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👩‍🎓 | Japan Alliance of University Library Consortium agrees with Elsevier to support open access


Japan Alliance of University Library Consortium agrees with Elsevier to support open access

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Seiji Hosokawa, Chairman of the Japan Alliance of University Library Consortium, said, "We received a proposal from Elsevier in line with the consortium's open access goals.

The Japan Alliance of University Library Consortium is a subscription to promote open access with the international information analysis company Elsevier ... → Continue reading

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Open access

Open access(British: open access,OA) Is a term mainly used for the provision of academic information. In a broad sense, it is academic information, and in a narrow sense, it is.Peer reviewDoneAcademic magazineThe paper published inインターネットを通じて誰もが無料で閲覧可能な状態に置くことを指す。また、Creative commonsのライセンスなどを用いた自由な再利用を認めることも定義の一つに含まれることが多い。1990 era, By a major publisherAcademic magazineThe oligopoly of the market and soaring prices continued.In response to this, there is a movement toward free sharing of academics.2001年Meetings held in Japan and based on them2002年に公開された文書である Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) によって方向づけられた理念および運動である。BOAI ではオープンアクセス達成の方法として、研究者によるSelf-archiving(Green Road) and Gold Road to be posted to open access journals.

2007年The end of theアメリカ合衆国so,National Institutes of Health The results of research budgeted by (NIH) have been addressed worldwide, including by law requiring that the public be able to access them free of charge within one year of publication. Is underway.


Open access is to make academic information such as treatises freely available on the Internet.[1][2]..There is a typical definition called the BBB Declaration.[3].. BBBBudapest,Bethesda,BerlinIt is an acronym for three place names related to the conference about open access.The oldest definition is(English edition) By (BOAI)[Note 1]In 20022/14Published in, the most well-known definition of open access[4][5]..Bethesda Declaration[Note 2] TheMaryland(English edition)It is inHoward Hughes Medical InstituteBased on the meeting2003年It was announced in May.National Institutes of HealthNamed Bethesda Declaration from its location[4]..Berlin Declaration[Note 3]Was adopted in October 2003[4].

The definition of open access has a broadly common understanding, but the details vary from person to person.[6].. According to BOAI's definition, "It is available free of charge on the Internet open to the public, and can be viewed, downloaded, copied, distributed, printed, searched, linked to full-text articles, crawling for indexing, and imported as data into software. , Other use for legitimate purposes is permitted to anyone without financial, legal or technical barriers other than access to the Internet itself and inseparable barriers. "[7]、日本国内ではオープンアクセスと言うと「無料で閲覧できる論文」とフリーアクセスと混同されがちであるが、法的制限のない、自由な再利用についてもオープンアクセスの定義とされている[8]..In this way, some allow copying and distribution, including commercial use, while others consider it open access as long as it is published for free on their website.[6]..In addition, there are differences in whether information published free of charge is limited to peer-reviewed academic journal articles or handles academic information in general.[6].


As a means to achieve open access, academic journals that make published papers open access (Open access journal) Or by the researcher's own handsWEB siteAndInstitutional repositoryPublish onSelf-archivingThere is a method.The former is called Gold Open Access (Gold Road) and the latter is called Green Open Access (Green Road).

ゴールドロード(Gold Road)

オープンアクセス以前の従来の学術雑誌では、料金を支払うのは読者の側であったが、オープンアクセスジャーナルでは 論文掲載料(Article Processing Charge ; APC[Note 4])という費用を著者(研究者)が支払うことによって出版費用をまかない、読者が無料で閲覧できるようにしているものが多い。研究機関や学会が出版経費を負担することもあり、この場合は著者・読者ともに費用を払う必要がない[9]..In some cases, universities and research institutes provide subsidies to cover part of the cost, if not the full amount.[10]. JapaneseJapan Science and Technology Agency Operated by (JST) J-STAGE Although it is published in the subscription type journal like, there are cases where it is published for free on the WEB.[11]..However, it is arguable whether a form like J-STAGE can be called open access.[12]. Also (English edition) Etc. are exempt from some or all of the cost so that researchers in low-income countries can also post[13][14]..To be published in these open access magazinesGold open accessCall[4]。他にも、従来の購読型学術雑誌であるが著者が費用を払うことによって、その論文をオープンアクセスにすることができる雑誌も存在し、これはHybrid journal,Hybrid open accessと 呼 ば れ る[15]。ただし、ハイブリッド型は料金の読者・著者からの二重取りの問題もあり、純粋なオープンアクセスとは言えないのではないかという意見もある[16].

