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New residential area
There are no particular criteria for how long after development is "emerging" or requirements for residents, butcityへpopulationWhen the concentration is concentrated, undeveloped areas on the edge of the citySuburbs OfRuralResidential area development will be carried out one after another to secure undeveloped land such as, secure housing, and supply housing.In the main exampleBliedersdorf #New residential area, Havijov,Hinter den Dorfgelten,Shelzig,Duluth (Minnesota)"Over the Hill" and so on.
New residential area in Japan
in JapanMeijiPeriodSettlementAnd thenWayside developmentとGreat Kanto EarthquakeTriggered bySuburbEmigration to the area shows the development of supplying residential areas.It is said that the idea of a residential area will take root at these boundaries, and it will start after the war.Residential land development,New Town in JapanIt is said that the supply of residential areas such as these has formed new residential areas.
When reclaiming forests that originally had no settlements, or for large-scale onesNew town(Tama New TownEtc.).It mainly refers to a residential area where two or three-story detached dwelling units are lined up in a planned manner.Housing complexAnd condominiums may also be included in new residential areas in a broad sense.
TaishoFrom the endShowaIn the example of the periodTokyo TrustbyShinmachi Housing, Den'en Toshi Co., Ltd.Denenchofu,Seijo,Saitama OfUrawaEtc. were developed as new residential areas.High economic growth periodOr later,Japan Housing Corporation,Housing supply corporationEtc. one after anotherHousing complexMany in the construction business etc.Residential landWas constructed and housing was supplied, and housing development in the vicinity of existing metropolitan areas progressed.As an example of the opening of routes to places dotted with villages and the progress of residential land conversionTsukuba ExpressAlong the lineTokyu LineAlong the lineWayside development,SetagayaEtc. are remarkable.
- Norio Isoda, Naomi Sasa "Survey research on awareness and living styles related to environmental symbiosis When targeting detached houses in new residential areas near Nara City (2002 Conference (Hokuriku) Academic Lecture Summary)" "Academic Lecture Summary Collection. Planning System ”Vol.2002, No.D-2,Architectural Institute of Japan,Year 2002
- "Machizukuri" site Trial of an exchange promotion program for women in their 50s and 60s in a new residential area-Let's draw our life (future forecast: future tree) 10 years from now !, Junko Omori, Masao Kobayashi, Rina Ryu et al. (The Japanese journal for public health nurse 65 (12), December 2009 issue)
- Solidarity Theory of New Residential Areas-Kamakura / Shiromeguri Autonomous Chairman's Experience,Kosuke Sugawara(, 2001)
- Open to the communityPublic hall(Ministry of educationExcellent public hall) Public hall activities in a new residential area IshikawaBaishan CityTachikagano Public Hall (Monthly Public Hall (627), 42-45, August 2009 issue)
- OsakaWithGround subsidenceIn a new residential areaNara (Special feature: A country where children are not born), Atsuko Hida (Central public opinion 124 (10), 82-89, October 2009 issue)
- Trends in consumer electronics mass retailers (19) A fierce battle in a new housing in Kanagawa, with five mass retailers competing in a radius of 1.5km (Technical Sales 5 (36), 2-58, February 61 issue)
- Regarding the awareness of junior high school students regarding the landscape of new residential areas, Keita Arakane, Keishi Osawa, Mikiko Ishikawa (Environmental Information Science 35 (4), 88-89, January 2007 issue)
- From Yokohama! New Challenges in Yokohama's New Residential Area The aim of a community-based approach is to pursue "comfort", Kudo Corporation Nursing Care Business Office (Economic review 18 (3), 58-61, March 2005) issue)
- KoriyamaCrime-free community development in the Yatsuyamada area-Crime prevention in mixed emerging residential areas (policy formation training course 16 research report "town development through collaboration"), group under the jurisdiction of the Fukushima Regional Development Bureau (policy) Research Fukushima (9), 1-23, 2004)
- Needs of caregivers regarding child-rearing support in 1-year and 6-month-old child health checkups: Ryoko Nimura, Hajime Ohira, Sanae Sawai, Junko Muramoto (Journal of the Japan Society for Nursing Research) 1 (26), 3, June 265, 2003)
- Purchase Safety Rating Kansai 300 Stations-New residential areas with new lines open (Special feature: Do you still buy condominiums?-Metropolitan area, Kansai 1049 Stations "Purchase Safety Rating", Nikkei business (1195), 49-51, 2003 6/9 year)
- Social exchange and subjective well-being of the elderly living in areas with low aging rates in new residential areas, Noriko Kimura (Japanese Nursing Association Proceedings, Community Health Nursing 33, 87-89, 2002)
- Special Series Thinking about the 21st Century Fire Brigade (39) Established a Fire Brigade Department in Meijodai, a New Residential Area! --Osamu Tanaka KyotoUjitawara TownAsk the fire brigade leader, Osamu Tanaka (Modern Fire Fighting 40 (3), 73-79, March 2002)
- New Residential Area Autonomous Society Officers' Struggle, Minoru Taniguchi (Kusashi, 47-51, April 2001)
- Aiming to revitalize regional exchanges centered on child-rearing --Toward the fusion of existing residential areas and new residential areas (policy formation training course 13 research report "Community development through participation and collaboration")FukushimaGroup under the jurisdiction of the Fukushima Regional Promotion Bureau (Fukushima policy studies: The Bulletin of Policy Study Seminar (6), 19-40, 2001)
- Tama Newtown Child-rearing Issues in Hachioji (Special Feature: Raising Children), Hideto Kurakake, (Courtyard Studies on Tama newtown (12), 22-29, 2010)
- Life Support Network for Single Elderly-Michiko Ishida (Studies / Aichi Gakusen College. (40), 36-131, 138) through the case of elderly people in a new residential area in the 2001s.
