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👩‍🎓 | Young staff of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establishes a working group to explore issues in the doctoral program


Young staff of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establishes a working group to explore issues in the doctoral program

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The excitement of science and technology challenge team considered going on to doctoral course, and the momentum for discussion about the laboratory environment surrounding doctoral students was raised. We decided to collect opinions and formulate policies while having a wide range of discussions with people involved in the field, including the establishment and graduate students.

A work group in which the "Science and Technology Exciting Challenge Team" consisting of young staff members of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology examines issues and countermeasures for doctoral programs ... → Continue reading

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technology(British: technology) Is basically "in a specific fieldknowledgePractical use of[1]Or "科学Practical knowledge in individual areasthe purposeの た め にengineeringTypicallyapplicationTomethodology[2]It is a term / concept that is said to be.Derived from that, "technology" was developed using scientific knowledge.machineKindToolsSometimes refers to kind[3]..Also,"engineering,Applied scienceAlso known as "a division of knowledge that deals with[3]..Organizational method,TechnologyIt may also refer to a broader theme such as. →#Definition and usage


The expression and term "technology"

The expression "technology" was introduced in the early 17th century.[3], EtymologyGreek Of technología (technology) Isart With the word téchnē techne (= "work" "technique") -λογία -logiaIt is a word that combines suffixes that mean (= "-theory" and "-study").[4].


Mankind's technology began by turning what is in nature into a simple tool.Prehistoric, HumanityFires naturallyFire in the fieldForest fireYou may have encountered fire, but thatTueI found a way to handle.Using the empirical knowledge that the surroundings of the fire are bright even at nightLight (lighting)Used as a moonlessTotal darkness OfAlso, I can see things around me.Also, taking advantage of the fact that the fire is hot, I got it by collecting etc.FoodstuffTheheatingHowever, some people will eat deliciously. (Humanity at that time would not have understood it, and modern people know it, but by heatingSterilizationAs a result, it would be safe to nourish (as a result).Food safetySecuring).If a stone rich in glass and a stone happen to break, a sharp cross section will be formed, and if you experience that the cross section happens to be cut, that becomes knowledge (experience knowledge), and this time you will use that experience knowledge By intentionally hitting stones and breaking themstone toolTo makeknifeWould have come to be used as.The stone tool knife will also be used to deliberately cut the meat of captured or killed animals.Also put the stone tool knife at the tip of the tree branch (of the plant)VineA person comes up with the idea of ​​squeezing (using something like), and that person uses it to hurt or kill the animal from a distance (= after that, human beings "spearIf it was used as a tool (a tool that would be called), those who saw it would imitate it and spread it.The spear may have been abused not only to hunt animals, but also to hurt others.Stone tools can also be used to cleanly separate the skin of the animal from the flesh (“peeling”), and eventually the animal's skin will peel off (and the fat on the back side will be scraped off with the stone tool and the river A tool to keep your body warm (= later, if you wash it well with etc.)clothesSome people may have noticed that it can be used as a kind of thing called.Also, in later times, "fur"Or"leatherConvenient to be calledMaterialIs now available.In the area of ​​plants, by combining the stems of plants that grow in nature vertically and horizontally, the simple "cageI realized that I could make something like the prototype of "" ("Weaving”), And the stems of plants are intentionally broken vertically, or the plants rot and becomefiberquality(Vegetable fiber) Is a kind of simplestring,yarnWhen they are combined vertically and horizontally, they are supple (rather than a basket-shaped one that combines the stems vertically and horizontally) (later human beings "fabric"Or"clothI realize that I can make something that will be called.The length of each plant fiber obtained from nature was limited, and the length of the earliest cloth may have been limited, but several plant fibers were "twisted" together. By repeating the process of "twisting while shifting the position a little", you realize that you can make as long strings and threads as you like, and you can adjust the thickness of the resulting strings and threads by adjusting the amount of fibers to be twisted. Also noticed (the act of "spinning", "spinning".spinningThe beginning of. ), By making it possible to obtain long strings and threads, it became easier to make woven fabrics (cloths) with a certain length or longer, and the thickness of the strings and threads can be adjusted freely. The toughness, thickness, and texture (“stiffness” and “suppleness”) of the cloth made from the above material can be freely adjusted, making the cloth even more convenient. →#history