There is also a method of publishing treatises that have passed a certain period of time online for free, which isEmbargoIt is called.Depending on the researcher, both hybrid and embargo may be included in Gold Open Access.[17]Is one of the leaders in open access(English edition)Some people, such as Embergo, do not accept open access if they are free.[18][12].

グリーンロード(Green Road)

Regardless of publication in open access magazineSelf-archivingOpen access can also be achieved by doing.this isGreen open accessと 呼 ば れ る[4]..What is self-archiving?Institutional repositoryIt means that it will be published online for free, such as on the websites of researchers and researchers, and as an archive destinationarXiv ,National Institutes of Health (NIH) PMC Is famous.In the field of physics, the mechanism of sharing preprints, which are pre-published papers, and receiving feedback from researchers in the field has become established as a culture.[19], ArXiv is one of the successful cases of open access[20]..However, the culture of preprint sharing has not been established because of fear of being overtaken in highly competitive fields, such as biomedical fields.[21][22]..In addition, the published papers are often copyrighted by the publisher, and reprinting to other journals is naturally not permitted, which is a big problem in terms of free use.[23][24].

back ground

Second World WarSubsequent research grants and higher education support on behalf of the USSR have increased the number of researchers and the number of academic treatises and journals.[25]..The increase in scholarly articles has led to an increase in the editing process and publishing costs in scholarly journals.In addition to this, the price of academic journals soared due to the oligopoly of the market due to mergers and acquisitions of the publishing industry.[26].1970年The price of academic journals is about 10 every year%It continued to rise, which was larger than the increase in the purchase budget of university libraries.1990年It was a big problem by then[27]..Some libraries have unsubscribed, which has led to further price increases.(English edition)Is a problem called[28]..Due to the influence of this serials crisis at Japanese national universities, the acceptance of overseas magazines has dropped sharply since 1990.[29]..The university library has established a group purchasing system and tried to overcome this difficult situation.Around this time, the number of electronic journals began to increase with the development of the Internet, and contracts called big deals (comprehensive contract method) were actively signed.[29]..A big deal is a contract that allows you to access all or most of the e-journals published by a publisher, allowing you to browse a large number of e-journals for a small fee.It was touted as the savior of the Serials Crisis because the unit price per treatise was cheaper and even a small library could access the same materials as a large library.[29][28].

However, signing a big deal contract entails large fixed costs, resulting in inflexible budgets.When it comes to large institutions, even a single big deal deal can cost millions of dollars.[30]..Big deals also put pressure on library material purchase costs and adversely affect non-journal purchases.In particular, it has a great influence on humanities research where publishing rather than journals is common.[30].. actuallyHitotsubashi University LibraryHas canceled the e-journal contract, partly because the budget for books was squeezed by the purchase cost of the e-journal.[31]..Moreover, despite the high price of the contract, it is not possible to cancel some titles to save budget, and it is a minus point that it becomes "all or nothing".[32]..Journalist Richard Pointer, who is deeply involved in open access, describes the big deal as a "cuckoo," saying, "The cuckoo, once in the nest, eats food and kicks out other chicks." Pointing out the danger of deals[33]..In the end, the Big Deal was only a temporary stop and did not become the savior of the Serials Crisis.[34].

In an attempt to overcome the oligopoly of academic journals and soaring prices, which hinders the free distribution of research results.1994年, Stephen Harnad on the mailing list(English edition)[Note 5]I posted a sentence entitled "[36]..Researchers "overthrow" the publisher-dominated regimeSelf-archivingHe explained that it should be the way to publish a treatise using[37][19][38]..Hanad's example of self-archiving was the E-print archive. In 1991Los Alamos Institute OfPaul GinspargThe E-print archive, started by, is a field of physics.Preprint serverAnd the submitted treatise was freely available[39]..For researchers, the idea that publishing a treatise is to make their research known to the world and to raise their reputation as a researcher, not to seek profits, is the basis of Harnad's proposal. Was a thing[40]..Hanad's proposal was well received and summarized in a book.Pointer cites Harnad's proposal as the starting point for open access.[41][38].

