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Childminder

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    Childminder(I love you,British: Childcare workers) Is generallyLicensed Nursery Schoolな どChild welfare facilityInchildren OfChildcareThose who do.Japan OfNational qualificationone of.

    Depending on your educational background,Kindergarten teacher license(Type XNUMX/Type XNUMX license) Of bothNational qualification-Education staff licenseIt is also possible to obtain Many of the single-qualified nursery teachers will later seek to obtain an educational staff license as a kindergarten teacher license (one or two licenses) as an option. The introduction of the country-led childcare worker rent subsidy system has been advanced, and generous rent subsidies for single persons are fulfilling.[1].

    Definition by law

    "Under this law, a childcare worker is registered under Article 18-18, Paragraph 1, and uses the name of a childcare worker and has specialized knowledge and skills to provide guidance on childcare for children and caregivers for children. A person whose business is to do." (Child Welfare ActArticle 18-4).Exclusive qualificationone of.

    Disqualification

    The following persons cannot be childcare workers (Child Welfare Law, Article 18-5).

    1. Those specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare as persons who are unable to properly perform the duties of a childcare worker due to physical or mental failure
    2. imprisonmentA person who has been punished by the above sentence and has not been executed or has not been executed for more than 2 years
    3. The provisions of the Child Welfare Act and other laws relating to the welfare of children, which are specified by a Cabinet Order[2]ByfineA person who has been punished by the law for two years and has not been executed or has not been executed.
    4. A person who has canceled the registration of a childcare worker and has not passed two years since the date of cancellation.
    5. National Strategic Special ZoneA person whose registration has been canceled under the provisions of Article 12-5, Paragraph 8, Item 18 or Paragraph 19, which is applied mutatis mutandis to Article 1-2, Paragraph 2 of the Act, and two years have not passed from the date of the cancellation.

    Adult wardOrPerson under ConservationTheDisqualificationThe provisions to be deleted are deleted by the "Act on the Development of Related Laws for Properizing Measures for Limiting Rights of Adult Warrants, etc." promulgated on June 6, 14, It was decided to examine the situation such as physical and mental breakdown individually and practically, and to judge the necessary ability.

    Childcare worker problems and rent subsidy system

    Although I hope to enter a nursery school, I cannot enter because of various reasons.Waiting-listBut,Heisei23 years(2011)4/1There are about 2.5 people at the time[3]. Therefore, the government/local governmentMeasures for eliminating waiting childrenHowever, in areas where new daycare centers and unlicensed daycare facilities have been newly established, mainly in large cities, we are facing the new challenge of a shortage of childcare workers. In Yokohama City, there are cases where the licensed nursery school is closed due to lack of nursery teachers.[4].

    However, the main cause of the shortage of nursery teachers is not the increase in nursery schools.Long working hoursand hard work, and low wages with an average annual income of 315 million yen.[5][6][7]. The reason why salaries are hard to rise is that the market principles, supply and demand mechanisms do not work. In order for the market principle to work, it is necessary to reflect the wage increase for childcare workers in the usage fees. In the current system where the usage fee is low and it is greatly profitable if you deposit and work, even if the salary of a nursery teacher is increased by a subsidy, the market principle works if the same person has the ability to change jobs. Those who work in the workplace will definitely get higher salaries. A low usage fee of 2 to 4 yen per month is the reason why users with all yearly incomes are rushing to enter, which causes shortage of nursery school, long working hours, and the reason why users are unable to raise nursery teachers' wages and change jobs. Has become. If the market principle is used, only those who can earn more than the fee for raising the nursery school that has been raised to the appropriate price for supply and demand will be used, and the lack of nursery schools, excessive busyness, and the background of being unable to raise wages will be eliminated. Especially in urban areas where waiting-list children are occurring, there are many people who want to enter a nursery school, if you can leave and work,convenience storeAnd supermarketPart-time jobThis is because even if you work at a time when you deposit a job that is close to the minimum wage in each region, you will always be "earned in your deposit-the usage fee is in the black." The measure to set the usage fee to a proper price is that only those who are "earned in time-surplus with the increased usage fee" will be used only by demand and supply, so the increased usage fee and increased receipt From the usage fee, the salary and treatment of nursery teachers will be improved. This is a general phenomenon that prices of goods and services rise in proportion to high demand, but in the case of nursery schools, the price (use fee) is always kept low, so the usage fee is raised. There is an opinion that the solution is to reflect it in salary[8].

