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👩‍🎓 | "How many days is summer vacation?" "Is class late?" "School trip?" "Educational training?"


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"How many days is summer vacation?" "Is class late?" "What about school trips?" "What about educational training?"

Regarding the new coronavirus, which has become more influential again, attention is focused on the response of schools and local governments, but the current state of education ... → Continue reading

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Teaching practice

Teaching practiceWhat is (today)?Education staff licenseTo be awardedunitOr as the content of that subjectDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularDone inPracticeThat is.

Overview

LicenseTo receive the award ofunitNeed to get[1].. Institutions and school types to be implemented differ depending on the school type you are going to acquire, but in principlenursing teacherandNutrition teacherAll exceptSchool type-SubjectIs necessary in. However, it is possible to obtain a teacher's license for some licenses without conducting educational training based on qualifications and work experience.[2].

Teaching courseIs providedUniversity-Junior college-Teacher training instituteAs a subject, 1 credit is given for pre- and post-instruction, and 2-4 credits are given for training. To obtain a license, include prior and subsequent guidanceKindergarten-primary school-Junior high school5 units,high schoolRequires 3 credits. The implementation period of educational training is not specified in the law, andBoard of educationDepending on the opinion, it is generally 4 weeks in kindergarten/elementary school, 3 weeks in middle school, and 2 weeks in high school.

In addition, it is necessary for teachers of special needs schools to conduct "educational training for infants, children, or students with mental or physical disabilities" instead of educational practice.[3].. Similarly, a school teacher is a “school practice”.[4], Nutrition Teacher is "Nutrition Education Practice"[5]Need to do.

In 2015, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology issued a report that allows school internships (school experience activities) to be used as alternative units for teaching practice, and positions them as teaching courses at the discretion of each university from the revision of the Teacher's License Act revised in 31. Was decided[6].

Training school

As a general rule, educational training must be conducted in the school type of the license you are trying to obtain or in the school type adjacent to it.[1].. There are the following methods for securing training schools, depending on the university in which you are enrolled.

  • After the applicant for practical training negotiates with the practical training school and obtains inward consent, the university where the applicant for practical training is enrolled makes an official request.
  • Conduct at an affiliated school such as a university where the applicant for training is enrolled (National universityThen,National University Attached SchoolThere are many examples of going to. )
  • The university will provide training schools for those who wish to receive training.Board of educationTo secure by negotiating with[7]

Schools have no obligation to accept interns. In spite of the increase in work and risk, it is realized by the kindness of the school, so to speak, for the next generation teacher training. Therefore, each school has different acceptance criteria for trainees, implementation timing, and implementation details, and many schools accept only graduates.

Practical practice

The content of educational training is not stipulated by law, and the content of the internal training of the Board of Education and the accepting schoolhead teacherAnd guidanceTeacherSince it is decided by the local teachers, the contents of implementation will differ depending on the school or subject, but in many cases,classInstructionSubjectParticipate in almost all areas of educational activities such as teaching and school events. By law, subject guidance is not limited to subjects for which you are trying to obtain a license, but it is burdensome for both teaching teachers and trainees to take charge of classes in subjects other than those for which you are obtaining a license. It just happens, and not normally. However, in practice at junior high schoolSpecial subject moralsIs not this limitation.

  • Explanation, lecture
  • Classroom activities/Homeroom activities
    • In charge of reporting and reporting to children and students in classrooms and home rooms. In particular,Class teacherWith morning class activities and homeroom activities on the way homeLunch,cleaningAnd so on.
  • Classroom visitation
    • Visit a class under the guidance of a teacher.
  • Teaching material research
  • Subject instruction
    • Under the guidance of the teacher, the actual lesson,homework・Inspection of submissions・CorrectionI do.
  • Research class
    • Disclose the classes of the trainees according to the schedule specified by the school. Other faculty members, interns, and university faculty members may also visit.
  • Council
    • Conduct research discussions by summarizing and reflecting on research classes. Participants include principals, principals, teachers, and teachers who have visited the research class.
  • School affairs
    • Under the instruction of the teacher, the school may also perform necessary office work and work.
  • Other

Exception

For educational training in 2020,コ ロ ナSince it is difficult to carry out educational practice due to bruise,Ministry of educationIn May of the same year, it announced that it could be replaced by practical training and classes at the university until one-third of the practical training period. After that, on August 5, the same year, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology announced special measures to allow credits to be given instead of teaching practice as a substitute for teaching practice. Note thatKoichi HagitaIn principle, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology called for conducting educational training so that the quality of teachers would not deteriorate.[8].. (Similar measures were taken in 2021.)

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注 釈

  1. ^ a b Education Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations Article XNUMX
  2. ^ Teacher license without training
  3. ^ Education Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations Article XNUMX
  4. ^ Educational Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations Article XNUMX
  5. ^ Education Staff License Act Enforcement Regulations Article XNUMX-XNUMX
  6. ^ "Introducing school internship to teaching profession, teaching practice and division of roles”. (June 2015, 11). 2020/8/20Browse.
  7. ^ "Education training is expected to fall in the fall Voices of anxiety among students". Ehime newspaper (September 2020, 7). 2020/8/20Browse.
  8. ^ "Special measures for educational training If you cannot help, you can obtain a license without it.". Asahi Shimbun (September 2020, 8). 2020/8/20Browse.

外部 リンク

New coronavirus

New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important.[1][2][3][4].

In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in. (Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,(English edition)Is prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia[1][2][3][4].

Virus type

The following viruses were positioned as new coronaviruses before their official names were given.

