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👩‍🎓 | Visualize your frustration!Prescription "Anger management" for sharp mom friends


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Visualize your frustration!Prescription "Anger management" for sharp mom friends

 
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"Anger Management" is easy to read in the library and easy to pick up at a reasonable price, but for those who think that it should be a little lighter, "Angry People Picture Book" (written by Shunsuke Ando / Asukashinsha) is also available. recommendation.
 

This project, in which a mama writer at the end of child-rearing cuts off the sickness of child-rearing from a dry perspective.This time I'm angry ... → Continue reading

 Valed Press

Bared (VaLEd.press) is a media that supports the future and curiosity of children together with their parents. Not only for parents who have children who will learn programming and STEM education from now on, but also for children who actually learn and the destination where they must be involved, and for those who want to open a programming class from now on. This refers to a portal site that can deliver information.


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Anger management

Anger managementWhat is (Anger management)?怒 りTo prevent and controlPsychotherapyIt is a program and is evaluated to be able to disperse anger well.[1]..Anger is oftenFrustrationIt is also the result of the feeling when something important to me is blocked or disturbed.Anger is also against the underlying fear and fragilityDefense systemBut also[2]..Anger is considered by the Anger Management Program to be a strong, logically analyzable emotion that arises for definable reasons and can be viewed positively when appropriate.[1].

"Angry is an emotion that everyone experiences. Anger is a serious concern only if it continues to occur too often, intensely, for a long time."-Raymond W. Novako ( 1984)

Overview

"Anyone can get angry. It's easy to get angry ... but it's not easy to get angry with the right person, to the right degree, when, for the right purpose, in the right way. . "- ア リ ス ト テ レ ス

The ultimate goal of Anger management is to manage and control anger so that it does not become a serious problem.Anger is a strong emotion that is evoked in response to something.[3]..The problem of anger arises because neither the inciting side nor the inciting side has the skills and social skills to maintain self-control in interpersonal relationships.[3]..For these people, training their response to anger can make them feel that anger is unnecessary and unpleasant, rather than reacting to the need for anger.[3]..There are ways to switch off anger, such as not seeing it or forgiving it.[3]..Good sleep, exercise, and proper diet are also effective in preventing anger.[3]..As an expert in treating people who can't manage anger wellOccupational therapist, Mental Health Counselor, Drug and Alcohol Counselor,Social worker, Psychologists, psychiatrists, etc.

History

The negative effects of anger have been observed throughout history.Ancient philosophers, religions, and modern psychologists have advised on how to deal with seemingly uncontrollable anger. In de Ira and Seneca the Younger (4th century BC-65 AD) defensively preemptively defend against angry people, gain perspectives from others (think from the other's point of view), and increase anger. I advise you not to let me[4] ..Other philosophersセ ネ カAnd repeats Galeus's teachings, recommending that you get a teacher to help control your anger.[5] ..In the Middle Ages, God acted as an ideal image of self-control and as a mediator of controversies caused by anger.[6]..There are also many stories in the Hagiography that local rulers arbitrate the anger of civilians.The most famous one isSt. Francis of Assisi and GubbioThe story of the figurative wolf.

In modern times, the concept of "controlling anger" has been applied to Anger management programs based on the research of psychologists.Anger management interventions based on classical psychotherapy began in the 1970s.For example, Raymond NovacoCognitive behavioral therapySuccessful treatment of anxiety using intervention by (Congnitive Behavioral Therapy, CBT)Donald MeichenbaumRevised the content of stress immunity training for Anger management under the influence of[7][8]..Since stress and anger are so similar, such modifications could provide a turning point for successful treatment.Both stress and anger arise from external stimuli, are regulated by internal processes, and are expressed in either adaptive or maladaptated form.Meichenbaum and later Novako used each process of experiencing anger-related emotions in order to improve the patient's overall health.