    In addition to wages, many people quit because of "bullying."It is said that the cause is that the working environment is harsh and stress is likely to accumulate, the society is female, and the hierarchical relationship is strict.

    As mentioned above, it is true that there is a shortage of human resources for nursery teachers, but unlike doctors who have few license holders, nursery teachers are in a situation where they are "insufficient despite the large number of license holders". There is.A person who is not a childcare worker despite having a license is called a "potential childcare worker". (Two-thirds of license holders are potential childcare workers = one-third are actually working) Potential childcare workers are "people who have once quit but have never quit" There are two patterns.

    Rent subsidy system

    To cope with the shortage of childcare workers, the national and local governments have a maximum amount depending on the municipality, but for single people, they support around three quarters of the rent.[1].

    The main place of employment of a childcare worker requires a childcare worker qualificationLicensed nursery school,Unlicensed childcare facility(So-called unlicensed nursery school,On-site childcare facility,Childcare facility in hospital, Remote nursery school,Seasonal nursery school)Others,Infant clinic,Orphanage,Children's house,ChildcareIncludingChild welfare facility,Intellectually Handicapped IndividualFacilities related toSick child nurseAsSick child careThere is also a job for a sick child care facility that specializes in sickness care and a visiting sick child care provider operated by a private organization such as an NPO.

    Childcare worker crime

    The rate of cancellation of childcare worker registration is high for male childcare workers, which is more than 20 times that of female childcare workers.[9].. As of April 2020, less than 4% of all childcare workers are male childcare workers, but according to a survey by the Asahi Shimbun, in the 5 years until December 2020, the number of childcare workers whose registration was canceled There were 12 males, 10 females, and 52 unanswered genders.Of these, 39 male childcare workers (including 22 who acted on their students) were caused by "inappropriate sexual involvement."

    Examples of cases sentenced to imprisonment include cases that occurred at a nursery school in Noda City, Chiba Prefecture from 2019 to 2020 (Noda City Child Sexual Assault Case) And the incident that occurred at a nursery school in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture from 2014 to 2018[10]and so on.The former was sentenced to 6 years in prison and the latter to 9 years in prison.In addition, in the case of forced obscenity for children at a children's garden in Yao City, Osaka Prefecture in 2018, the garden was closed.[11][12]..As a result, about 160 children were forced to change gardens, and the garden and Yao City were sued by their parents for damages totaling 550 million yen.

    Equal Employment Opportunity for Men and Women and Nursery Teachers

    1999The previous exact qualification name was "Babysitter"Met. Until then, almost every person engaged in this professionFemaleWas,1985(Showa60 years)Equality law,1999 OfBasic Law for Gender Equality SocietyWith the establishment ofthe 1990sGradually fromMaleThe number of working mothers also increased.

    BabysitterIt was customary to use the honorific name and call for Mr. Hobo, but since there are many people who are unwilling to call him as a man,FatherThe word (hofu) was coined and the name Hobo was used. (For a process that followed a similar name,CaretakerとnurseThere are examples). However, since the official name is "Mother", the official name "Mother" must be entered in the occupation column of the official document, which is unsatisfactory for male childcare workers.Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsOpinions were sent to the administrative counseling of the Administrative Inspection Bureau (at that time), and the name was reviewed based on this.19994/1,Equal Employment ActThe child welfare law enforcement order has been revised due to the major revision ofChildminderWas renamed to.

    Regarding the increase in male nursery teachers,TV drama,documentaryIt is often covered in. The usefulness of male nursery teachers has also been pointed out, and there are many who expect the increase in the number of male nurses. However, since it has been a female occupation for many years, in addition to reasons such as dissatisfaction with treatment and lack of equipment (men's changing room, men's toilet, etc.) necessary for working, only women can be hired at the recruiting stage. There are still daycare centers that keep male nursery teachers from working[13].