Utility and Harm of Technology

Technology is human and human社会Affects in various ways.It has both good and bad effects.The positive impact is, for example, technologyEconomyContribute to development, but on the other hand Economic disparity,inequalityProduces.While some people have more free time due to technology, on the contrary, some people are dominated like slaves and have time.Technology, on the one hand, may provide a way to utilize natural resources in a way that benefits humans, but on the other hand, it consumes (wasts) limited natural resources.地球And itsEnvironmentDamaged (→Environment issues),PollutionAlso causes.Printer,Tel,インターネットTechnology such as peoplecommunicationOn the one hand, they also have a positive effect because they are useful for, but on the other hand, they are also abused, resulting in sprinkling vulgar things and attacking people with language.scamIt is also used for crimes such as, and has produced results that afflict people.stone,stone toolKnife, thick branch of tree,StickEven at the stage of relatively simple tools such as, it was already used to make people happy, and conversely it was also used to hurt and afflict people.Hunting and gathering societyThen, there was no advanced division of labor in the production of tools, so instead of being involved in any production, all were simple manual work, and even if they were made, only small spears and bows were made. Thatarcheology,AnthropologyHas been revealed in the study of[5],spear-Bow and arrowThese are all small animals, and they are used only to obtain small animals, and even if they are directed at humans and misused, the damage is small and the degree is known.ButAgriculture:(This may also be mentioned as one of the technologies) has started, the amount of food available to humankind has increased, and there is a clear difference in the amount of food (grain) stockpiled in each small group.DisparityIn the group where food was successfully stockpiled, some people did not have to spend time just to procure food, that is, in human society.Division of laborHas begun to progress, and on the other hand, people who make only spears and bows and arrows (a kind of "expert") have appeared in society (although some people have been born full-time in agriculture), and experts such as spears and bows and arrows in agricultural society have made them. Anthropology has revealed that it has become larger and more powerful.The hunting and gathering society received almost the blessings of nature as it was, and lived by walking around various lands. Since the group) develops the land on its own (because it makes a kind of "upfront investment" for a specific land in labor and time), it is not possible to leave the land (agricultural land developed by itself). On the one hand, there are people who try to protect the farmland, and on the other hand, "If another person forcibly robs the farmland where the cultivated plants are already growing, it will be in your own interest. The spear and bow were used as tools for people's fighting (over farmland), war tools, and killing tools, and as they became an agricultural society, spears and bows were born. Anthropology reveals that bows are being used more often as "tools for war" rather than as "tools for (animal) hunting."afterwardsGunpowder,Etc. also appeared, and morenuclear weaponsIn the direction of increasing its destructive power,Mass murderTechnology has a history of progressing in the direction of producing tools for, and as a result, there are countless numbers.PerpetratorAnd countless miserablevictimHas been born.

Technology is in societyValuesNew technology is newethicsCauses a problem.TechnologyHuman natureThere is no end to the debate as to whether it will produce results that improve humanity or, conversely, produce results that reduce humanity and cause human suffering.

また efficiencyThe concept of (efficiency) was originally applied to machines, but humansefficiencyEfficiency(Productivity) Has also come to mean.

Harm caused by technologyDangerThere are various discussions about.In the old daysNeo Luddite,AnarchismMovements such as philosophically criticize the universality of technology in modern society, which destroys the environment and makes peopleAlienation(= Human支配However, it loses the essence of human beings), and since then, it has been often criticized by various people, and even now, from a realistic point of view, all over the world.Anti-nuclear movementIs being done.on the other hand,TranshumanismProponents such as argue that continuous progress in technology is beneficial to society and humanity.Einstein said, "Advances in science and technology are pathological.criminalIn the hands ofIt's like "[6]Said[7].

By the way, until recently it was believed that technology development could only be done by humankind, but otherPrimatesAnd someDolphinRecent research has shown that is making simple tools and passing on that knowledge to the next generation.

Definition and usage

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as "the practical application of knowledge in a particular field" and "the ability brought about by the practical application of knowledge".[4].Ursula FranklinIn his 1989 lecture, "Real World of Technology," a new definition of technology is "conventional, how we do things."[8].

philosopherBernard StieglerDefines technology in "Technology and Time 1: Epimetheus's Mistakes" as "tracing organisms by non-living means" and "organized inanimate objects"[9]..As such, the advent of technology tells the moment of externalization in history.In systematically explaining the meaning of technology in these terms, StieglerAndre Leroi-Gourin,Gilbert SimondonBased on the work of.For humans, this not only meant that they could potentially learn how to use tools from their parents, but also that the past was generally recorded in objects and ruins.