- Research and Report A family of folie a quatre that developed in a new residential area near the city, Shigeru Moriyama (Psychiatry 1 (42), 9-929, September 938)
- Norikazu Odashima (Nature and environment of the Sea of Japan districts. The Memoirs of the Research and Education Center for Regional Environment, Fukui University (6), 65-80,, Fukui University (1999), 11-XNUMX, November XNUMX issue)
- Mystery novel Tokyo (2)N. Kirino --With a new residential area in the westKabukicho, Saburo Kawamoto (Tokyojin 14 (6), 112, 117, June 1999)
- A Study on the Actual Situation of Child-rearing in New Residential Cities and the Current Situation and Issues of Child-rearing Support: Tama New TownAsami Hitoshi (Journal of Aoyama Gakuin Woman's Junior College 52, 114_a-85_a, December 1998, 12)
- Incident Suspicion of a new residential area Dark demon blue acid curry incident (Aera 11 (32), 61-63, 1998 8/10 issue)
- 740 Study on Living Environment Conservation in New Residential Areas: Hiroshima cityThrough "building agreement" and "district planning" inCity planning), Hiroshi Kajiyama, Norioki Ishimaru (Architectural Institute of Japan Research Report. Kyushu Branch, China. 3, Planning System (10), 445-448, March 1996, 3)
- 4. Evaluation of boundary elements and composition that attracts living consciousness in detached residential areas: Case study (architectural plan) in new residential areas, Keiko Nakamura, Masatsugu Imai, Takayuki Nakai (Tokai Branch Research Report (34), 569- 572, 1996 2/16 issue)
- (2)SapporoNew housing complex in the northern suburbs: Ainosato and Sweden Hill (Minamiainosato, Ishikari, Kitagoshi's agricultural changes and resort development-Hokkaido Geographical Society '92, 93 Autumn Tournament Tour Record-), Yamashita Katsuhiko (Review 13, 170-) 173, March 1994, 3)
- Education for 3-year-olds in new residential areas (New developments in kindergarten education <Special feature>)-(Case study), Tatsue Arima (The Monthly journal of Mombusho (1376), p31-33, August 1991)
- Crossing a new residential areaActive fault-Miura PeninsulaExample, Mitsuhisa Watanabe (Active Fault Research 8, 97-103, 1990)
- Tohoku regionStudy on hedges in new residential areas in Japan-4-Iwaki,Yamamoto Town, Town andShichigahama TownKawai Hiroshi, Iwanami Kiyotaka, Miyagi Prefectural Agricultural Junior College Academic Report (37), p9, November 17)
- Study on hedges in new residential areas in the Tohoku region-3-Hedges in Aomori, Akita and Yonezawa cities, Hiroshi Kawai, Kiyotaka Iwanami (Academic Report (36), p1-8, November 1988)
- Study on hedges in new residential areas in the Tohoku region-2-Hedges in Morioka, Hanamaki, Ichinoseki, Yamagata and Fukushima cities, Hiroshi Kawai, Kiyotaka Iwanami (Academic Report of Miyagi Prefectural Agricultural Junior College (35), p1-8, 1987) November issue)
- Study on hedges in new residential areas in the Tohoku region-1-Kiyotaka Iwanami, Hiroshi Kawai (Academic Report of Miyagi Agricultural Junior College (6), p34-1, November 7 issue) on hedges in 1986 residential areas in Sendai City
- Relationship between residents and government in the maintenance of road parks in new residential areas (new way of living and mechanism of city <special feature>), Noda Nobukatsu, Atsuo Koike (City planning review (140), p68-72, 1986) February issue)
- 7 Seasonal fate of mosquitoes in new residential areas near Nagasaki City, Masao Ejima, Akio Mori, Riki Oda (Medical entomology and zoology 35 (2), 217, June 1984, 6)
- Library in towns and villages-6-Building a library in a newly carved residential area (Toyono Town, Osaka Prefecture), Masuko Matsuura (Minna no Library (85), p68-70, June 1984 issue)
- Tottori Policy Research Center (Report of Tottori Policy Research Center 15 Prefectural Researcher) to think about the charm of the city
- Political Awareness and Voting Behavior in Emerging Housing Areas Nagoya cityMeito WardCase study, Akihiko Takagi (Doho UniversityRonso (51), p198 178, December 1984 issue)
- Transformation and Rebirth of Jizo Festival --In the case of Kumamoto Castle and a new residential area, Fumihiko Ushijima (Historical review on manners and customs 22 (4), p55-63, December 1983 issue)
- Hedges in new residential areas in the Sendai region, Hiroshi Kawai, Hiroshi Hori, Yoshie Motomura (Academic Report of Miyagi Agricultural Junior College (29), p12-18, November 1981 issue)
- 9 Behavioral Characteristics of Medical Care for New Residential Area Residents in Toyota City (Urban Planning), Yukihiro Fujitani (Tokai Branch Research Report Collection (18), 235-238, 1980/2, 16)
- On the Problem of the Elderly in New Residential Areas (Honorable Mention) (5th Welfare Literature Award for the Elderly), Setuko Okazumi (Welfare of the aged (55), p43-47, 1979)
- Katsutaka Itakura, New Housing Complex (Geography 24 (9), p88-91, September 1979 issue)
- Considering the regional activities of local welfare committee members-Focusing on the case of new residential areas in the suburbs of metropolitan areas (Civil welfare committee system 60 years <special feature>), Noboru Ochi (Social welfare studies (21), p46-51, October 1977 issue)
- Basic Research on Living Environment Formation: New Residential Urban Areas-Matsudo-shiIn the case of-: City Planning, Katsushi Okamura (Abstract of Academic Lectures. Planning 51 (Planning), 1433-1434, 1976 No. 8-25)
- RegionCore city(Kanazawa) and surrounding new residential areas (4): From apartment complex: Building economy / housing problem, Kensuke Suzuki, Akira Seto, Noboru Shimamura (Abstract of academic lectures. Planning system 50 (city planning / building economy / housing problem) ), 1355-1356, October 1975 issue)
- Regional core cities (Kanazawa) and surrounding emerging residential areas (3): From private apartments: Building economy / housing issues, Masaaki Yamakawa, Akira Seto, Noboru Shimamura (Abstract of academic lectures. Planning system 50 (city planning / building economy / Housing Issues), 1353-1354, October 1975 issue)
- Regional core cities (Kanazawa) and surrounding emerging residential areas (2): Current status of residential land acquisition: Building economy / housing issues, Yoshihisa Hashimoto, Eiji Suzuki, Kineda Tsumita, Noboru Shimamura (Abstract of academic lectures. Planning system 50 (City) Planning / Building Economy / Housing Issues), 1351-1352, October 1975 issue)
- Regional core city (Kanazawa) and surrounding emerging residential areas (1): Current status of prefabricated housing construction: Architectural economy / housing issues, Hidefumi Suzuki, Yoshihisa Hashimoto, Kinue Tsumita, Noboru Shimamura (Abstract of academic lectures. Planning system 50 (Planning system 1349) City Planning / Building Economy / Housing Issues), 1350-1975, October 10 issue)
- 415 Fukuoka CityResearch on Living Environment Facility Development in New Residential Areas (Architectural Planning), Yasuko Higashimori, Kazuyo Kubo, Kozo Koyama, Haruko Akiyama, Yoshiyuki Yokoya (Architectural Institute of Japan Research Report. China / Kyushu Branch. 2, Planning (3), 133-136, February 1975, 2)
- 1-605 Problems of Mother and Child in New Residential Areas, Yoko Murota (Proceedings of the Japan Child Care Society Conference (27), 99-100, April 1974, 4)
- Division of Labor Structure of Modern Married Couples-Consideration of Two Types in New Residential Area [Hakodate], Shohei Tanaka (Review of the Economic Society, Sapporo University 2 (2), 1-89, April 124)
- Attitudes of New Residential Area Residents toward Police, Fumio Mugishima (Police Study 40 (9), 55-64, September 1969)
- New town/Bed town/Satellite city/Suburb
- new resident
- Garden City
- Luxury residential area ――In many cases, when the lots are improved and the land price rises, it transforms into a high-class residential area.