    How to get a childcare qualification

    Child Welfare ActBased on Article 18-6Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareThere is a method of either taking a prescribed course / subject and graduating at a school or other facility that trains childcare workers designated by, or passing the childcare worker examination.The former facilityDesignated nursery school training facilityStudy all the designated subjects,NurseryとChild welfare facilityYou can get a childcare worker qualification after graduating from the off-campus training at the school (strictly speaking, you submit the application for the childcare worker exam, but all subjects are exempted and you will be treated as passing).Also,Public Employment Security OfficeDoPublic vocational trainingIn some cases, a childcare worker training course may be set up, and it is possible to obtain it in a way that suits it (depending on the training destination).Kindergarten OfEducation staff licenseIn some cases, it will also be awarded).

    The latter kindergarten exam requires at least a junior college graduation to qualify for the exam,19913/31beforehigh schoolThose who have graduated from are eligible to take the exam. this is19914/1Since thenJunior collegeGraduationWorkThis is a transitional measure due to being raised above a certain level.19963/31Eligible to take the exam after graduation.

    Childcare exam

    Exam qualification

    Universities (Graduate Schools,University,Junior college,College of technology,Vocational schoolsEither) graduate orhigh school2-year childcareMajorCompleted[14]Anyone can take the test if they have been in the university for two years or more and have acquired 2 credits or more. It is possible to take the test even if it is expected, but in that case the test result will be tentative and the test result will be invalid unless you submit documents certifying graduation and credit acquisition at a later date. Also, as mentioned above, even those who have graduated from high school as a transitional measure may be eligible for the examination.

    other than thisChild welfare facilityIf you have experience in protecting children for more than a certain period of timeHigh school graduate, secondary school graduate, You can qualify for the exam by graduating from junior high school[15].

    If you turn it over, other people are not eligible to take the exam and have a lot of experience in raising children.Tsuru no TsuyoshiIt was also controversial when he revealed that he was not eligible to take the exam because he was a high school graduate.[16].

    Exam content and subjects

    The childcare examination is conducted by a written test and a practical test, and only those who have passed the written test can take the practical test (Children's Welfare Law Enforcement Regulations Article 6-10 paragraph 1).

    Written test

    The childcare worker examination has a passing system for each subject, and if each subject scores 6% or more, it will pass.The subjects that have passed once are valid for 3 years until the year after next. For example, if 4 subjects have reached the passing score, a pass certificate will be issued for those 4 subjects, and only the remaining subjects need to be taken in the next nursery school examination. ..However, both educational principles and social care must be passed in the same year, and one pass cannot be carried over to the next year or later.Retakes are permitted even for subjects that have already passed, and if they pass, they will be valid for another three years from that year, and even if they fail, the previous pass will not be canceled and the expiration date will not be shortened (2013Some exam subjects have changed from the nursery school exam.2021Some exam subjects will be changed from the nursery school exam).

    SubjectsPerfect score
    On the 1th day,Childcare OfPsychology100
    Childcareprinciple100
    Children家庭welfare100
    social welfare100
    On the 2th day,Educationprinciple■50
    社会Care*50
    Child Of保健100
    Child's食とNutrition100
    ChildcarePracticetheory100

    The courses marked with * are required to pass both in the same year. In addition, subjects in bold are kindergarten teacher licenses (including the former grade 1 or grade 2 kindergarten teachers normal license) are subject to exemption for those who have.

    Practical exam

    Only those who have passed all the written exams can take the practical test. The kindergarten teacher's license (formerly the first or second grade kindergarten teachers normal license is included) is exempt from the practical test, so if you pass the written test, you will pass.

    The test will be passed if two fields are selected from the following three fields and a score of 3% or more is obtained in both fields. "Technology related to musical expression" is given a task song, and "Technology related to language expression" is given a story about the task in advance, but "Technology related to modeling expression" is presented with a problem statement on the spot.In addition, it should be noted2021The names of each subject in the practical exam are scheduled to change from the nursery school exam.

    • (1) Music expression technology
    • (2) Technology related to modeling expression
    • (3) Technology related to language expression

    Subject exemption for kindergarten teacher license holders

    Regardless of the type, if the holder of a kindergarten teacher's license (including the former 1st or 2nd grade kindergarten teacher's ordinary license) takes the nursery school exam, apply for an exemption to "psychology of childcare" and " "Educational principles" and "practical exams" are exempt from the exam.For other subjects, if you have acquired the subjects corresponding to the subjects you are taking at the designated childcare worker training facility, you will be exempted from those subjects.For this reason, in some cases, all subjects may be exempted, but even in that case, the pass will be passed with the pass notification sent around November, as with regular exams.