In the history of open access SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) is also known as an important source[38].. SPARC is(English edition) (Association of Research Libraries, ARL) was founded in 1998 to counter commercial publishers, dissatisfied with rising prices and oligopoly of the market, and was initially the main activity of publishing competing magazines.[38]..The aim was to reduce the price of existing journals by the principle of competition.[40].ElsevierAs a counter magazine to Tetrahedron LettersAmerican Chemical SocietyOrganic Letters, which was launched in collaboration with the company, was a great success, but it did not reach the price reduction that was aimed at, and it did not shake the existing major publishers.[42][40].

Harold varmusPlays a central role2000å¹´To PLoS (Public Library of Science) was launched. PLoS requires commercial publishers to submit their treatises to public archives within six months of publication, and if they do not comply, submit, subscribe, etc.boycottMade a statement to do[42].. Despite signatures from more than 3 researchers, no publisher or boycott responded.[39].

2001å¹´December, the first international conference on open accessBudapestIt was held in.The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), published in 2002 based on this conference, was a major turning point that was said to have spread the term open access and provided a theoretical foundation for open access.[43][44][45].. BOAI presents BOAI-I (Green Road) and BOAI-II (Gold Road) on how to realize open access. BOAI-I is a self-archiving method that uses its own website and institutional repositories, and is a method strongly advocated by Harnad. BOAI-II is a way to achieve open access by publishing open access journals[46].

Around this2000å¹´BioMed Central, the first open access publisher, was founded in2003å¹´PLoS also publishes the open access magazine PLoS Biology.[47]..There is no established theory as to which is the first open access journal, but in a broader sense, the world's first electronic journal "New Horizons in Adult Education" is the oldest open access journal, and in a narrow sense Florida. It is believed that the origin of the "Florida Entomologist" of the Insect Society was the start of a service in 1994 that led to the subsequent open access journals, in which the author paid the cost and the reader could read it for free.[47][9].

Since then, the open access movement has been steadily expanding its market share, despite various criticisms, and major commercial publishers are also entering the market.In addition, a type of open access journal called a mega journal has also been born.[48].

Response of government and subsidized organizations

National Institutes of Health (NIH) is2004年The results of research conducted with the support of NIH PMC Has issued a recommendation that it should be released for free.Despite the backlash from the publishing industry, the recommendation came into effect on May 2005, 5.[49]..But it wasn't mandatory, so even after two years, only 2% had registered their treatises.In response to this situation, the mandatory bill was pushed forward,ブ ッ シ ュThe president sometimes vetoed because of excess spending, but the bill was passed in 2007 and the research was funded.Public accessBecame obligatory[50][49][51].. The NIH idea also influenced other funding agencies and spread the idea that publicly funded outcomes should be made public.However, this is not a voluntary idea of ​​NIH, but a result of SPARC and others working to promote open access.[51]..There is also a lot of opposition from commercial publishers, and Elsevier and others have billed in 2011 to invalidate this obligation. Research Works Act (HR3699[52]) Is submitted[53][54]..In the UK, governments and public funding agencies recommend open access, and in 2012, the so-called Finch Report published by the UK's Research Information Network (RIN) received attention.The Finch Report makes 10 recommendations for achieving open access, promoting gold roads rather than green roads, namely open access journals and hybrid journals, due to reusability and embargo duration issues.[23][55]..In response, the Research Councils UK (RCUK) has announced a mandatory policy for funded research.[10]..The Finch Report has also been criticized for being gold-focused[56][57].. Publicly funded research in the EU is also moving to mandate open access[10].

SwissCERN(European Organization for Nuclear Research) is playing a central role in SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics) is an international project aimed at making academic papers open access in the field of high energy physics. SCOAP3The open access method that is aimed at is to transfer the subscription fee paid by institutions such as universities to the cost of publishing magazines.This allows authors to achieve open access at no cost.The operation of the project started in January 2014[58][59].


[How to use footnotes]


  1. ^ "10 years from the Budapest Open Access Initiative: Default value set to "Open"”. Budapest Open Access Initiative (September 2012, 9). 2015/4/11Browse.
  2. ^ "Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing”. (June 2003, 6). 2015/4/11Browse.
  3. ^ "Berlin Declaration". Max Planck Institute. 2015/4/11Browse.
  4. ^ Abbreviation for Article Processing / Publication Charge.Also with treatise processing costs.Detail isOpen access journalchecking ...
  5. ^ Overthrow plan[19], Destructive proposal[35]Tomo.