Technology originally refers to the application of knowledge for practical purposes, its methodology, and systematic methods for that purpose, but "technology" also refers to the machines and tools created by it.In this case, "technology" refers to machines and tools for solving real-world problems.Specifically, the simple onebarAnd woodenspoonFrom simple tools like, to complex onesSpace station,acceleratorIt also refers to complicated machines such as.

The tools and machines referred to by the expression "technology" are not limited to material ones.Computersoftware,Business methodIs also a kind of technology in this sense.[10].

The term "technology", as described in the Oxford Dictionary, isengineering,Applied scienceAlso refers to the knowledge department about.In other words, it refers to a set of techniques and techniques.In this case, "technology" refers to knowledge such as how to combine resources to make what you want, how to solve problems, how to meet needs, etc., among various knowledge possessed by human beings. It may also refer to technology, manufacturing methods, and tools and raw materials produced by them.In English, it is sometimes used in combination with other words such as "medical technology" and "space technology", but in this case it refers to all knowledge and tools in the field.

In addition, "advanced technology" ishigh techMeans

TechnologycultureIt can also be seen as an activity that creates or changes the culture.[11].

A recent example iscommunicationAdvances in technology have weakened the barriers between peopleインターネットComputerNew as a result of the development ofsub cultureIsCyber ​​cultureWas born[12]..However, not all technologies develop culture in a clear way.Technology,weaponPolitical in the form of tools such asCrackdown,戦 争May be easy.

Science, engineering and technology

科学,engineering, The distinction between technologies is not clear.科学 ThephenomenonThereasonResearch and researchScientific methodAttempts to discover persistent principles using formalized techniques such as[13]..Technologyutility,Usability,安全 性It is not just an application of science because it is necessary to consider such aspects.

Engineering aims to design tools and systems by utilizing natural phenomena in a way that is useful to humans, and often uses scientific achievements and techniques.Science, engineering, and the development of technologies that achieve practical resultsMath,言语,HistoryIt requires knowledge in various fields such as.

Technology is often referred to as the result of science and engineering, but conversely, it can be said that technology as a human activity precedes these two fields.Science uses existing tools and knowledge, for exampleElectrical conductorInElectronicStudy the flow of.Applying the newly acquired knowledge to engineering, new tools and machines (for example,semiconductorParts andComputer), Creating other forms of advanced technology.In that sense, scientists and engineers are also called engineers.

The exact relationship between science and technology was also the subject of debate among scientists, historians, and politicians in the second half of the 20th century.Behind this is the issue of how to distribute research funds to basic science and applied science.Second World WarIn the United States of America, technology and "applied science" were considered synonymous, and funding for basic science was thought to lead to technological outcomes over a period of time.This way of lookingVannevar BushWritten about postwar science policy Science—The Endless Frontier It is clearly shown in.But in the late 1960s, this view was hit directly.This issue is still debated, but many analysts disagree with the simple model that technology is the result of scientific research.[14][15].


Paleolithic (250 million years ago to 1 BC)

Early humanityThe use of tools by is partly a history of discovery and partly a history of evolution.Early humans are alreadyBipedalWasApe OfOne kindEvolved from[16], The capacity of the brain was one-third that of modern humans[17]..In the long history of early human beings, the use of tools has hardly changed, but about 5 years ago, the complexity of behavior and the use of tools were combined, and in a modern sense.言语Is born by many archaeologists[18].

stone tool

About 20 years agoHomo sapiensBefore the birth of, human ancestors used tools such as stone tools.[19]..The oldest manufacturing methodstone tool TheOrdowan StonewareIt is said that it dates back about 230 million years.[20]..The oldest trace of such stone toolsエチオピア OfGreat Rift ValleyFound in, dating back about 250 million years[21]..The era when such stone tools were usedPaleolithicCalled,AgricultureIt refers to a long period up to 12,000 years before the beginning of.

The method of making stone tools isFlintHard stones that are easy to peel off, such asStone coreWas made by hitting with Ishizuchi.This creates sharp edges on both the flakes and the core, mainly礫器Or it was used as a tool in the form of a scraper.Mankind at that timeHunting and gatheringStone tools have been created that are suitable for living, slaughtering prey, cutting trees, cracking nuts, peeling animal fur, and making tools from softer materials such as bones and trees.[22].