    Special cases for acquiring childcare worker qualifications for unification of childcare

    In addition, from 26 to 30 (later changed to Reiwa 6), the newly established "Childcare Worker Examination"Childcare cooperation type certified child institutionStaff (tentative nameChildcare teacher) In principle, have both a "kindergarten teacher's license" and a "childcare worker's qualification", and promote a smooth transition to a childcare center. There are special measures other than the above subject exemption to promote[17].. To receive special measures, in addition to a kindergarten teacher license,Work experience in a kindergarten for 3 years or more and 4320 hours or moreIs required.

    By taking the special subjects (4 subjects below, 8 credits or more) designated by the nursery school after satisfying the conditions of the special system, you can apply for the nursery exam with exemption from all subjects. You can qualify by submitting and passing the nursery school exam.

    Special subjects are

    • Welfare and nursing (2 credits for lectures)
    • Child and family support theory (2 credits of lecture)
    • Health, food and nutrition (2 credits for lectures)
    • Infant care (2 credits for exercises)

    Composed of.

    Special subjects areUniversity correspondenceIn some cases, some of the exercises are offered atschoolingIn many cases, it becomes a format.At the time of taking special coursesWork experience in a kindergarten for 3 years or more and 4320 hours or moreIt is not necessary, but it is said that there is no problem if the practical requirements are met at the time of submitting the application for the childcare worker examination, so it is okay to just take the course with the expectation.

    Even if a person with a kindergarten teacher's license does not take a special subject, he / she can take the childcare worker examination in "Childcare Psychology", "Educational Principles", "Childcare Practice Theory", and "Practical Examination". Is exempted.

    After passing

    Even if you pass the exam, you will not be able to work as a childcare worker at that time, but you will not work as a childcare worker until you have registered with the prefectural governor through the registration office and have received a childcare certificate from the governor. can do. It takes about 2,3 to XNUMX months from passing the childcare exam to completing registration. Note that this registration is voluntary, and if you do not plan to work as a childcare worker, your childcare worker qualification will not be invalidated without registration, but you cannot use the name of the childcare worker.

    Area-limited nursery teacher

    Established in 2015 (Heisei 27) Ordinary DietNational Strategic Special ZoneLaw and Structural Reform Special Area Law, which partially amends the Act. You can work as a "nursery teacher" within the local government for 3 years after obtaining the qualification, and nationwide after the 4th year. The official name is "Nursery Teacher Limited to National Strategic Special Areas", and in addition to the early childcare exam (written on Saturdays and Sundays in late April and practical practice on Sunday in early July) nationwide, the second (secondary childcare exam On the same day, writing will be done as a test on Saturday and Sunday in late October, and practical skills on Sunday in early December). Local-limited childcare examination conduct local government,

    • Kanagawa prefecture, Osaka prefecture, Okinawa prefecture, Chiba prefecture/Narita city (2015/27)
    • Miyagi Prefecture, Sendai City, Osaka Prefecture (2016/28)