- Planned city
- Rural city
- Education city
- List of land readjustment projects
- station/hill ――A place name often given to new residential areas.
- Metropolitan area
- Transition of Tokyo city # Great Kanto earthquake and new residential area
Land readjustment project
Land readjustment project(Slaughterhouse) is in JapanLand readjustment method(Showa 29 YearAccording to Law No. 119),City planning area内 のlandに つ い てpublic facilityMaintenance and improvementResidential landIt is a project related to the change of land plot characteristics and the new construction or change of public facilities, which is carried out to promote the use of.
Origin of land readjustment
The Land Readjustment Act itselfドイツ OflawThe system was created with reference to other laws, but since then it has mainly developed in Japan.There are many cases such as disaster recovery, station front maintenance, and suburban residential land development.
In Germany 1902(Meiji35 years)Adikes methodIn the case of, up to 35% of the enforcement area (50% if the landowner who owns 40% or more of the enforcement area applied for it) was supposed to be available to public organizations free of charge as public land..
It was in 1923 (Taisho 12) that the land readjustment project was carried out in Japan.Great Kanto EarthquakeSo, the Adikes method was also used as a reference.A proposal was made to provide 1% of the land free of charge in order to improve roads and parks in the burned area, and there was opposition from the locals, but the Imperial Diet finally passed the bill and it was possible to implement it...In addition, it was the opportunity to expand the land readjustment project nationwide.War disaster recovery city planning.
For blocks and plots, 1927(Showa2 years)Ministry of InteriorThe land readjustment examination standard was established in.According to this standard, as the land readjustment project progresses in each city, it will be possible to verify whether it is appropriate and give feedback to the actual situation.Generally, the price of land is determined based on the estimated value of the person who purchases the land and the person who uses it, and the selling price is high or low, but in the case of land readjustment business, the beneficiary burden, marginal utility and actual cost repayment It was necessary to calculate the conventional land valuation price and the replacement land valuation price based on scientific grounds in consideration of the relationship between the two.
Seen enacted in 1919Old City Planning ActThen, the designation of the city planning area to which the law is applied and the mutatis mutandis of the cultivated land readjustment project method were stipulated and the land readjustment project was positioned by the law. 1931(Showa 6)Land consolidation methodWas revised, which prohibited cultivated land consolidation for the purpose of residential land conversion in urban areas, and stipulated that land readjustment projects could not be implemented in areas to which the old Town Planning and Zoning Act does not apply.The purpose of this amendment to the Land Consolidation Law is the local secretary of the land consolidation enforcement approval, that is,Prefectural governorWith the authority ofMinistry of Agriculture and CommerceSince it was said that it was an unintended use to convert the land to residential land using subsidies for agricultural administration of the prefecture and the prefecture, after the revision of the law, the business operator will convert the acquired land into residential land and consolidate the cultivated land. Was often seen.
1949The Land Consolidation Law was abolished in (24). 1954(Showa 29), the current "Land Readjustment Act" was promulgated.However, in Article 3, Paragraph 4, "The old union must pass the resolution of the general meeting if it intends to become a new union pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph. In this case, the resolution of the general meeting shall be Article 10. The conditions of Article 12 of the Old Land Consolidation Act (Act No. 2 of 42), which is applied mutatis mutandis in Article 30, Paragraph 50 of the Town Planning and Zoning Act before the revision by the provisions of the above, must be met. "
In Japan, the land readjustment project has been implemented by two people, the Town Planning and Zoning Act and the Land Consolidation Law, but in the past, stubborn land consolidation (Farmland(Side) and residential land development seemed to be in trouble because they did not match well, and even in modern times construction and agricultural policy are making double investments.Accounting OfficeIt may be pointed out by the government, or it may be pointed out that it has not been utilized even though it has invested in agriculture.After that, it is a land readjustment project implemented with national financial resources.Urban remodeling businessIs created.This project focuses on the development of public facilities in the district, especially road maintenance. 1956In the five-year road maintenance plan that will start in 31, emphasis will be placed on unopened road maintenance.
How the system
Land readjustment projects can be broadly divided into city planning.Urban development businessThere are two types of land readjustment projects: land readjustment projects that are carried out as city planning projects, and land readjustment projects that are carried out in accordance with the regulations and guidance stipulated in city planning as other private development activities.
The person (enforcer) who implements the land readjustment project is stipulated as follows.
- Private enforcement
- Residential landに つ い てOwnershipOrLeaseholdPerson who has-Individual enforcer
- Person who obtained the consent of the person who has the ownership or leasehold right for the residential land-Consent enforcer
- Land readjustment association
- The land readjustment association consists of seven or more landowners or land lease holders and requires the approval of the prefectural governor.Once approved, all residential land owners and land lease owners in the enforcement area (unregistered land lease owners are limited to those who have declared or notified) become members of the union.A person who has acquired ownership from a member during the implementation of the project is also a member.
- The union can levy money to members other than the participating union members as a levy without obtaining the approval of the governor in order to cover the expenses required for the business.Union members pay levyOffsetCannot be countered with.
- Land readjustment company
- The land readjustment company's main purpose was to implement a land readjustment project jointly established by the landowner and a private business operator.Ltd.And requires the approval of the prefectural governor. It was newly appointed as an enforcer by the revision of the law in 2005.
- Public enforcement
- Prefecturesas well as the 市町村
- Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
- The Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has decided that the land in the enforcement area will be publicly enforced by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, among the land readjustment projects that have a serious relationship with the national interests and are deemed to require urgent action due to the occurrence of a disaster or other special circumstances. Those that are deemed necessary to be carried out together with the construction related to the facility can be carried out by themselves.
- Urban regeneration mechanism
- Local housing corporation
The enforcer is about the residential land in the enforcement districtSubstitution disposalTo doSubstitution planThe following matters must be stipulated in (Kanchi Keikaku).If the enforcer is an individual enforcer, union, land readjustment company, municipality, organization, etc., the prefectural governor's plan for the replacement siteAuthorizationMust receive.
- Substitution design
- When deciding on a replacement lot, the location, land area, soil quality, irrigation, usage status, environment, etc. of the replacement lot and the previous residential land must be matched (principle of anaphora).
- This anaphora is interpreted as meaning that the replacement lot and its former land are in roughly the same conditions, and that the replacement lots are defined fairly fairly, taking into consideration various circumstances, and the replacement lots are defined under exactly the same conditions. It doesn't mean to do it.From this point, it is possible to impose a reduction in land area even if there is no explicit provision in the Land Readjustment Act, because the land area may decrease if it is anaphoric.
- Details of each brush
- Each brush by each rightSettlement moneyDetails
- Settlement money isPrevious residential landとSubstituteThe money to settle the imbalance of.If the owner of the residential land offers or consents, the replacement lot may not be specified for all or part of the residential land in the replacement lot plan.