Potential causes of serious problems

Medical cause

Drug addiction,Alcoholism,Mental disorder,PTSD(Post-traumatic stress disorder) can lead to a personality that behaves aggressively towards others.Undesirable consequences can occur if you do not have the high skills to control yourself in the face of aggression.Such problems often occur when anger grows, but they can also behave negatively due to other lesser-known causes.For example, long-term anger, or intense anger,FrustrationMay cause illness such as headache, indigestion, high blood pressure and heart disease.Mental disorders such as anxiety and depression may also cause poor coping with feelings of anger.An outburst of anger may be a way to deal with unhappiness and depression.

MigraineAbout: Frequent migraine headaches may be associated with a degree of aggression and may require anger management. A 2013 study investigated the association between anger problems and migraine in young children (mean 11.2 years).Subjects were categorized as having low / moderate / high / chronic migraine headaches.As a result, it was found that the subjects who suppressed anger and aggression and prevented them from exploding tended to have a higher frequency of migraine.In fact, children who were classified as having less frequent migraine headaches expressed more anger.[9].

Social psychological causes

stress,Abuse, Severe social conditions, poor family circumstances,povertyPsychosocial causes such as can cause anger problems[10].

Trauma (trauma)

Anger management problems can occur if you have trauma, especially sexual trauma.

Type of treatment

Effective anger management techniques include relaxation techniques, careful breathing exercises,Cognitive improvement, Imagery (a treatment that relieves symptoms by relaxing the patient and envisioning various images) (Example: Dr. Stosny's Healing Imagery: Explain to yourself why and why you responded with anger, Treatment to eliminate the stage of comorbidity by adding kindness and compassion to narcissism[11]), Problem solving, communication improvement strategies, interpersonal skills (DEAR MAN & GIVE), etc.[12][13].

The following is a specific form of Anger management treatment based on empirical studies.Some studies have performed old self-report verifications that psychologists may find to be limited.People don't want others to think they're angry, so they may be changing their answers to suit the behavior that society wants.

PREP (Prevention and Relationship Enchantment Program)

PREP (Prevention and Relationship Enchantment Program) is a program used in research on Air Force families.Each family was assigned to either the traditional multi-couple group format (M) or the self-directed book version (SD) by focusing on relationship satisfaction and anger management skills.There was a significant time-related main effect on both relationship satisfaction and anger management skills.Relationship Satisfaction (Before Test: M = 49.8, SD = 17.6; After Test: M = 53.8, SD = 17.6, F (1, 76) = 6.91, p <.01) Anger Management Skills (Before Test: M = 32.2, SD = 4.2; After test: M = 34.6, SD = 4.0, F (1, 74) = 31.79, p <.001)[14].

No positive results were confirmed in the Self-directed book version.Improving couples' Anger management skills can be an essential step in preventing relationship violence.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy(Cognitive Behavioral Therapy = CBT) is often used in Anger management therapy.By opening the patient's emotions and accomplishing certain tasks (in this case, controlling anger), the patient gains cognitive motivation and is better able to use his or her skills for his or her behavior.

In the study, combined therapy with CBT increased the effective use of Anger management techniques, as did participants / patients in other therapies, so that patients could better control their anger. It turned out that I felt that I had become.Such personality changes lead to reduced aggression and can reduce violence.It was also confirmed that the combined use of play therapy is effective in dealing with the problem of anger in children.[15].

Positive mentalization and self-development

This is a method often used in elementary school for students who explode their anger.Researchers investigating why young students get angry have found that a common cause is social maladaptation.The students selected for this study received an hour of daily sessions for a week.Researchers in the mentalization program have used group therapy in positive psychology to educate children and attempt to make them feel happy during their interactions. At the end of the week, the findings showed that there was a negative correlation between anger and social adaptation.This process reduced the overall level of student anger due to social maladaptation.[16].

By using the self-development method (PD), I have come to appreciate myself more and gain high self-esteem.It was confirmed that aggression was a manifestation of low self-reliance, a result of people around them feeling that they did not care or support themselves.Therefore, PD can be said to be an indispensable means for changing the self-awareness of patients.[17].