  1. ^ "Statement on open access". Ministry of education (September 2009, 3). 2015/4/11Browse.
  2. ^ "Open access special site". Okayama University. 2015/4/11Browse.
  3. ^ Shinji Mine (2009-10). “New term in the age of electronic journals“ Open access: From the standpoint of university libraries ””. SPARC Japan news letter (National Institute of Informatics) 2: 5. NOT 110007473258. https://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/publications/newsletter/html/2/topics1.html 2015/4/11Browse.. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Kuriyama 2010, P. 139.
  5. ^ "What is open access?". Kyoto University. 2015/4/11Browse.
  6. ^ a b c Kurata 2007, pp. 146-147.
  7. ^ "10 years from the Budapest Open Access Initiative: Default value set to "Open"”. Budapest Open Access Initiative (September 2012, 9). 2015/4/11Browse.
  8. ^ Sato 2013, P. 415.
  9. ^ a b National University Library Association Academic Information Committee Academic Information Distribution Study Subcommittee 2014, P. 5.
  10. ^ a b c Yokoi 2013, pp. 149-150.
  11. ^ Kurata 2007, P. 161.
  12. ^ a b Keiko Kurata (2012-08). “How far has Open Access progressed? (2) How has open access been realized?” (PDF). SPARC Japan news letter (National Institute of Informatics) 14: 6. NOT 110009444471. http://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/publications/newsletter/pdfper/14/sj-NewsLetter-14-3.pdf 2015/4/11Browse.. 
  13. ^ Nato Ishii (2012-01). “Commercial publisher open access strategy”. SPARC Japan news letter (National Institute of Informatics) 11: 3. NOT 110008790863. https://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/publications/newsletter/html/11/fa1.html 2015/4/11Browse.. 
  14. ^ "BioMed Central Open Access Publishing in 5th SPARC Japan Seminar 2009 "Open Access Business Model and Researcher Practice" (PDF)". National Institute of Informatics. p. 2 (August 2009, 10). 2015/4/11Browse.
  15. ^ Yokoi 2013, P. 144
  16. ^ Shigeki Sugita (2012-08). “How far has Open Access progressed? (1) Proposal to overthrow open access mega journals and scholarly publishing systems”. SPARC Japan news letter (National Institute of Informatics) 14: 3. NOT 110009444464. http://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/publications/newsletter/pdfper/14/sj-NewsLetter-14-2.pdf 2015/4/11Browse.. 
  17. ^ Yokoi 2013, P. 145.
  18. ^ Kurata 2007, P. 162.
  19. ^ a b c Sato 2013, P. 416.
  20. ^ Edited by Ueda and Kurata 2013, P. 105.
  21. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (2013-03-27). “Open access: The true cost of science publishing”. Nature (Nature) 495 (7442): 428. two:10.1038 / 495426a. 
  22. ^ Tokimi 2005, P. 424.
  23. ^ a b Sato 2013, P. 419.
  24. ^ Kurata 2007, pp. 165-167.
  25. ^ Edited by Ueda and Kurata 2013, pp. 97-98.
  26. ^ Meikabushi, Seisadachikai, Hajime Yamada "Trends in Science Communication-Situations Surrounding Scientific Journals-"Science and Technology Trends November 2001" Volume 11, Science and Technology Policy Research Institute Science and Technology Trends Research Center, November 8, pp. 2001-11, ISSN 13493663.
  27. ^ Yoshinori Sato "Serials Crisis and Scholarly Communication Present: Summary and Challenges"Information Management," Vol. 53, No. 12, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2011, pp. 680-683, two:10.1241 / johokanri.53.680.
  28. ^ a b Pointer 2011, P. 1.
  29. ^ a b c Koichi Ojo (2010-05). “Is the Big Deal the Best Contract Model for Universities?”. SPARC Japan news letter (National Institute of Informatics) 5: 1-3. NOT 110007572475. http://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/publications/newsletter/pdfper/5/sj-NewsLetter-5-2.pdf 2015/4/11Browse.. 
  30. ^ a b Pointer 2011, P. 5.
  31. ^ Kurata 2007, P. 132.
  32. ^ Kurata 2007, P. 129.
  33. ^ Pointer 2011, pp. 5-6.
  34. ^ Pointer 2011, P. 15.
  35. ^ Kuriyama 2010, P. 138.