- When deciding the replacement lot, it is technically impossible to arrange the replacement lots according to the calculated replacement lot area (right land area) without excess or deficiency, and some imbalance occurs between the replacement lots.The imbalance is corrected by collecting, delivering, or offsetting the settlement money, which is the difference between the evaluation of the land actually converted and the evaluation of the land to be delivered in calculation.
- Reservation placeDetails of land with other special decisions
- Reservation land refers to a certain amount of land that is not designated as a replacement land in order to cover the cost of implementing the land readjustment project.For private enforcers, the rules and regulationsArticles of IncorporationReservation sites may be set up for the purposes specified in the above.
- Other matters specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
When the prefectural governor has applied for approval of the land replacement plan, the application procedure and the decision procedure and contents of the land replacement plan violate the law, or the contents of the land replacement plan conflict with the contents of the business plan. Unless you admit that you do, you must approve it.
After the public notice of approval, etc., until the day when the public notice of land replacement disposal is given, changes in land characteristics that may hinder the execution of the project in the enforcement area, new construction, renovation, extension of buildings and other structures, etc. Those who intend to do so must obtain the permission of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in the case of enforcement by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and the prefectural governor in other cases.This regulation applies even to temporary replacement lots.For buildings built in violation of regulations, the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or the prefectural governor may order these persons to restore their original condition by setting a reasonable time limit.
The public land required for the development of public facilities such as roads and parks and the reservation land required to generate project costs will be secured by having the landowner provide a part of the land.This will reduce the landDecreaseIt is called (genbu) (however, the Land Readjustment Act only stipulates the principle of anaphora, and does not have the term reduction).
For reduction, reduction for public land (reduction (Public reduction), Reduction for reservations (Reservation reduction), And the sum of bothTotal reductionCalled.Unlike the case of land expropriation, there is no monetary compensation for the depreciation itself (payment and depreciation compensation is not for the depreciation itself).This is because even if the land evaluation (evaluation point calculated by the enforcer, not the economic value of the land) is reduced due to the reduction of the land area due to the reduction of the land area, the "land use" due to the completion of the project Since there is "promotion", the result is the same evaluation as before the project and the idea that property rights are not infringed.
Designation of temporary replacement site
The enforcer shall apply to the residential land in the enforcement area if necessary for construction or land replacement before the land replacement.Temporary replacement lotCan be specified.
When attempting to designate a temporary replacement lot, the individual enforcer must obtain the consent of the owner of the previous residential land and the residential land that should become the temporary replacement lot, and other use / profit right holders.The union must obtain the consent of the general meeting.Other enforcers need to hear their opinions.
The temporary replacement land is designated by notifying the owner of the land that should be the temporary replacement land and the owner of the previous residential land of the location, land area, and effective date of the designation of the temporary replacement land.If a temporary replacement land is designated, the former land use / profit right holder will be able to use / profit the temporary replacement land until the public notice of the disposal of the replacement land is given, and the previous land use / profit right will be lost.However, at this point, the ownership of the previous residential land is not lost, and the enforcer manages it until the day when the public notice of the disposal of the land is announced.Regarding "use / profit right holder" here,Ground rights-Permanent tenant right-Lease right-PledgeIs includedMortgageIs not included.The enforcer may collect or issue a provisional settlement fee when he / she finds it necessary.
Replacing existing residential land with new land through a land readjustment project is called land replacement disposal.For land replacement disposal, the relevant rights holders are informed of the relevant matters stipulated in the land replacement plan.notificationI will do it.On top of that, the prefectural governor (or the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)Wei CeTo do.Unless otherwise specified, land replacement disposal is for areas related to land replacement plans.AllMust be done without delay after the construction is completed.
At the end of the day of the public notice, the effect of designating the temporary replacement lot, restrictions on building activities, the right to exist in the previous residential land where the replacement lot was not specified, and the profit of exercising due to the enforcement of the business disappeared.EasementDisappears.
The replacement lot specified in the replacement lot plan is thatThe day after the day of the public noticeTherefore, it is regarded as the former residential land, the ownership, etc. is transferred, and the settlement money is fixed.Also, the reservationObtained by the enforcerHowever, the public facilities established by the implementation of the land readjustment project belong to the management of the municipality in which they are located, unless otherwise specified.
The enforcer must notify the registry office having jurisdiction over the planned land replacement area immediately when the public notice of the land replacement disposal is given.In addition, the enforcer must apply for or commission registration of the change without delay when there is a change in the land or building in the enforcement area due to the implementation of the project.Even after the public notice, in principle, no other registration can be made for the land or buildings in the enforcement area until the registration of this change is made.
As an application example, in front of the station広 場For developing access roads, for converting forests and farmlands into residential land, for consolidating low unused land in existing urban areas, for developing large-scale ruins such as after factory closures, and for existing roads with narrow road widths. In addition to those that try to reorganize the city area, there are those that are implemented for disaster recovery.
Application to disaster recovery
Disasters in areas affected by large-scale disasters in JapanreconstructionIt has been carried out mainly by the enforcement of public organizations for the purpose of.For exampleGreat Ginza Fire( 1872(Meiji5 years))Ginza BricktownAfter issuing a land ticket to buy the burnt down area and reorganizing the land, it is being sold to the old landowner at the old price.
Until the enactment of the Old City Planning Act, it was not developed as a legal system, and land readjustment for disaster recovery is also a voluntary project by local volunteers and local governments.
1881(14th year of Meiji)4/25, 1785 houses were hit by a big fire that burned downFukushima OfFukushima fireAs a reconstruction of a large fire called (Jinbei Fire), a city ward revision project was carried out to promote road widening work.Most of the cost of construction cost 7000 yen or moreSaburo TakagiIt is covered by the private property of influential people.
From the early Meiji eraHokkaidoHakodateA series of big fires set the "city ward revision order" and the width is 12whileMaintenance of (22 m) boulevards and 6 alleys and along the roadbrickMakeGodownAnd relocation of shrines and temples 1879(Meiji 12) Even after the big fire in December, we have provided loans for roads with a width of 12 ken (20 m) and non-combustibility since then. 1899(32th year of Meiji), 1907(40th year of Meiji), 1913(Taisho2 years), 1916(5th year of Taisho), 1921(Taisho 10) There was a big fire, and each time, fire fighting power was strengthened, fire prevention roads were improved, and roadside incombustibility was promoted. 1934(9)3/21, Burned area 400 ha, The Hokkaido Government, when a fire broke out, burning 2 homes and killing 4186 peopleMinistry of InteriorWill decide the "Reconstruction Plan Outline" 16 days later.By land readjustment projectstreetIn addition to maintenance, a green tree belt (width 55 m 6 lines and 36 m width 1 line that goes straight) is arranged to form fire prevention blocks in the city, and parks and parks are located at key points.Fireproof building(Elementary school) was placed.Designation of fire prevention area along the route and promotion of non-combustibility,Fire fightingWe planned a systematic urban reconstruction that emphasized disaster prevention, such as strengthening the area and developing a park that would serve as an evacuation plaza.This is the night view of HakodateFirebreakStreet lightingIn addition to being a band of light woven byHakodate western district townscapeWas formed.Reconstruction from this catastrophe was from most of the staff involved in the city of the prefectural government and from all over the country.engineerWith the support of, in reality, the city will form and implement 10 unions that will be the enforcers, but until this point, the enforcement by public organizations immediately after the approval of the business plan has not been permitted, so it is unavoidable. The union was enforced.Hakodate Great FireIn a sense, the reconstruction of Hakodate City, which had experienced many great fires until then, was the final stage of the reconstruction, and it is said that the reconstruction culture was established.