    Work that nursery teacher appears

    footnote

    1. ^ a b "Summary of "rent assistance" for childcare workers Explains from types of support to points of caution”(Japanese). Mynavi childcare teacher. April 2020, 5Browse.
    2. ^ According to Article 4 of the Child Welfare Law Enforcement Order,Social welfare lawArticle 131 and the provisions of Article 132,Child Rearing Allowance ActArticle 35 provisions,Special Child Dependent Allowance ActArticle 41 provisions,Child Allowance ActArticle 31 provisions,Child pornography prohibition lawArticles 4 to 7 and Article 11,Child Abuse Prevention LawArticle 17 provisions,Certified Children's LawThe provisions of Chapter 6, 22 Child Allowance ActArticle 33 provisions,23 Child Allowance ActArticle 37 provisions,Child, child care support methodProvisions from Article 83 to Article 85,National Strategic Special Zones ActThe provisions of Article 12-4, Paragraphs 15 and 17 to 19 are provided.
    3. ^ Nursery school-related situation summary (April 23, 4) | Press release document | Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
    4. ^ Due to lack of nursery teachers, the facility is closed due to lack of nurses.
    5. ^ Improving the treatment of childcare workers is an urgent task Due to low wages and long working hours, a constant labor shortage (2013/7/13)
    6. ^ The reason why nursery teachers do not work is widespread dissatisfaction with "low wage" annual income of 315 million yen and "cheap even though they are professionals" (2013/10/27)
    7. ^ Reasons to leave childcare
    8. ^ [Economist challenges zero waiters p136, Wataru Suzuki, 2018]
    9. ^ "Sexual violence of nursery teachers who are difficult to grasp Even if there is a criminal record, there is no cancellation”. Asahi Shimbun (September 2021, 6). April 2021, 7Browse.
    10. ^ "Former childcare worker man who obscenely acts on multiple girls, angry voice saying "That's it ..." in a sentence of 9 years in prison”. News site search (August 2019, 6). April 2021, 7Browse.
    11. ^ "XNUMX children move to a new kindergarten, the children's kindergarten is closed in the aftermath of the Osaka obscenity incident”. Chiba Daily (April 2018, 11). April 2021, 7Browse.
    12. ^ "Closed due to forced obscenity case, 5 parents of children filed compensation for children's garden Osaka”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2018, 5). April 2021, 7Browse.
    13. ^ “No toilet” “No changing room” Is the hard working environment for male nursery teachers “male discrimination”? ”Bengo2013.com News. (June 6, 28). http://www.bengo4.com/topics/523// April 2013, 6Browse. 
    14. ^ Current,Morioka Makoto Sakura High School,Ryugu High School,Daiichi Gakuin High School,Seijo International High SchoolInstalled in 4 schools
    15. ^ 2 years or more and 2880 hours or more for either high school graduation or secondary school graduation.Or more than 5 years and more than 7200 hours after graduating from junior high school.
    16. ^ "Takeshi Tsuruno's shock! I started studying to get a childcare worker license, but I didn't meet the exam qualifications."Netorabo. (September 2020, 1). https://nlab.itmedia.co.jp/nl/articles/2001/14/news135.html April 2022, 5Browse. 
    17. ^ Exceptional childcare teacher qualification for those who have a kindergarten teacher license (including the former 1st or 2nd grade normal kindergarten teacher's license)Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare September 2014, 9 reading

    Related item

    外部 リンク

    Special support educator

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      Special support educator"Special Educational Needs Specialist" abbreviation: SENS is a private qualification that is a professional qualification of education and psychology related to assessment and guidance of LD / ADHD, etc. certified by the Special Educational Needs Qualification Certification Association.[1].

      Number of qualified personnel (as of April 2018, 4)[2]

      4,668 special support educators

      Special support educator SV 385 people

      Special Support Educator Certification Association Secretariat Location

      Takanawa Empire Building 3F, 24-18-8 Takanawa, Minato-ku, Tokyo

      History of qualification establishment

      1992 Established Japan LD Society.The LD Society of Japan aims to improve the progress of scientific research, clinical practice, and education related to developmental disorders such as LD and ADHD, as well as to improve the quality of education and welfare for children (persons) with LD, etc. In addition, it is an academic research organization established by specialists and teachers involved in education, psychology, medical care, etc.

      2001 Started training as an "LD educator" by the Japan LD Society.

      2002 First qualification as "LD educator".

      2004 The qualification division of the LD Society of Japan becomes independent as the Special Needs Educator Qualification Association.

      Since the scope of educational support in 2005 has expanded not only to LD but also to ADHD, etc., the qualification name will be changed from "LD educator" to "special support educator" from 2005.

           In collaboration with the LD Society of Japan, we will train and certify "special support educators [SENS]".

      After that, the LD Society of Japan became the main academic society.Japanese Association of Educational Psychology, Japan School Education Counseling Society,Japan Counseling Society,, Special support educators are positioned as collaborative qualifications of the six academic societies of the Japan Society for Developmental Disabilities.[3]

      In 2009, the Special Needs Educator Qualification Association was incorporated as a general foundation.

      In 2015, the qualification system by the main academic societies and collaborative academic societies will be changed to a regular member of the LD Society of Japan, and the qualification will be certified by the Special Needs Educator Qualification Association.

      Exam qualification

      (XNUMX) You must be a regular member of the Japan LD Society, and (XNUMX) you must be engaged in related occupations such as LD / ADHD for a specified period of time or longer.In addition, (XNUMX) it is required to attend a training seminar sponsored by the Special Needs Educator Qualification Certification Association and acquire the prescribed points.

