind currently has, it is said that "it is economically possible to curb the increase in GHG emissions in the next few decades or to reduce emissions below the current level."

    At the same time, it is predicted that "mitigation efforts over the next 20-30 years will have a great impact" and "the benefits of early and strong measures against climate change will outweigh their costs", which is larger and faster than the current situation. The need for various mitigation measures has been pointed out (AR4 WGIII,Stern Report).

    Movement to respond to global warming

    Since the effects of global warming are widespread both geographically and in the field as described above, countermeasures against them are also widespread.As a fundamental measure, mitigation measures such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are being developed and disseminated, but emissions are still increasing worldwide ().AR4), Efforts are required for even larger-scale mitigation than the current situation.

    Discussion on global warming countermeasures

    Regarding global warming,影響Is widespread(I.e.Is also expected to be large, so there is much debate about its specific mitigation measures.

    Scientific consensus and society

    Scientific consensus

    There is an almost complete scientific consensus that the climate is warming and that warming is caused by human activity.Recent literature agreements have reached more than 99%[64][66]..In older surveys, 90% to 100% of climate scientists agree on humanity's role in causing climate change, based on accurate questions and respondents.[67]..According to a survey by the American Academy of Sciences, among US and international scientific organizations,(English editionThere is no group[68]..Further consensus has evolved into the view that some form of action should be taken to protect people from the effects of climate change.The American Academy of Sciences is calling on world leaders to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions[69].

    Scientific discussionPeer reviewIt is done on the paper of the scientific journal where was done.Scientists evaluate these discussions every few years in a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).[70].. The 2021 IPCC Assessment Report states that it is "unequivocal" that climate change is caused by humans.[64].

    Negation and misinformation

    Public debates about climate change originated in the United States and spread to other countries, especially Canada and Australia, with the denial of climate change.MisinformationHas been strongly influenced by.Behind the denials of climate change are fossil fuel companies, industry groups,(English edition,(English editionForming a well-funded and relatively coordinated coalition of scientists[72].(English editionThe main strategy of these groups is to raise doubts about scientific data and scientific results.[73]..Many people who deny, ignore, or have unjustified suspicions about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change are called "climate change skeptics," but some scientists call it a misnomer. ing[74].

    There are many variations of denial of climate change[75]..For example, some deny that no warming has occurred, some claim that warming itself is due to the effects of nature, and others underestimate the negative effects of climate change.[75]..Attempts to forge scientific uncertainty later(English editionDeveloped into[76]..For example, some make the scientific community believe that there is tremendous uncertainty about climate change, with the goal of delaying policy changes.[76]..Strategies used to encourage these ideas include criticizing scientific institutions.[77], There is a way to question the motives of individual scientists[75]..Blogs and media that deny the climateEcho chamberFurther contributes to misunderstandings about climate change[78].

    Citizens' awareness and opinions

    Climate change attracted international attention in the late 1980s[79].. Climate change was often confused with other environmental issues such as ozone depletion due to the turmoil in media coverage in the early 1990s.[80].(English editionThe first movie released to the public on this topic was in 2004,Day After Tomorrow"was.Then two years laterAl GoreDocumentary "Inconvenient facts』Has been released.Books, novels and movies about climate change(English editionIs classified into the genre[79].

    Citizens' interests and understandings of climate change are both very different depending on region, gender, age and political interests.More educated people, and in some countries women and young people, tend to see climate change as a serious threat.[81]..Gap between parties exists in many countries[82], CO2Countries with higher emissions tend to be less concerned about climate change[83], Views on the causes of climate change vary widely from country to country[83]..Concerns have increased over time[82], The majority of citizens of many countries have expressed high-level concerns about climate change or have come to consider climate change as a global emergency.[84]..The higher the level of concern, the stronger the public support for policies to address climate change.[85].

    Protests and proceedings

    Climate change protests became popular in the 2010s.These protests call on political leaders to take action to prevent climate change.May take the form of public demonstrations, fossil fuel divestments, proceedings and other activities[86]..As a prominent demo,Friday for futureThere is[87]..In this initiative, you're a Swedish teenagerGreta ToonbergInspired by, young people around the world have been absent from school on Fridays to protest since 2018[87].Extinction RebellionLarge by groups likeCivil disobedienceBehavior is protesting by disrupting roads and public transport[88].(English editionIs increasingly being used as a tool to strengthen climate change measures by public institutions and businesses.Activists are also demanding that they take ambitious action and enforce existing climate change legislation by proceeding with government proceedings.[89]..Proceedings against fossil fuel companies generally seek compensation for losses and damages.[90].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    Source