Kawagoe-shiAlso 1638(KaneiKawagoe Castle was expanded at this time due to the great fire of the Kanei period (15 years) and became a burnt field.castle townThe castle town division, which is said to be in front of the four gates of Togamachi, was decided and the administrative divisions were rearranged.For this reason,Kawagoe Great Fire( 1893(Meiji 26)), the reconstruction can be dealt with by making the building incombustible, and it will form the townscape of today.
1910(Meiji 43) January 5AomoriIn addition to the establishment of the "Aomori City Building Control Regulations", it was recognized that it was necessary to build a fire-resistant city in the wake of a fire that caused enormous damage to 5,000 people dead and 26 injured after more than 160 houses were burned down. Implemented a land readjustment project in the city area and completed a wide fire protection network. 1919(Taisho8 years)横 浜 市In the big fire, 3100 houses were burnt down, roads were expanded by implementing the revision of the city ward, and 74 municipal housing units were built with donations, giving priority to the victims.
1919 (Taisho 8),YonezawaIt happenedYonezawa Great FireAfter that, land readjustment was carried out in the city.Since the Kichitei warehouse, which still remains, was built before the land readjustment, it was built so that it would be built right next to the expanded main street, Shirafu Kaido, and as a result, it still has a landscape that retains the atmosphere of a castle town.
1921(Taisho 10), disappearance area 2 tsubo, number of units 604Yotsuya,AsakusaThe reconstruction of the big fire in the districtTokyo cityIt is done by the enforcement of.Yotsuya's project is said to be the first case in which land readjustment under the old law was used in disaster recovery.
Another reconstruction project isGreat Kanto Earthquake(3400 ha)Hachinohe Great Fire(1924 (Taisho 13)5/21 Hachinohe),Ishioka Great Fire( 1929(4)3/14), 1934(Showa 9)Muroto Typhoon,Shizuoka Great Fire( 1940(15), 100 ha scale) and so on. 1923(Taisho 12) The "" issued in the same year to recover from the enormous damage caused by the Great Kanto Earthquake that occurred in September.Special City Planning Act], It was decided to mainly use the land readjustment project as a project for the reconstruction of the imperial capital.After thatWar disaster reconstructionIt is used for (27900ha), but some of itYamanote LineIncludes most of the main station squares in.
1929(Showa 4) Miyagi prefecture oldKesennuma TownIn the big fire, 895 units and 6.5 tsubo were burnt down, and in April of the same year, the building line was set by applying the old law, and along with this, the land readjustment for reconstruction was carried out. 1931(Showa 6), 852 houses in the hot spring town were burnt down in the great fire in Yamanaka Town, Ishikawa Prefecture, and in June of the same year, the construction line was designated and the town's own land readjustment ordinance was enacted, and the reconstruction project was implemented. 1933Since (Showa 8), the project has been applied due to the revision of the old law, and in 1935 it was confirmed as a land readjustment project based on the old law. 1932(Showa 7) In MarchMatsueIn the big fire that broke out, 74 towns, 800 units, and 3.9 tsubo were burned down, and a reconstruction project with an area of 13 hectares was carried out by the union, which became the downtown area of Higashihonmachi.The project cost was borne by the city without state subsidy.In October of the same year, a large fire in Komatsu Town, Ishikawa Prefecture burned 10 homes.For this reason, a reconstruction project with an area of 1,100 hectare was implemented with the mayor as the union leader. 1934Most of the village was destroyed by a large fire in Wakinosawa Village, Aomori Prefecture in 9, and a 4.8-hectare project was implemented under the old law.
1934(Showa 9)Muroto TyphoonIn April 1935 (Showa 10), in the case of reconstruction of the damage caused bySakai CityProjects such as the Sanpo district that came into effect have an area of 135 Ha, May of the same yearHyogoAmagasakiEnforcementOjo districtHowever, at 312.9 Ha, both disaster recovery and the creation of a seaside industrial zone are being carried out on a large scale.Simultaneous implementation of seawall maintenance and ground raising in the coastal area.Engineers who were active in the reconstruction project applied the largest land readjustment project after the war.War disaster recovery city planningIt will play an active part as the core.
1938In September (Showa 13), 9 houses were burned down in a big fire in Himi Town, Toyama Prefecture, and a reconstruction land readjustment project implemented by the town was carried out. In May 1500 (Showa 1939), a big fire in Agematsu Town, Nagano Prefecture burned 14 houses. The house was burnt down, and the union is implementing a reorganization project with an area of 5 Ha.
1940 year (Showa 15 year)1/15,Shizuoka CityA big fire broke out in the daytimeCentral partApproximately 100 ha burned downShizuoka Great FireThen,Shizuoka The16 DayWe contacted the Ministry of Interior officials and started reconstruction.1/19"Shizuoka City Fire DistrictBarracksLimit the floor area according to the "Building Regulations"2/2Proposed a plan centered on land readjustment and parks, streets, station squares, and fire prevention irrigation facilities to the city planning and local committee of2/14Was notified to.In the plan, two roads with a width of 36m and a width of 30m are arranged in the direction perpendicular to the constant wind. The 2m road has a tree-planting zone with a width of 36m in the center and a roadway with a width of 18m on both sides. A waterway with a width of 9m and a depth of 3m is allowed to flow through the center of the tree-planting zone, and the relaxation of the Urban Building Law is canceled. In addition to encouraging fire prevention repairs by applying the above, relocation of the graveyard and reconstruction projects such as water and sewage and electric power were also carried out.At this time, proceed with fire prevention repairPamphletIssuance, on-site guidance, and Shizuoka City reconstruction and construction incentives are also provided.
1944In (Showa 19), the reconstruction of the fire in Ofunato-cho, Iwate Prefecture was carried out by the town, and the land readjustment of 8.9 Ha was carried out. In 1944 (Showa 19), the large tsunami in the South Isewan regionOwashi TownReconstruction land readjustment is being carried out in 5 other towns and villages.
Even after the war, it is being carried out during the reconstruction of the damage caused by the great fire.