The earliest stone tools were very simple and were not much different from naturally broken stones.About 165 million years ago, stone tools began to have a specific shape, and axes were born.Mid-term that started about 30 years agoPaleolithicHas established a technique for making stone tools of various shapes from typical shaped cores (en), It has become possible to manufacture multiple stone blades from one stone core in a short time.Late that started about 4 years agoPaleolithicIsPress peelingWas born, and it came to form fine stone fragments by pressing the horns of trees, bones and deer.[23].


Simple with various usesエ ネ ル ギ ーAs a sourceTueDiscovery and utilization was a turning point for the development of human technology[24]..I'm not sure when I discovered it. "Human cradleIt is said that fire has been used on a daily basis for a long time since 100 million years ago, as traces of burning animal bones were found in[25]..In academiaHomo erectusIt is a well-established theory that fire could be controlled from 50 years ago to 40 years ago.[26][27]..Wood as fuelcarbonBy using heat to heat food, digestion is improved, nutritional value is increased, and the types of foods that can be eaten have increased.[28].

Clothing and housing

Other Paleolithic technological advances includeClothingResidenceThere is.The exact age of both is unknown, but they are important for the evolution of humanity.With the progress of the Paleolithic era, the dwellings gradually evolved. Since about 38 years ago, humankind has been a temporary woodenHutCame to build[29][30]..As clothing, stripped from prey animalsfurBy using, it became possible to expand into colder areas.Human beings began to migrate to areas other than Africa around 20 years ago.EurasiaSpread to[31].

Neolithic to ancient (1 BC to 300 BC)

Human technology新石器時代It began to evolve rapidly from the era called.The part of the bladePolishedWith the invention of the stone ax, it became possible to open up forests on a large scale and to build farms.AgricultureAs a result, it became possible to support a larger population and the sedentary life became widespread.It was not possible to have children in a row because it was necessary to carry children when they were not settled, but by settling it became possible to raise children at the same time.In addition, children were able to work from an early age than they were in hunter-gatherer life, contributing to increased yields.[32][33].

Due to population growth and labor force, work specialization has begun[34]..Of MesopotamiaUrukThe reason why a city like this occurred,SumerIt is not clear how such a civilization was born.But,Social hierarchyIncreased, jobs were differentiated, trade and wars with neighboring cultures occurred,Water controlIt is said that there are various factors such as the need for unity to deal with such problems.[35].


With the advancement of technologyFurnace,bellowsIs born, and of natural metals (metals that exist in high purity in nature)smelting,ForgingBecame possible[36]..The first one usedFri,Silver,copper,leadIs.Copperware is a stonebone,ThuClearly superior to craft tools, copper began to be used from the beginning of the Neolithic period (around 8000 BC).[37].Natural copperIs rare in nature, but there are many copper ores, some of which are trees andcarbonThe metal can be easily taken out by heating with the fire caused in.While dealing with metal in that way,青銅,BrassSuch asalloyWas to be discovered (around 4000 BC).steelIron alloys such as these have been used since about 1400 BC.

Energy and means of transportation

Around the same time, humankind was learning new forms of energy use.WindThe power of was first used in the sails of boats.The world's first recordedsailboatIs from Egypt around 3200 BC[Source required]..Since prehistoric times, Egyptians have used the power of the Nile to flood each year and have learned how to secure irrigation water by building irrigation canals and directing overflowing water to basins.Similarly, the Sumerians of Mesopotamia learned similar uses for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.But,Hydraulic power,Wind powerAnother invention was needed to make more effective use of.

According to archaeologistsWheelThe invention of was said to be around 4000 BC.The wheels are probablyMesopotamiaIt is said that it was invented in.There are various theories about the period from 5500 BC to 3000 BC, but many experts say that it is around 4000 BC.The oldest man-made object with a wheeled cart is around 3000 BC.However, it is said that wheel-based transportation would have existed a thousand years before such a painting was drawn.Also at the same timePotter's wheelThere is also evidence that the wheels were used as.The original potter's wheel was not a wheel, but a flat plate with a dent or hole in the middle on a stick that was pushed up to the ground.recent years,スロベニア Ofリ ュ ブ リ ャ ナThe world's oldest wooden wheel was found in a wetland[38].

The invention of the wheel revolutionized various activities such as transportation, war, and potters (which are said to be the first use of wheels).Carts with wheels are used to carry heavy objects, and the potter's wheel陶器Allowed mass production of.In addition, the wheelswindmill,Water millIt created a new energy conversion means such as, and brought about a revolution in the application of power other than human power.