Keep an Anger Journal (diary about anger)

Understanding one's own emotions is important in learning how to deal with one's anger.Children who actually wrote down their negative emotions in the "Anger Journal" became able to better understand their emotions and gradually became less aggressive.The best way to teach children how to deal with emotions was to give concrete examples of causing a certain level of anger.Understanding why children feel angry can help them avoid such behavior in the future, and knowing the typical cases that cause anger can prepare them for the emotions they will experience.[18].

Although there is not enough evidence to show the need to carry out this method in primary school, the tool is often used in treatment and children write down their negative emotions and anger and their position. You can have time to calm yourself instead of resorting to violence or taking aggressive actions.

Other Evidence-Based Approaches

Intervention by Anger managementCognitive behavioral therapyIt is carried out by a three-step process based on the technique of[19] ..The first thing the patient learns is to identify situations in which feelings of anger can potentially occur.Situations that cause anger are often referred to as "Anger cues".[20]..If you can avoid potential triggers, you can avoid not only unwanted emotional outbursts, but also inner conflicts.Anger often results from automatic thinking and irrational beliefs, which poses a therapeutic problem.Patients may react so quickly that they do not have time to modify their thoughts and beliefs.Wright, Day, Howells and colleagues call this phenomenon "hijacking of the cognitive system by the emotional system."[21]..In the second stage, as an appropriate reaction in a particular situationRelaxation techniqueteach.Common relaxation techniques include adjusting breathing and physically leaving the area.In the third stage, role play is performed as a place of practice so that the technique learned can be used when the patient encounters an angry situation in the future.As a result of repeated practice, you will be able to use the effective techniques you have learned automatically and reactively.[19]..It is also possible to create a special program by modifying each of these general steps.In a different field of psychology, the above three-step process is basically modified based on cognitive behavioral therapy.Group psychotherapy,Family therapy, Relaxation-only therapies, etc. have been widely applied to Anger management programs and have been effective.

Relaxation therapy reduces the perception and motivation to take action and allows you to better control your anger through relaxation.This therapy is effective for various aspects of anger, including physiological, cognitive, behavioral, and sociological aspects.This is because relaxation is formed by combining these aspects, and it is effective in treating anger.[20] .Mindfulness(Awareness) Therapeutic techniques teach patients how to accept physical sensations and emotions.Mindfulness is based on traditional oriental psychotherapy practiced by meditation.Mindfulness (awareness) mainly consists of "self-restraint" and "adaptation to this moment".This therapeutic technique is based on the idea of ​​reflecting meditation and experiencing this moment now without criticism.In reality, the patient breathes carefully, sits and walks while meditating.The purpose is to make the patient understand that the idea of ​​anger is more than a reality.Mindfulness is also a technique used in the relaxation approach.Because this technique can calm the physiological excitement.[21].

Logical emotion therapy(Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy) explains that anger "causes the patient's beliefs and emotions rather than the event itself."The concept of this therapy is to allow the patient to avoid irrational thoughts that cause anger and to reasonably interpret the event.Delayed reaction techniques are used to make patients aware of what they are angry with before putting their anger into action.This technique gives the patient time to correct the angry situation and time to respond to the anger, allowing them to think more rationally.In addition, patients will be able to avoid anti-repressive orders and avoid anger.[22]..For example, when a patient receives an order, he / she will think that he / she should act according to his / her own standards.Studies have shown that as patients better understand Anger management and how it helps their relationships with themselves and others, they are less likely to behave aggressively.