1947(22)4/20Around 11:40,NaganoIidaA fire broke out in the southern part of the city, and it became a big fire with a damaged area of about 60ha under the southwesterly wind in spring.Iida Great FireThen next21 DayEfforts for reconstruction began early in the morning, and the "Iida City Fire Reconstruction City Planning Project" was decided through discussions on the day.Suddenly when I announced it to the liaison officer related to the disaster area and tried to complete the surveyExpeditionary Force CommandInstructed to expand the width of the trunk road.The city and the council decided on the reconstruction plan with the expansion of Chuo-dori and two other routes and the retreat of two routes such as the Nishikimachi line.In addition to full land readjustment, a park or green space at the tip of the terrace will be set up, and three firebreaks and a waterway for fire prevention water will be set up in the center.Water Storage TankSet up.Water-reservoirPlans have been formulated for the development of public areas such as streets and parks, with a width of 25 m and a continuous back boundary line of the remote area in about 2% of the urban area.At that time, it was under the control of the expeditionary force and proceeded as planned, but the famous "Row of apples OfRoadside treeThe activities of junior high school students 1952It starts from (Showa 27).
1950(25)4/13At 17:15, a fire broke out at the eastern end of the city center, Higashimachi Nagisa by the sea, and the central part of the hot spring town 10.1ha and the city hall were destroyed by fire.At that time, the mayor, Ch'u-Okizuki, went to the Diet with all the members of the city council, rented the minister's office and held a city council, and made a painstaking reconstruction plan.Whole city 13.7 km2Was planned as a city planning area, and land readjustment was planned to be about 13.2 ha in the center of the disaster area and 1.0 ha in the station area.Ginza-dori and Kaigan-dori with a T-shaped extension of 420 m were set up in the Kobo area, and the Firebreak Promotion Law was applied to 15 m from the center of the road as a firebreak, and semi-defense areas were designated in most urban areas.Initially, Ginza-dori was planned to have a width of 15 m and semi-fire protection along the road, but due to opposition to widening in the souvenir shop area, the width will be 9 m and the roadside armor area.Same year8/1"Atami International Tourism Hot Spring Cultural City Construction Law" is promulgated.Atami hasn't had a big fire since the Meiji era, even during the warAir raidEven after the war, probably because I didn't receive itTroopsThe number of resorts and tourists increased, but it was crowded.Hot spring innThere were many wooden buildings such as.There was no replacement site and the road expansion and new construction did not go as planned, and even after the fire, Japanese styleWooden constructionThere is an opinion that the reconstruction was partial and coping because there was a commitment to the area, a green zone could not be secured in the center, and Ginza-dori was 9 m wide and there was no sidewalk.Atami StationDue to two big fires in the surrounding area, the traffic in front of the station is being improved by the reconstruction land readjustment project.Traffic jamThe traffic was paralyzed and it became a hindrance to the lives of tourists and local residents.Atami MonorailWas planned to be installed, but it was not realized.
1951(Showa 26)Odawara cityThere was a large fire with a burnt area of 2.8 ha in the Mannen district (currently Hamacho 1951-chome), and a Mannen land readjustment project including the surrounding area is being implemented as a reconstruction measure. Has been conducting business four times since 4Odate CityEach time, a large area of the city was burned down, and the total project area was 67 hectares. 1955(Showa 30),AmamiThen, in the wake of the big fire in the city of Naze, the city is being improved by a land readjustment project in earnest.
1952 year (Showa 27 year)4/1714:55,Tottori CityThe southernmost point ofTottori StationA fire broke out near the municipal hot springs at the southern end of the city.Tottori Great FireThen.steam locomotiveCaused by the impetigoFern phenomenonThe strong wind below burned down the city area, causing damage of 50 tsubo (165ha).Next time4/1815:XNUMXMinistry of ConstructionThe director of the planning bureau and below arrived fromTottori・ In consultation with the city, the "Tottori City Fire Reconstruction Measures Guidelines" have been established.The policy of the reconstruction plan is
- Implementation of land readjustment project of about 55 tsubo
- Wakasakura HighwayとFukuro RiverDivide the city into 4 parts on the fire prevention track
- Cemetery relocation and graveyard park construction
- Incombustibility of government offices, schools, etc.
It is supposed that the business will be carried out in 3 years.Although it was before the approval, we immediately ordered a basic survey from a surveying company in Tokyo for land readjustment, and also about the replacement land design.HyogoWas outsourced to a company in Tokyo, and each company mobilized dozens of people to start work.1 (Showa 1952) with the results of a survey about a week after the great fire4/26Attached to the city planning Tottori local council,5/2ToMinister of ConstructionAn enforcement order was issued to the prefecture and city after receiving the notification.After that, it is said that there were many difficulties such as eviction of barracks, measures for burnt-out buildings, and proceedings.The famous thing in this business is "Fireproof building zoneThe city was divided into 4 blocks by highways and rivers to make the roadside incombustible.this is"Fireproof Building Promotion Law"byFireproof building belt construction businessIt was also the first issue of.Reconstruction of Tottori fire 1943(Showa 18)Tottori earthquakeIt seems that it went smoothly from the reflection of the reconstruction of.
1953(28)5/23The Ebetsu Great Fire was a fire in the central area of the town, and the total number of houses burned down was about 250, and the affected population was about 1,300. Therefore, this was an opportunity to eliminate the congestion of houses in the town and to prevent passages and fire prevention in the town block. We immediately responded to the reconstruction with the aim of forming an urban area that coped with disaster prevention by improving water supply.In the reconstruction plan, a park that combines a main street and an evacuation plaza will be placed in place, and the land readjustment implemented by the local government will be announced with the approval of the Minister of Construction.Public land reduction rate 20.9%, residential / non-enforcement area 5.0ha, reservation land reduction is not performed, total project cost 850 million yen, public land rate 48.0%, city planning decision, 1955(30)1/22From 1956(Showa 31) By September, the land was replaced and the city planning road 9 ha (0.9 km) and the section road 0.7 ha (1.4 km) were developed.
1955(30)10/12:55,NiigataA fire broke out from a two-story wooden structure of the Education AgencyNiigata FireThen.typhoonThe city area of 5.8 tsubo (19 ha) was burned down by the strong wind.The Ministry of Construction dispatched four engineers and2 DayIncluding the prefecture and city, we proposed a policy that mainly includes land readjustment and includes fireproof building zones. On the 3rdBuilding Standards LawBuilding restrictions were imposed by Article 84, and the basic policy was decided on the 4th after discussions with the parliament.In addition to improving the street network by land readjustment and landfilling waterways and green areas, securing parks by arranging graveyardsFireproof water tankMake a business plan such as installation of11/21Was approved by the Minister.After that, the business was developed, but what was confusing was the relocation of the graveyard and the conversion to a park. 1957(32)9/10Half of the temples have been reconciled and public notices have been issued.