Types of new coronaviruses that are pathogenic to humans
Formal nameOther namesSusceptible host[† 1]First discovery location (discovery year)Infection
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2][5][6]2019-Ncov

SARS virus 2

Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)

Bat,Scale armorChugoku-Wuhan(2019)New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3][4][7]
MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]Middle east virus

MERS virus

Camel flu virus

camel,BatSaudi Arabia-Jeddah(2012)Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)[8][9].
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)New Haven Virus[Annotation 1]A mouseHong Kong (2005)Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]SARS virusChinese cabbage,BatChugoku-Foshan(2002)Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)[9]
  1. ^ (English edition)May not be succeeded.
  2. ^ a b This virus is not a different speciesSARS-related coronavirusIs considered to be one of the stocks of.
  3. ^ Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia,Wuhan pneumoniaThere is a syndrome.
  4. ^ (English edition),(English edition)Including stocks of.

All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.

Currently confirmed and named virus name Alpha strain Delta stock Lambda stock Omicron strain Beta stock Gamma strain (As of 2022 year 1 month) 

Etymology

Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOConforms to the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by[10][11][12].

Historically, pathogens have often been named after location, individuals, or specific species, but these practices are not currently endorsed by WHO.[10][11][12].

The permanent official names of viruses and diseases are, respectively.ICTVとWHO OfInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD)Is determined by.

Detailed explanation

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
  2. ^ Example of use of the name "new coronavirus" for SARS coronavirus by the media[15][16][17][18].
  3. ^ Example of use of the name "new coronavirus" for MERS coronavirus by the media[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28].

Source

  1. ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
  2. ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
  3. ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
  4. ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  5. ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. 2020/5/16Browse.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362 .
  7. ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
  8. ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
  9. ^ a b "What is the new coronavirus?”. Joetsu Community Medical Center Hospital. 2021/5/21Browse.
  10. ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
  11. ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
  12. ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301. https://www.jmir.org/2020/5/e19301/. 
  13. ^ Host jump capability may not persist
  14. ^ "Eiken News" No.128,YamagataInstitute of Health, published June 2003, 6, page 10.
  15. ^ "SARS virus detected in less than an hour Eiken Chemical Nagasaki University and reagent development" "Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun』June 2003, 6, p. 20. "Causes SARSNew coronavirusWhen a reagent that can identify the gene of the patient is reacted with a sample such as patient's blood (hereinafter omitted) "
  16. ^ "Editorial SARS Eradication of Research" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』June 2003, 6 morning edition, page 29. "To avoid these secondary SARS epidemics in advance and eradicate SARS itself,New coronavirusIdentification of the source of (Omitted below) "
  17. ^ "Memories of Eighteen 1996-2014 Domestic and Foreign News" "Asahi Shimbun』February 2015, 2 morning edition, page 12 (Nagoya Head OfficeEdition). In the topics of 2003, "This year,New coronavirusSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is prevalent all over the world. "
  18. ^ "Toward the development of a new pneumonia virus treatment method, with the completion of genome decoding" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Osaka morning edition dated June 2003, 6, p. 4. "The new type of pneumonia (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome = SARS), which is rampant mainly in mainland China and Taiwan, is the pathogen SARS virus (SARS).New coronavirus) Genome (all genetic information) has been decoded, (hereinafter omitted) "
  19. ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
  20. ^ Concerns about the spread of new coronavirus infections in France increase (13/05/11) - YouTube(ANN News)
  21. ^ Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Saudi Arabian Healthcare Worker Infection,Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2013, 5.
  22. ^ 31 people infected with new coronavirus in Saudi Arabia 40 people infected worldwide 20 people died,AFPBB News, August 2013, 5.
  23. ^ "New Coronavirus'MERS'WHO Beware of Pandemic Spreading in Europe" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, May 2013, 5, morning edition, page 29. The expression "new coronavirus" is only a heading, and in the text, it is written as "new virus" and "Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus".
  24. ^ "Cold virus companion, MERS, the world is wary ── Prevention is hand washing and mask (Genki Navi)" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, June 2013, 6, evening edition, page 28.In the text "New coronavirusThe expression "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)" can be seen.
  25. ^ "Strengthening vigilance for'new corona', 6 countries infected, 20 dead, 2nd place in Saudi, both onset", Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2013, 5, evening edition, page 16. "The World Health Organization (WHO) announced on the 1thNew coronavirusRegarding (the following is omitted). "
  26. ^ "Caution for the new coronavirus" SARS's return "", Yomiuri Shimbun, morning edition, May 2013, 5, p. 22. "New coronavirusInfection is widespread in the Middle East and Europe. (Omitted below) "
  27. ^ "Strengthening inspection of new corona" Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "Infection in the world", Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2014, 5, evening edition, page 26. "Infection spreads mainly in the Middle EastNew coronavirusThe number of patients with "MERS coronavirus" is (abbreviated below).
  28. ^ "Coronavirus epidemic in the Middle East, be wary in Japan," Yomiuri Shimbun, June 2014, 6, morning edition, p. 26. "Infection spreads mainly in the Middle EastNew coronavirusReport of patients with "MERS coronavirus" (abbreviated below) "
  29. ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
  30. ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013
  31. ^ Angle: The endless MERS, why no vaccine, Reuters, June 2015, 6.
  32. ^ "Not applicable to emergencies, Korean MERS" Travel restrictions are not required "WHO", Nihon Keizai Shimbun, June 2015, 6, morning edition, page 18. "MERS was confirmed in 6New coronavirusIs a respiratory illness caused by (abbreviated below). "
  33. ^ "I want to know now! Prevention and treatment of infectious diseases Hirosaki University planning series (46) Lessons from the MERS uproar" "Asahi Shimbun』January 2018, 1 morning edition (Aomori prefecture version), page 26.

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