It is difficult to estimate the success rate of anger treatment. "Excessive and serious anger" is not an obstacle recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Illness.This manual is used as a reference for mental health professionals.There are multiple studies comparing treatments for anger, but these studies also state that accurate comparisons are methodologically difficult.What is very clearly proven about the treatment of anger is that it works better with multiple techniques than with a single technique.[23] ..The most successful treatment with a single technique is the relaxation approach.[24] .. Anger management therapy based on CBT therapy has been evaluated by many meta-analyses. A 50 meta-analysis of 1640 studies and 1998 subjects made measurements of anger and aggression to compare the differences between untreated and Anger-managed interventions.It was confirmed that patients who received Anger management intervention had a 67% improvement probability compared to untreated individuals, which was concluded as a significant effect.[19]..In addition, a 2009 meta-analysis made a psychotherapy comparison of 96 studies.As a result, significant improvement was confirmed after receiving an average of 8 sessions, and it was concluded that anger was reduced.[25] ..Overall, completing the Anger Management program appears to show positive long-term changes in patient behavior.Successful intervention can not only reduce the aggression expressed externally, but also the level of internal anger.[26].

Affected people

adult

One of the motivations for needing anger management is career related.Anger management helps in situations where work is potentially angry, both in prevention and correction.One example is an administrator with a subordinate of a mental illness.In addition to day-to-day stress, you may feel a lot of frustration when the work of your subordinates you have to manage is slow or no progress is made.Skill training for managers with dilemmas was developed to deal positively with such frustration.[27].

Anger managementPolicemenIt is also effective for.In the event of a dispute between the police and the private sector, the role of the police officer is to protect the private sector.The purpose of Anger management is to reduce cases in which police take a negative view of their relationship with civilians and act ruthlessly.[28] ..In this case, the content of Anger management may be modified to suit the purpose, focusing on dispute resolution, or adding special law enforcement scenarios to the training.Novaco is the person who realized this need.His originally planned intervention plan by Anger management based on cognitive-behavioral therapy eventually became specialized training for the police.[29].

Couples at risk of marriage failure also need to understand how to deal with partner violence.The more knowledge you have about how to control your anger, the better you will be when you have problems with others.[30].

Children and adolescents

Young children can increase their chances of expressing themselves appropriately if they understand their feelings and how they should react in a particular situation. In a study published in the 2010 Journal of Applied School Psychology, four fourth-grade male students were observed.The children participated with school psychologists in a variety of activities, from classes learning how to deal with emotions to strategies to reduce anger.As a result, it was confirmed that a positive correction effect was obtained while participating in the activity, and the expression of anger at multiple locations (school, home, etc.) was reduced.[31].

Anger management programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy have been modified for children and adolescents.The following three are commonly used as CBT for young people. The first is to improve life skills (communication, empathy, proper self-expression, etc.) and use modeling (observation learning) to teach how to respond appropriately to anger. The second is effective education that focuses on recognizing feelings of anger and relaxing. The third is problem solving by grasping the situation instead of getting angry and teaching how to identify the cause and effect.[32] ..A wide range of methods are applied to teach these three factors, depending on age and the severity of key factors.It could be more effective for young children by explaining Anger management in a more enjoyable way through educational games and activities.[33]..Natural, social and environmental similarities can be found in adolescentsGroup therapyWould be effective[34]..The content of later Anger management programs is often adjusted according to the severity of the level of anger expressed.For example, if violence is seen in a classroom setting, several sessions with a school counselor may be held.However, in cases such as more serious juvenile delinquency, the court may order an Anger management session at a juvenile rehabilitation facility.

A study of the effectiveness of Anger management for children and adolescents was conducted with the aim of evaluating existing programs and creating more effective programs. A meta-analysis of 40 studies found that the overall efficacy of Anger management therapy with CBT was 0.67.This suggests that Anger management is an appropriate approach to problematic levels of anger.Skill improvement (0.79) and problem solving (0.67) were also confirmed to be more effective than emotional education (0.36).This may be because teaching children the behavioral aspect is easier than teaching the cognitive aspect.[35]..The real value of early intervention for young people lies in its preventative aspects.Suppressing negative behavior early in life may give a more positive outlook in adulthood.[36].