1956(Showa 31)Typhoon No. 31 in 12Fern phenomenonOn the Sea of Japan sideNoshiro City-Ashihara Town-Odate City-Uozu OfUozu Great FireA series of large fires broke out, and reconstruction was swiftly carried out, mainly for land readjustment projects.UozuExperienced a big fire in the western part of the city in 1943, and the Chuo-dori shopping street and Muraki district were redeveloped after being destroyed by the big fire.Noshiro City burned 1949 ha in 24 (Showa 83), and burned 1956 ha in 31 (Showa 31.5).After this, Noshiro City has become a city with most of the urban area today as a result of promoting land readjustment projects, including non-burnt land.
1957In (32), a fire broke out at Kyuzo-koji at around 0:50 in Niigata Prefecture's diversion town, and the fire spread due to a gust of wind 12 m southwest of the occasion, and most of Honmachi, Sakaemachi Asahimachi, and Otake became charred. The Jizo-do Great Fire was crowded with houses, and the inconvenience of water use, the shortage of fire extinguishing machines, the deterioration of weather conditions, and the adverse conditions combined.For this reason, a large fire reconstruction land readjustment project was approved, and roads in the city area were improved.
1961In (Showa 36), an arson caused a large-scale fire and more than 1000 buildings were completely destroyed.AomoriHachinohe CityShiragin-cho OfSilver fireA land readjustment project was carried out for the purpose of disaster recovery, and the current land and address were displayed.
1965In (40), Izu OshimaOshima Great FireAs a result, Motomachi was almost completely destroyed or destroyed, and the land readjustment was carried out by the reconstruction project in Tokyo, and the town was reconstructed as a modern new town.
1971I came to (Showa 46)Tottori StationIn the previous big fire, the land readjustment project was not started until the end, and as a result, the area around Tottori Station was reorganized, and from here, road maintenance in the city area and continuous grade crossing of the station were promoted, and infrastructure development in the central city area Is mostly completed in the 50s.
1976(51)10/29Around 17:40Sakata CityIn a corner of downtownMovie theaterFire broke out fromSakata Great FireThen 15.2 ha disappeared.Embers smolder31 DayWith the Ministry of Construction at the city hall from early morningYamagata, Sakata City City Planning Division and others started work on reconstruction city planning, and after all-night work, three days after the fire11/1The outline of the plan to create a city for reconstruction in the middle of the night has been completed.The original draft of this reconstruction plan was announced to the public one week after obtaining the approval of the Sakata City City Planning Council. Aiming at "construction of disaster prevention city", maintenance of trunk roads, modern charmShopping districtAlthough the formation of the building and the improvement of the living environment of the residential area are mentioned, the land readjustment project is applied to the whole area, and the system of the shopping area modernization project is used for the shopping area, and the building is retracted 1.5 m from the road to 1.5 m minuteseavesTo the city road and widen the sidewalk, which is unprecedented in the whole countryShopping mallWas completed, and the area of the western block, about 1.2 ha, was redeveloped into an urban area. 1977(52)4/21A preparatory union will be established in December and construction will begin in December.In this way, a quick reconstruction city was created,AutomobileSoon due to the spread of the economy and changes in the economic environmentCentral commercial slumpとSuburbanizationThe flow is rushing.
またGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeLand readjustment projects are also being carried out during the reconstruction of such projects.
Examples other than disaster recovery
OsakaThen, from early on, independently 1871In (Meiji 4), the Osaka Prefectural Ordinance started with "Roads are narrow and Narasim is possible", and in cooperation with municipalities, "Road width adjustment" was implemented as a street project until 1940 (Showa 15). Continued.Also 1910The Imamiya Daiichi cultivated land consolidation project in the prefecture, which was implemented in (Meiji 43), was the first residential land in Japan.Cultivated land consolidation businessWas carried out.Arrangement of arable landThe business itself 1870In (Meiji 3), the presentShizuokaFukuroi(OldIwata-gunTahara) Of HikoshimaTaro NaguraHowever, the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce will start subsidizing cultivated land consolidation. 1908This is from (Meiji 41).for that reasonSaitamaIs 1901A subsidy was issued independently from (Meiji 34), and this was to start construction of cultivated land in Konosu Town and Joko Village in the prefecture in the same year, and the method used at this time was called the Konosu method and has been used nationwide since then. Was done.The cultivated land consolidation method 1905Revised in (Meiji 38) to expand the scope of business to irrigation drainage business 1909(Meiji 42) In the revision of the law, irrigation drainage was the main purpose.In addition to this before the warHiroshimaIsKureSo, with the construction of the Navy facility, 1887In addition to enacting a prefectural ordinance called the Kure Port House Restriction Law in (Meiji 20), we set up personnel to be city readjustment commercial staff in local villages, established city building adjustment rules, and land readjustment based on this. 1898The project is expected to be completed in (Meiji 31).
In addition,Emerging industrial cityPlans and military city plans (KanagawaSagamihara CityThe city of Tokyo will be responsible for the implementation of public organizations such as station fronts, etc. 1930From (Showa 5) to 1943 (Showa 18), a city planning decision was made on a living road network with a width of 8 to 15 m and a total length of 146 km throughout the suburbs, and land readjustment projects were encouraged.As a result, the area around the station, including the station square of the suburban train station, will be improved.Nerima-kuHeiwadai,HikawadaiThe development of narrow street networks has progressed in districts and other areas.
Land readjustment project 1919The old City Planning Act enacted (Taisho 8) stipulated legal commercialization, but the old law stipulated that Article 12 would enforce individuals and unions, and Article 13 would enforce public organizations.Tadashi Oguri wrote his own book, "History of Land Readjustment and Legal System" (Iwaomatsudo Bookstore, 1935 (Showa 10)), and the old law was enacted and the business to which Article 13 was first applied was approved in 1929 (Showa 4). ofToyamaJinzu RiverThe land readjustment of the abandoned river site. In 1883 (Meiji 16), Toyama Prefecture was born after being separated from Ishikawa Prefecture in the wake of the flood problem.In Toyama City, the river channel of the Jinzu River at that time was greatly bent to the east and caused a flood, so a Dutch engineer in the second renovation of the Jinzu River from 1901 (Meiji 34).Johannis de RijkeIn response to the proposal, a straight drainage channel was constructed by creating a narrow channel with a width of 2 meters and a depth of 1.5 meters, and by shaving the earth and sand with the force of the flood to create a new river channel.As a result of this construction, around 1922 (Taisho 11), the current river channel, the former Jinzu River, was changed to the new Jinzu River.However, the old river channel will remain in the form of dividing the city of Toyama, which will be a major obstacle to the development of the city.For this reason, the prefecture was further established in 1928 (Showa 3).Fuiwa CanalTo attract factories along the river, reclaim the site of the Jinzu River with the earth and sand dug in the canal to improve the new city area, and use the remaining earth and sandHigashiiwase PortAn epoch-making city planning decision was made and implemented, such as the development of a quay and a wharf site.This project will be the first city planning project in Toyama Prefecture, and will be constructed from 1930 (Showa 5).