  36. ^ National University Library Association Academic Information Committee Academic Information Distribution Study Subcommittee 2014, P. 4.
  37. ^ Stephen Harnad (September 2011, 9). “THE SUBVERSIVE PROPOSAL (Stevan Harnad (1994)) Japanese translation”. Digital Repository Union. 2015/4/12Browse.
  38. ^ a b c d Kurata 2007, P. 150.
  39. ^ a b Kurata 2007, P. 151.
  40. ^ a b c Masamitsu Kuriyama (2005). “Library Magazine November 2005 Issue Manuscript Institutional Repository-A New Challenge for University Libraries-”. Library magazine (Japan Library Association) 99 (11): 778. ISSN 0385-4000. 
  41. ^ "Pointer's Perspective: After 10 Years”. National Institute of Informatics. 2015/4/12Browse.
  42. ^ a b Tokimi 2005, P. 421.
  43. ^ Okabe, Shinnori et al. (2011). “Budapest Open Access Initiative ideological background and its acceptance”. Journal of Japan Society of Information and Knowledge 21 (3): 333-349. two:10.2964 / jsik.21-032. ISSN 09171436. NOT 10029478981. https://hdl.handle.net/2241/114775. 
  44. ^ Keiko Kurata (2011). “Open Access Philosophy and Current Situation” (PDF). Media Education and Research (Open UniversityICT Utilization / Distance Education Center) 7 (2): 43. ISSN 1884-6777. http://k-ris.keio.ac.jp/Profiles/62/0006104/details_e4152004570041.pdf. 
  45. ^ Tokimi 2005, P. 422.
  46. ^ Kurata 2007, P. 152.
  47. ^ a b Shinji Mine (2007-08). “Current status of open access journals”. University library research (University Library Research Editorial Board) 80: 55. NOT 110007571864. 
  48. ^ Edited by Ueda and Kurata 2013, pp. 102-104.
  49. ^ a b Kazuko Takagi (2011-02-28). “Open Access (OA) Policy of Research Grant Institutions: Status of Each Country”. Kokubun Mejiro (Japan Women's University) 50: 57. NOT 110008921552. 
  50. ^ "A bill was enacted that included the mandatory public access policy of NIH”. National Diet Library (December 2007, 12). 2015/4/13Browse.
  51. ^ a b Sato 2013, P. 417.
  52. ^ "HR3699 --112th Congress (2011-2012): Research Works Act". Library of Congress (September 2015, 4). 2015/4/13Browse.
  53. ^ Sato 2013, P. 418.
  54. ^ "Why Elsevier receives a boycott". Keio University. 2015/4/13Browse.
  55. ^ National University Library Association Academic Information Committee Academic Information Distribution Review Subcommittee (2013-06) (PDF). To sort out the current status and issues of academic information distribution-Report of examination- (Report). Japan Association of National University Libraries. P. 12. http://www.janul.jp/j/projects/si/gkjhoukoku201306b.pdf 2015/4/10Browse.. 
  56. ^ "Harnad et al. Published a preprint refuting the Finch report, claiming that mandatory self-archiving will affect the rate of publication of articles in institutional repositories.". Current Awareness-R (National Diet Library). (2012-11-02). http://current.ndl.go.jp/node/22239 2015/4/13Browse.. 
  57. ^ “Critiques and recommendations for UK OA policy with a focus on gold OA”. Current Awareness-E (National Diet Library) (E1495). (2013-10-24). http://current.ndl.go.jp/e1495 2015/4/13Browse.. 
  58. ^ “Open access project SCOAP3 started operation in January 2014”. Current Awareness-R (National Diet Library). (2013-12-06). http://current.ndl.go.jp/node/25020 2015/4/12Browse.. 
  59. ^ "SCOAP3”. National Institute of Informatics. 2015/4/12Browse.


Related item

外部 リンク

News / information site

Category / search site

  • DOAJ (English) --Directory of Open Access Journals. A site that summarizes more than 3000 open access journals by category.
  • Open JGate Access (English) --A search site where you can search for articles from over 4000 open access journals.A link to the text of the article is displayed in the search results.
  • DOAB (English) --Directory of Open Access Books.A database of open access books.



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