    1. ^ "Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change”. NASA. 2020/2/23Browse.
    2. ^ IPCC AR5 SYR Glossary 2014.
    3. ^ USGCRP Chapter 3 2017, p. 119.
    4. ^ "Repeated cold and warm seasons”. National Institute for Environmental Studies. 2021/5/22Browse.
    5. ^ "Causes of global warming”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021/5/22Browse.
    6. ^ The cause of global warming is determined to be human activity for the first time UN IPCC reports 2021/8/9
    7. ^ Humans Cause Warming = IPCC Report "Red Light to Humanity" and UN Secretary-General
    8. ^ IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers 2013, p. 4; EPA 2016
    9. ^ IPCC AR5 SYR Glossary 2014; IPCC SR15 Ch1 2018, p. 51: "Global warming is defined in this report as an increase in averaged over the globe and over a 30-year period. Unless otherwise specified, warming is expressed relative to the period 1850–1900, used as an approximation of pre -industrial temperatures in AR5. ".
    10. ^ Shaftel 2016; Associated Press, 22 September 2015: "The terms global warming and climate change can be used interchangeably. Climate change is more accurate scientifically to describe the various effects of greenhouse gases on the world because it includes extreme weather, storms and changes in rainfall patterns, ocean acidification and sea level. ".
    11. ^ IPCC AR5 WG1 Ch5 2013
    12. ^ IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers 2013, p. 4; IPCC SR15 Ch1 2018, p. 54
    13. ^ IPCC AR5 WG1 Summary for Policymakers 2013, p. 17.
    14. ^ "Regarding the publication of the Report of the Working Group XNUMX of the XNUMXth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)" (Press Release), Ministry of the Environment, (July 2022, 4), https://www.env.go.jp/content/900505393.pdf 2022/7/3Browse. 
    15. ^ a b Key assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report, Working Group 1 Report (Natural Science Basis) and the Traditional IPCC Report's Summary for Policymakers (SPM) (Report). IPCC. (2021-08-09). https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/2108/09a/ipcc_ar6_wg1_a2.pdf 2022/6/26Browse.. 
    16. ^ US EPA 2019.
    17. ^ "Scientific consensus: Earth's climate is warming". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. NASA.As of August 2018, 6originalMore archives.2017/8/7Browse.
    18. ^ "List of Organizations”. The Governor's Office of Planning & Research, State of California. As of August 2017, 8originalMore archives.2017/8/7Browse.
    19. ^ "New Relationship between Air Pollution and Climate Change: Another Cause of Global Warming”. National Institute for Environmental Studies. 2012/12/28Browse.
    20. ^ "About 9% of black carbon in spring East Asia comes from fossil fuels”. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. 2021/7/22Browse.
    21. ^ IPCC AR5 WG2 Technical Summary 2014, pp. 44–46; D'Odorico et al. 2013.
    22. ^ a b "Is "a country that sinks due to global warming" true?Unexpected inside of Tuvalu”. Toyo Keizai ONLINE (November 2021, 7). 2022/6/26Browse.
    23. ^ Masanori Yoshioka (2010). “The problem of sea level rise in Tuvalu”. International Cultural Studies: Bulletin of Graduate School of International Cultural Studies, Kobe University (Graduate School of International Cultural Studies, Kobe University) 34 (2): 47-70. two:10.24546/81002553. NOT 110007666941. 
    24. ^ National Geographic 2019; NPR 2010.
    25. ^ Campbella et al.2016; National Research Council 2012, pp. 26–27.
    26. ^ Sea level rise and zero meter zone April 2015
    27. ^ EPA (January 2017, 1). “Climate Impacts on Ecosystems”. As of May 2018, 1originalMore archives.2019/2/5Browse.
    28. ^ Met Office 2016.
    29. ^ UNFCCC 1992, Article 2, "Objective".
    30. ^ Decision 1 / CP.16, paragraph 4in UNFCCC: Cancun 2010: "deep cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions are required according to science, and as documented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with a view to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperature below below 2 ° C above preindustrial levels ".
    31. ^ CNN, 12 December 2015; The Guardian, 12 December 2015; Paris Agreement 2015, Article 2, Section 1 (a).
    32. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch1 2018, p. 51,
    33. ^ Climate Action Tracker 2019, p. 1; United Nations Environment Program 2019, p. 27.
    34. ^ IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers 2018, p. 7: Future climate-related risks (...) are larger if global warming exceeds 1.5 ° C before returning to that level by 2100 than if global warming gradually stabilizes at 1.5 ° C. (...) Some impacts may be long-lasting or irreversible, such as the loss of some ecosystems (high confidence).
    35. ^ Mercator Institute 2020; IPCC SR15 Ch2 2018, p. 96: This assessment suggests a remaining budget of about 420 GtCO2 for a twothirds chance of limiting warming to 1.5 ° C, and of about 580 GtCO2 for an even chance (medium confidence).
    36. ^ "World average annual temperature”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021/5/22Browse.
    37. ^ a b c IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Integrated Report Outline Japanese translation
    38. ^ Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report
    39. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    40. ^ Basic knowledge about greenhouse gases Japan Meteorological Agency.
    41. ^ a b c d e IEA, World Energy Outlook 2011 Japanese Executive Summary