      The curriculum is to earn a total of 5 points from five areas: introduction, assessment, guidance, the role of a special education educator, and practical training.

      The points are acquired at the "Training Seminar", which is a training organized by the Special Needs Educator Qualification Certification Association, but the subjects at the graduate school are the same as the above subjects by the Special Support Educator Qualification Certification Association. If it is recognized that there is, you will be exempted from attending the seminar for the subject.[4]..In addition, after completing the training of a specialized academic society, it is possible to transfer points and obtain them to qualify for the examination.

      Curriculum subject name

      ・ <Introduction>

        "Introduction to Special Needs Education I: Understanding Developmental Disabilities"

        "Introduction to Special Education II: System of Special Education"

        "Developmental disabilities and medical care"

      ・ <Assessment>

        "General: Assessment"

        "Psychological test method I: WISC -IV"

        "Psychological test method II: KABC-II / DN -CAS"

        "Achievement assessment"

        "Comprehensive Interpretation of Assessment"

      ・ <Instruction>

        "General remarks: Individualized support"

        "Instruction of'listening / speaking'"

        "Teaching" reading and writing ""

        "Instruction of'calculation / reasoning'"

        "Teaching social skills"

        "Behavioral guidance"

        "Instruction of sensation and movement"

        "Guidance on social independence and employment"

        "Creation and utilization of individual instruction plans"

      ・ <Role of Special Education Educator (SENS)>

        "Role and ethics of SENS"

        "Support system in schools and gardens I: Support in regular classes"

        "Support system in schools and gardens II: Coordinator role and utilization of resources"

        "Involvement and cooperation of parents"

      ・ <Practice>

         Teaching training

      Designated graduate school

      <National University>

      -Kyoto University of Education Graduate School of Education Department of School Education Department of School Education Education and Developmental Psychology Course (Master's Course)

      -愛媛 大学 Graduate School of Education Special Needs Education Course (Professional Degree Course)

      -Hyogo University of Education Graduate School of Education Special Support Education Course Developmental Disability Support Practice Course (Master's Course)

      -Naruto University of Education Graduate School of Education Special Support Education (Master's Program)

      -Kagawa University Graduate School of Education Special Support Education (Special Support Education Specialization / Special Support Education Coordinator Specialization) (Master's Program)

      -Miyazaki University Graduate School of Education Special Support Education Course (Professional Degree Course)

      Qualification cooperation

      -Occupational therapistGeneral Incorporated AssociationJapan Occupational Therapists AssociationWhen acquiring a "specialized occupational therapist (special support education)" certified by the government, a qualified special support educator is exempted from part of the specialized basic training.[5]

      ・ It is a national qualification for psychologyCertified psychologistParticipate in the establishment of the Japan Psychological Training Center, which is a designated registration agency that conducts and registers national examinations, and provides assets and knowledge.[6].

      Psychological test qualification

      At the psychological test user level set by Japan Cultural Science Co., Ltd., which issues and sells psychological tests such as WISC,Certified psychologist,Clinical psychologist,School psychologist,Clinical development psychologists,Doctor,Speech therapistPositioned as the most advanced "level C"[7].

      footnote

      [How to use footnotes]
      1. ^ "What is a special support educator? | Special Support Educator Qualification Association"General Foundation Special Needs Educator Qualification Certification Association".April 2018, 9Browse.
      2. ^ "What is a special needs educator?”. Special Needs Educator Qualification Association. April 2019, 12Browse.
      3. ^ "Thinking about the future of special education”. Japan LD Society. April 2019, 12Browse.
      4. ^ "Certified Public Psychologist Review Committee Material 8 Exceptions to Examination Qualifications”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. April 2019, 12Browse.
      5. ^ "Road to Professional Occupational Therapist”. Japan Occupational Therapists Association. April 2019, 12Browse.
      6. ^ "What is the Japan Psychologist Training Center? | Japan Psychologist Training Center Certified Public Psychologist Examination". shinri-kenshu.jp. April 2019, 12Browse.
      7. ^ "Psychological test user level | Nippon Bunka Kagakusha”(Japanese). www.nichibun.co.jp. April 2019, 12Browse.

      外部 リンク



       

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