People with intellectual disabilities

People with intellectual disabilities may have difficulty controlling their anger.Therapists who face the aggression of people with intellectual disabilities often use a combination of the following four methods.Which of the following methods to use to minimize anger depends on the situation and the individual.

  1. Reactive Strategy-Used to minimize the impact of apparently aggressive behavior through established protocols.Example: Forcibly quarantine a patient who has begun a violent emotional outburst
  2. Ecological intervention-an attempt to reduce and calm attack levels by changing the environment.Example: Reduce ambient noise to reduce irritation
  3. Contingency Management-Focus on modifying behavior by combining reinforcement and punishment.Example: Use token economy method (rewarding token coins for appropriate reactions) to strengthen rules regarding behavior
  4. Positive Programming-Teach positive reaction skills as an alternative to aggression.Example: Anger management based on CBT

Anger management is clearly needed even in situations where people with intellectual disabilities are prescribed psychotropic drugs as a result of aggression or self-harm.Drugs as chemical suppressors cannot correct the underlying aggression.The best way to use sedatives is with skill training, a long-term solution, to reduce the overall incidence of violence. A meta-analysis that scrutinized 80 studies confirmed that behavioral interventions were generally effective in modifying behavior.In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy was confirmed to be effective even when performed by an amateur therapist, further increasing the feasibility of such an Anger management program.

The majority of this population does not appear to have Anger management problems, but studies show that more than half of Americans with intellectual disabilities behave violently and aggressively on some regular basis. ing.People with learning disabilities tend to be angry and aggression even towards those who help them on a daily basis.Adults with intellectual disabilities behave aggressively, which increases their risk of being sent to the hospital.

"Theory of mind("Theory of the mind") "approach criticizes people with Anger management problems because they are mentally unstable.suppressionIt is stated that they tend to be unable to do so.One of the main reasons for the outburst of anger is the externalization of criticism, due to the sudden urge to wield violence.These people need to understand the implications of their actions and sometimes blame their problems.

Ferocious criminal

One study found that criminals currently in high-security hospitals who underwent a "self-report 20 class training program" had very good results.As a result of receiving this program, it was confirmed that the aggression was reduced and the response to anger was reduced.However, there were two points to keep in mind.That is the background of the hospital and the researchers did not want the patient to become unstable and express intense anger.

A meta-analysis of studies conducted between 1979 and 2010 found that school children with aggressive personalities took several Anger management classes.The overall result was that the children in the class showed a slight improvement (decreased aggression).The purpose of the course was to reduce the negative emotions of children and help them control themselves.Although no overall conclusions could be drawn, researchers say that children taking Anger management courses are less likely to take action because they are prepared to deal with their inner anger.

Substance abuser

Substance abuseThere is no statistical data to prove that a person also behaves aggressively.However, researchers believe that it is necessary to study the problems of suspicious decision-making and typically unstable mental states of people in this population.Substance abusers may be able to prevent potential aggression by receiving Anger management therapy.

People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

It is useful to apply a wide range of CBT to this population to address the problems of Anger management.A study of veterans (n ​​= 86) found that 12 training sessions slightly reduced the characteristics of anger and also slightly reduced the expression of anger.The study also states that it is very important to find a suitable Anger management course, as they may be left out of society after returning from the war and becoming antisocial personalities.However, this study did not provide enough meaningful findings to strongly recommend an Anger management course with CBT for veterans with PTSD.[37].

People with traumatic brain injury

People with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may exhibit impulsive, aggressive dangerous behavior. A study published in the Brain Injury states that community-based treatment of people with TBI is one way to prevent such behavior.Studies have shown that the need for violence has decreased after completing the 12-week program, and a series of post-treatment tests have also self-reported that angry behavior has decreased. ..Other characteristic results were confirmed to be that the frequency of showing anger feelings and the frequency of showing anger feelings outside were significantly reduced, and that the frequency of controlling anger feelings was significantly increased. It was.[38]