    42. ^ Conference of the Parties to the 15th United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change #Copenhagen AgreementSee
    43. ^ Peterson, Thomas & Connolley, William. “The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus". American Meteorological Society. 2008/4/12Browse.
    44. ^ "Temperature in 2018, the fourth highest in the past WMO ``Evidence of global warming''". Mainichi NewspapersMainichi Newspapers (February 2019, 2). 2019/2/7Browse.
    45. ^ "World temperature from 2015 to 18 is the highest ever observed by UN WMO". www.afpbb.com. AFP (March 2019, 2). 2019/2/7Browse.
    46. ^ a b c ipcc (2021-02-08). SPECIAL REPORT: SPECIAL REPORT ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND LAND -CH05 Food Security- (Report). https://www.ipcc.ch/srccl/chapter/chapter-5/. 
    47. ^ "[https://www.fao.org/3/i3437e/i3437e.pdf TACKLING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH LIVESTOCK] ”. FAO. 20211226Browse.
    48. ^ "[https://www.nies.go.jp/whatsnew/20200806/20200806.html Global methane emissions have increased by nearly 20% over the last 10 years Human activity in the sectors of agriculture and waste management, fossil fuel production and consumption] ”. National Institute for Environmental Studies. 20211226Browse.
    49. ^ "Key facts and findings”. FAO. 20211226Browse.
    50. ^ "Observation results of carbon dioxide concentration". Japanese Meteorological Agency. 2021/4/25Browse.
    51. ^ Stern Review Archived August 2006, 12, at the Wayback Machine.
    52. ^ IPCC SREX Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, 2011 CLIMATE EXTREMES AND IMPACTS
    53. ^ "Severe Extreme Weather in the World" Report, NHK, November 2011, 11
    54. ^ Global Warming Impact Comprehensive Forecast Project Report "Global Warming Impact on Japan-Latest Scientific Knowledge-",National Institute for Environmental Studies14 organizations, May 2008, 5 (Global Warming Impact Comprehensive Forecast Project (Ministry of the Environment) Achievement report for the first three years)
    55. ^ "Sea level rise and zero meter zone”. National Institute for Environmental Studies. 2021/8/10Browse.
    56. ^ Long-term trends in sea level along the coast of Japan, Japan Meteorological Agency, February 2007, 2
    57. ^ Table 10.7, Figure 10.33
    58. ^ A new view on sea level rise, Stefan Rahmstorf, 6 April 2010
    59. ^ "Health effects of global warming”. Kyoto University Graduate School. 2022/6/26Browse.
    60. ^ "Warming, direct impact on children's health Malnutrition and widespread infectious diseases”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2022/7/9Browse.
    61. ^ UNEP, Bloomberg, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011(Registration required), Figure 24.
    62. ^ United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) ENHANCING NDCS FOR FOOD SYSTEMS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DECISION-MAKERS (Report). https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/33597/ndcf.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. 
    63. ^ Powell, James Lawrence (20 November 2019). “Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming”. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 37 (4): 183–184. two:10.1177/0270467619886266. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0270467619886266?journalCode=bsta 2020/11/15Browse.. 
    64. ^ a b c Lynas, Mark; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Perry, Simon (2021). “Greater than 99% consensus on human-caused climate change in the peer-reviewed scientific literature”. Environmental Research Letters 16 (11): 114005. bibcode2021ERL .... 16k4005L. two:10.1088 / 1748-9326 / ac2966. ISSN 1748 – 9326. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ac2966. 
    65. ^ Cook et al.2016
    66. ^ Powell, James (20 November 2019). “Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming”. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 37 (4): 183–184. two:10.1177/0270467619886266. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0270467619886266?journalCode=bsta 2020/11/15Browse.. 
    67. ^ Cook et al.2016; NASA, Scientific Consensus 2020
    68. ^ NRC 2008, p. 2; Oreskes 2007, p. 68; Gleick, 7 January 2017
    69. ^ Joint statement of the G8 + 5 Academies (2009); Gleick, 7 January 2017.
    70. ^ Royal Society 2005.
    71. ^ Stover 2014.
    72. ^ Dunlap & McCright 2011, pp. 144, 155; Björnberg et al.2017
    73. ^ Oreskes & Conway 2010; Björnberg et al.2017
    74. ^ O'Neill & Boykoff 2010; Björnberg et al.2017
    75. ^ a b c Björnberg et al.2017
    76. ^ a b Dunlap & McCright 2015, p. 308.
    77. ^ Dunlap & McCright 2011, p. 146.
    78. ^ Harvey et al.2018
    79. ^ a b Weart "The Public and Climate Change (since 1980)"
    80. ^ Newell 2006, p. 80; Yale Climate Connections, 2 November 2010
    81. ^ Pew 2015, p. 10.
    82. ^ a b Pew 2020.
    83. ^ a b Yale 2021, p. 7.
    84. ^ Yale 2021, p. 9; UNDP 2021, p. 15.
    85. ^ Smith & Leiserowitz 2013, p. 943.
    86. ^ Gunningham 2018.
    87. ^ a b The Guardian, 19 March 2019; Boulianne, Lalancette & Ilkiw 2020.
    88. ^ Deutsche Welle, 22 June 2019.
    89. ^ Connolly (April 2021, 4). “'Historic' German ruling says climate goals not tough enough". The Guardian. 2021/5/1Browse.
    90. ^ Setzer & Byrnes 2019.

    Related item

    Related Documents

    Not the source of the text.By year of publication.

    外部 リンク


     

    Back to Top
    Fermer