After 300 AD

The tool is a simple machine (Lever,screw,pulleyAnd more complex machines (such as)clock,engine,Generator,electric motor,Computer,Space stationEtc.) including both.As a tool becomes more complex, so does the knowledge needed to support it.Modern complex machines require an ever-growing and sophisticated set of technical manuals, often requiring dedicated training for designers, builders, maintainers, and users.Moreover, such tools are so complex that a comprehensive foundation of smaller tools, processes, and practices (which are themselves complex tools) based on technical knowledge supports them. Existing.It is, for exampleengineeringAndMedicalAndComputer scienceIs.Complicated製造,constructionTechniques and organizations are needed to build such tools.industryThe whole has evolved to develop and support more complex tools one after another.

Technology and society are strongly interdependent.It is said that this synergistic relationship began when a simple tool was invented in the early days of mankind and continues today.Technology has influenced and influenced many aspects of society in history: economy, values, ethics, academia, groups, environment, government, and so on.


TechnologyDestruction of nature,Environmental destructionMay cause.Developed during World War IIAtomic bombIs extremely powerful compared to conventional weapons, making humans indiscriminateMass murderToWeapons of mass destructionIs.Even during the Cold War, both the western and eastern camps had a large numbernuclear weaponsOwn and米 国,USSRLet me press one button depending on the judgment of the head of stateNuclear warThe outbreak has reached the point where experts expect that humanity will be almost wiped out as a result.

Nuclear power plantI couldn't secure the safetyNuclear accidentCaused many times.radiationTo take people's livesRadioactive materialIt spreads and adversely affects the health of distant people.

Technology and philosophy


technicism(TechnicalismOrTechnology worship) Is an assertion or way of thinking that "one day human beings will be able to solve all problems and use technology to control the future."[40].


As an optimistic assumption that technological progress is beneficial to society and humanityTranshumanism,Technical singularityThere are followers.like thisideologySo, technological progress is morally affirmed.On the contrary, those who are critical willScientismAnd as an example of techno-utopianism, they wantHuman strengthening,Technical singularityHas expressed concern.

As an example of a tech optimistKarl MarxMay be mentioned[41].


On the contrary, as a pessimistic view that there is an inherent problem in a society where technology has advanced.Herbert MarcuseI have a problem.As a result, they say that such a society is technical.自由,Mental healthSuggested that he would sacrifice.

philosopherMartin HeideggerAlso had serious concerns about technology.In "The Question Concerning Technology," Heidegger said, "Therefore, as long as we simply create and develop technology, we will not experience, endure or avoid a relationship with the essence of technology. To technology everywhereConnect, Deprived of freedom.It has nothing to do with whether we aspire or reject technology. "[42].

Often compared to Heidegger's technical theory is the French Protestant thinker,Jacques EllulTechnology and society theory.Ellür's theory of technological society, which focuses on the "autonomy" of technology, is often regarded as a paradigm and has been criticized for misrepresenting modern society as an impeccable "iron cage."

The most devastating criticism of technology is now considered a classic of dystopian literature.Aldous Huxleyof"Brave new world],Anthony Burgessof"Clockwork orange],George Orwellof"1984年"and so on.Also,ゲ ー テof"FaustIn 』, Dr. Faust sells his soul to the devil and gains power that transcends the physical world, which can be interpreted as a metaphor for the progress of industrialization by technology.

As one of the anti-technology treatises of the 1980s and 90sTed Kaczynski(Unabomber)of Industrial Society and Its Future It would be possible to mention.To stop his bombing, the treatise was published in several major newspapers and later in a book.Kaczynski is said to have been significantly influenced by Ellul's criticism of the technological society.

nuclear weaponsThere are concerns around the world about the dangers posed by the development, possession and use of.Current,nuclear weaponsIn general,Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,Nuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyIt is regulated by.Nuclear abolitionThere are many people who seek.

In addition, in Europe, in Germany, etc., based on the fact that sufficient safety has not been ensured in the field of nuclear technology.Nuclear powerMany people disagree with this technology.Germany has implemented the total abolition of nuclear power plants, and Belgium has already passed a total abolition bill in Parliament, and its implementation is in progress.Such an exerciseAnti-nuclear movementAlso say.

A recent argument is that, contrary to the rapid development of computers, communications, and biotechnology, technologies such as energy and space development have been stagnant for a long time, which is affecting the economy.

Appropriate technology

In the 20th centuryJacques EllulDue toAppropriate technology The idea of ​​(appropriate technology) came out.This is, for example, the idea that it is inappropriate to bring in cutting-edge technology that is difficult to repair in remote areas where civilization does not reach.EcovillageThe idea of ​​was also born in connection with this.