Related person

Seneca

Roman philosopherセ ネ カIs one of the first to study anger and control of anger.He continued to study anger for a lifetime of 4 BC-65 AD, and based on his experience and observations, he shaped anger control methods.This is considered to be the initial form of Anger management.Seneca describes the importance of avoiding anger, how to get out of anger, and how to deal with the anger of others.[6]

Another theorist who emerged after Seneca was a Roman philosopher.GalenIt is.He built a new idea in the field of Anger management based on Seneca's achievements.Galen emphasizes the importance of having a teacher to help deal with excessive anger.[6]

Peter Stearns

Peter Stearns has made great strides in studying the differences in anger between genders.Sterns concluded that the experiences of anger between men and women were similar.June Crawford, on the other hand, showed confrontational ideas about how men and women each deal with anger.Her study concludes that men and women deal with anger in different ways.[6]

Raymond Novaco

Raymond Novakovi's achievements in the 1970s had a great influence on the modern ideas of Anger management.Based on his ideas, various Anger management programs have come to be implemented.Novakovi believed that the key to controlling anger was primarily to identify the circumstances that caused it.He said anger is an emotional reaction to the situation.Novaco said that anger is caused by one of three forms: cognition, physical influence, and behavior, and once you become aware of anger, you should discuss and self-analyze to release it.This process was thought to help patients identify the situations in which they were angry and respond according to the stage of anger development.Patients can use a variety of relaxation skills to calm their anger before it grows.[6]

Merit

The advantage of learning Anger management is that you can reduce anger and violent explosions.High aggression may improve previously tense interpersonal relationships, as well as professionally improving interpersonal relationships in the workplace, which is beneficial to careers and provides greater satisfaction. ..Legally, continued participation in the Anger Management Program, with or without order, is perceived as a sign of good faith.刑 務 所If you are admitted to, you may be able to get parole earlier by learning the right behavior in your Anger management class.From an emotional point of view, lowering the level of internal anger reduces stress and results in overall well-being.

From a medical point of view, feelings become positive and behavioral changes can improve physical illness.What kind of anger management is done, what level of anger is, and acute / chronicpainThere is a link between sensitivities to[39] .blood pressureIs one of the physiological phenomena affected by anger, and blood pressure rises as the level of anger rises.[40]..The effect of blood pressure on overall health is also evident in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease when hypertension occurs.Improved immune system function has been shown to result in higher levels of relaxation.[41] ..Successful anger management leads to a reduction in sloppy behavior and intense quarrels, which in turn leads to a longer lifespan.

Obstacle

There are many factors that reduce the success rate of Anger management interventions.One of them is the low level of motivation.Poor attitude is an obstacle to the effectiveness of Anger management.Attendance declines and treatment alliances (patient-therapist relationships) are adversely affected[42]..Compared to voluntary participants in Anger management programs, compulsory participants (such as court-ordered sessions) have a lower level of motivation.Studies of prisoners have found a correlation between attitude and degree of improvement[43].

Moreover, when anger is considered an element of social constructs, the difficulty of communicating between cultures is another obstacle.[44] ..Whether that anger is considered a proper expression depends on the culture.Therefore, the patient-therapist mismatch can lead to misunderstandings about the program's ultimate goals.For example, a patient may only want to reduce physical violence, but a therapist may want to reduce both verbal and physical explosions.Differences in tolerance for expression of anger by gender can also affect social standards.Because men are more tolerant of violent explosions than women, men and women often receive different interpretations of the same violent explosion levels.[6]

medical insuranceThe cost of receiving Anger management can also be a major obstacle if you are not a member of.The time required for anger management depends on the program.It is common to take one-hour sessions 1 to 8 times a week, but there are various programs such as one-day intensive sessions.The cost for general therapy is $ 12-1 per session, but the cost of professional instruction is much higher.The implementation of Anger management programs in rural areas can also be problematic in remote areas, and travel expenses are also required.However, online options allow you to receive treatment in the same way that you receive direct intervention and achieve similar results.[45]

footnote

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