Other than that, the main focus is on cultivated land maintenance, and a union will be established to carry out the project.As a result, the roads will be improved and an orderly cityscape will be created by the efforts of the people who have contributed to the project.Many methods were used in which the union purchased the land, maintained it, and then sold it to the owner.
OsakaThen.Osaka StationIn the narrow area in front of the station, which is about 4ha in front, the building site will be improved by creating a station square and rearranging undersized residential land.
1937After (Showa 12), the land readjustment project will be further utilized for the new industrial city construction project and the redevelopment in front of the station as a means of regional development based on the national land plan under the wartime system, and the enforcement of public organizations will increase.However, in these projects before the "Land Readjustment Act" was enacted in 1954 (Showa 29), the land readjustment law was applied mutatis mutandis to the old City Planning Act.
1949 (Showa 24)Shaup tax recommendationBy the next yearLocal tax lawHas been amended,City planning taxWas abolished once, but it was revived by the revision of the Local Tax Law in April 1956 (Showa 31).Property taxSince it is added only to the tax collection range, it will not be a powerful source of revenue.For this reason, in March 1956 (Showa 31)Road Maintenance Special Measures Lawと 1958(Showa 33) DecemberRoad maintenance emergency measures lawInstitutionalized inGasoline taxとRoad maintenance special accountBecame a leading source of financial resources for urban development. 1957(32) July The Ministry of Construction Planning Bureau Director's Circular "About Urban Remodeling Project" stipulates the basic policy of urban remodeling project, but land readjustment project for the purpose of street maintenance with a width of 7 m or more in an area of 5 ha or more Is to be enforced.In this way, after the urban remodeling project was established, in 11 (Showa 1956), the second Hanshin National Highway (National Route 43・ Hamate trunk line) With Hamate land readjustment project for maintenanceTokyo StationThe Yaesu exit area maintenance project for the Yaesu exit station square has started to improve the plaza. From 1957 (Showa 32)Hakata StationSurrounding areaNagoya StationSince the adoption of four districts, including the west exit district, land readjustment projects centered on road maintenance will be carried out at national expense.
Recent business trends
After the warBubble periodThe land readjustment projects up to now, especially in the case of union enforcement, are more social than pure business effects under the social situation of Japan's high economic growth.inflationIt can be said that it has developed due to the stable business operation that depends on the rise in land prices and the motivation that comes from the expectation of the right holder's interest interception.
However, in the low growth period after the bubble period,DeflationDue to the fall in land prices and sluggish sales of reserved land, some unions have found it difficult to secure business profitability, and in some cases they have fallen into bankruptcy.Reconstruction measures such as levy collection from landowners may be taken in these unions, but actual collection is often difficult, and some unions have applied for legal arrangements such as specific mediation and civil rehabilitation. ..However, not all unions have collapsed, and many unions are conducting proper business operations and many businesses are proceeding smoothly due to the recent trend of land price recovery.In any case, it can be said that the land readjustment project (especially the union enforcement) has a balance structure that is easily affected by the external economy, and it is a turning point to build a business structure under a low-growth economic situation. It is thought that it is.
Impact on asset value
The enforcer explained, "Even if the land area is reduced due to the decrease in steps, the asset value will not decrease because the surrounding infrastructure will be improved and the land use value will increase and the land price will also increase." In many cases.However, due to deflation, which is a factor outside the business, land prices may fall and the asset value may decrease as a result.On the other hand, in some cases, the asset value of the entire residential land after the reorganization may decrease compared to before the reorganization due to factors within the project alone (in the case of areas where the land price cannot be expected to rise even after the project).In this case, according to the provisions of Article 109 of the Land Readjustment ActDepreciation compensationHowever, in practice, instead of issuing the depreciation compensation before the arrangement, the method of pre-purchasing the residential land is used.It is thought that the decrease in the number of residential land can be mitigated by purchasing in advance, and the asset value of the residential land after the consolidation can be prevented from decreasing compared to before the consolidation.
Hamamatsu / Kamijima Station area readjustment proceedings
Hamamatsu cityNaka-ku(Suzuki YasutomoMayor)Kamijima StationA landowner who opposes the surrounding land readjustment project appealed to the city to cancel the business plan decisionAdministrative litigationAt the appeal,Supreme CourtEn banc 2008(20)9/10, Decided that the business plan decision is an administrative disposition, "Business plan decisions are not considered administrative sanctions and no revocation proceedings are allowed." 1966(Showa 41) The Supreme Court case was changed.However, the Supreme Court's decision is a decision that abandons the lower court decision that was dismissed as having no litigation requirements and remanded it to the first trial in order to have a substantive trial, and did not judge the propriety of the city plan itself. Therefore, as a representative of the city hall, Kunihiro Shibata, the director of the city planning department, announced that he would continue and implement the project, saying, "We will proceed with the project quietly."By changing the case law, it is possible to file an action to cancel the plan decision at an early stage for the land readjustment project, so it is possible to suspend unnecessary public works projects at the will of the residents and activate the check function for the judicial administration at an early stage. become able to..The first trial of remand was held at the Shizuoka District Court on February 23, 2, and the district court decided on the business plan of Hamamatsu City.DiscretionThe landowner lost the case, saying that it was not a deviation or abuse of.
Even if you try to improve the cityscape in a dense area in front of the station, the site may already be small and it may be difficult to reduce the number of steps, or there may be many land lease holders and the rights relationship may be complicated.For this reason, a system is conceivable in which a medium-to-high-rise redevelopment building (facility building) is constructed in a relatively small area, and the right holder is moved into the building to promote advanced use of the land.Urban remodeling method( 1961(Showa 36)),Urban redevelopment law( 1979(54)) was enacted.
- ^ According to Article 1923 of the "Adikes Law" (November 11), Planning Bureau of the Imperial Capital Reconstruction Institute.
- ^ Architectural Institute of Japan, "History of Modern Japanese Architecture Development" p.1023
- ^ Maximum size September 20, 9 10 (Gyohi) 17.
- ^ Kyodo News (September 2008, 9). “Hamamatsu residents win rezoning challenge”. Japan Times 2008/10/12Browse.
- List of land readjustment projects
- Building Standards Law
- City planning - Urban design
- Urban redevelopment
- Land ownership survey
- Arrangement of arable land
- Integrated land readjustment project
- Business agency land readjustment business
- Staged land readjustment project
- Requested land readjustment project
- Urban remodeling type land readjustment project
- Private land readjustment emergency promotion project
- Large district method land readjustment project
- Consent enforcement type land readjustment project
- Chained land readjustment project
- Hometown face making model land readjustment project
- Land readjustment project --Urban Development Division, City Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- Land readjustment project operation guideline: December 13: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- Town development land readjustment association
- All Japan Land Readjustment Association
- Land readjustment promotion mechanism
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