Non-human technology

Rudimentary technology can also be found in non-human animals.For exampleChimpanzeeSuch as primatesDolphin[43][44],CrowAnd so on[45][46]..Taking technology in a broader sense, including the behavior of animals actively adjusting and controlling the environment,BeaverDams made byBee nestAlso included.

Traditionally,ToolsThe ability to create and useHomoWas thought to be unique to[47]..However, examples of primates such as chimpanzees making tools have been found, revealing that technology is not unique to humankind.For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees using tools to search for food.[48]..West AfricaChimpanzeeIs a stonehammerAnvilI use it like this to crack the nuts[49],Brazil OfCapuchin monkeyShows similar behavior[50].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Merriam-Webster
  2. ^ Digital Daijisen
  3. ^ a b c Oxford Dictionaries "technology"
  4. ^ a b "Definition of technology”. Merriam-Webster. As of April 2012, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/2/16Browse.
  5. ^ In a small group of human beings in the hunter-gatherer society, all the men participated in the hunting (divided into ambush, ambush, etc.) People also had equal rights, and all their members had the rule to divide the meat of their prey equally (due to the study of the tribes who remain ambush in the unexplored region even today). Anthropology reveals.And everyone also made hunting tools.Instead, archeology and anthropology reveal that all the work was amateurish and could only make simple tools.
  6. ^ Technological progress is like an ax in the hands of a pathological criminal.
  7. ^ http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins164554.html
  8. ^ Franklin, Ursula. “Real World of Technology”. House of Anansi Press. 2007/2/13Browse.
  9. ^ Stiegler, Bernard (1998). Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford University Press. Pp. 17, 82. ISBN 0-8047-3041-5 
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  12. ^ Macek, Jakub. “Defining Cyberculture". 2007/5/25Browse.
  13. ^ "Science”. Dictionary.com. 2007/2/17Browse.
  14. ^ George Wise, "Science and Technology", Osiris, 2nd Series, 1 (1985): 229-246.
  15. ^ David H. Guston, Between politics and science: Assuring the integrity and productivity of research (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  16. ^ "Mother of man – 3.2 million years ago". with the BBC. 2008/5/17Browse.
  17. ^ "Human Evolution". History channel.As of August 2008, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/5/17Browse.
  18. ^ Wade, Nicholas (July 2003, 7). “Early Voices: The Leap to Language". The New York Times. 2008/5/17Browse.
  19. ^ "Human Ancestors Hall: Homo sapiens". Smithsonian Institution. 2007/12/8Browse.
  20. ^ "Ancient'tool factory' uncovered". BBC News (September 1999, 5). 2007/2/18Browse.
  21. ^ Heinzelin, Jean de (April 1999). “Environment and Behavior of 2.5-Million-Year-Old Bouri Hominids”. Science 284 (5414): 625–629. two:10.1126 / science.284.5414.625. PMID 10213682. 
  22. ^ Plummer, Thomas (2004). Flaked Stones and Old Bones: Biological and Cultural Evolution at the Dawn of Technology.Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 
  23. ^ Haviland, William A. (2004). Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. The Thomson Corporation. P. 77. ISBN 0534624871 
  24. ^ Crump, Thomas (2001). A Brief History of Science. Constable & Robinson. P. 9. ISBN 1-84119-235-X 
  25. ^ "Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs". UNESCO. 2007/3/10Browse.
  26. ^ "History of Stone Age Man”. History World. 2007/2/13Browse.
  27. ^ James, Steven R. (February 1989). “Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene” (fee required). Current Anthropology 30 (1): 1–26. two:10.1086/203705. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204(198902)30%3A1%3C1%3AHUOFIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J. 
  28. ^ Stahl, Ann B. (1984). “Hominid dietary selection before fire” (fee required). Current Anthropology 25: 151–168. two:10.1086/203106. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204(198404)25%3A2%3C151%3AHDSBF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E. 
  29. ^ O'Neil, Dennis. “Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture”. Palomar College. 2007/3/31Browse.
  30. ^ Villa, Paola (1983). Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene archaeological record of southern France. Berkeley: University of California Press. P. 303. ISBN 0-520-09662-2 
  31. ^ Cordaux, Richard; Stoneking, Mark (2003). “South Asia, the Andamanese and the genetic evidence for an“ early ”human dispersal out of Africa” (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 1586. two:10.1086/375407. http://site.voila.fr/rcordaux/pdfs/04.pdf. 
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