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👶 | How good is your child's sleep time?Early sleep tech that I practice [Childcare that makes it easy for a pediatrician with 3 children]


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How good is your child's sleep time?Early sleep tech that I practice [Childcare that makes it easy for a pediatrician with 3 children]

 
If you write the contents roughly
In such a case, please think that you should secure a little more sleep time.
 

Noriko Yasuda, a pediatrician at the Tokyo Hygiene Hospital, is a mum pediatrician with three children who are 8 years old, 6 years old, and 4 years old who are raising children... → Continue reading

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The Baby Calendar provides daily information on topics related to pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, childrearing, infertility, and information useful for daily life that supports pregnant women, pregnant women, mothers raising children, and dads. I will. It is full of information taught by professionals in the fields of pregnancy, childbirth and childcare, such as registered dietitians and midwives.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Sleep

Sleep(Suimin,Luo: somnus,Buddha: sleep,British: Sleep) Means sleeping, that is, repeating periodically,ConsciousnessIs a physiological condition in which[1].SleepingAlso say[1].bodyThe movement of the person has stopped, the response to external stimuli has decreased, and the person has lost consciousness.[2].Human capitalAre usually active during the day,NightSleep in[3].. Animals act at night,DaytimeMany sleep in[3].

Human capitalDuring sleep, rapid eye movements (REM, REM) occur, and there are four stages from stage I to stage IV, which are non-REM sleep,Rem sleepIs repeated with a cycle of 90 to 110 minutes[4].. Sleep is the rest of the body, repair at the cellular level of the body,MemoryIt is said that he is deeply involved in the restructuring of.Anterior pituitaryAt intervals of 2 to 3 hours during sleepGrowth hormoneSecrete. The release interval does not change with sleep, but the release amount increases. Therefore,Wound healing, Of the skinMetabolismIs especially promoted during sleep. Also, lack of sleep isstress.

It is known that slow waves appear when observing brain waves during sleep, that is, deep non-REM sleep occurs only in most mammals and birds, and in reptiles, amphibians and fish, slow waves do not appear during sleep. ing[5].. Among mammals, such as platypus and echidnaSingle holeSleep of primitive mammals, such as, is different from that of later mammals[5].

Sleep

During sleep, there is almost no response to stimuli, and various activities such as movement and gazing at the outside world also decrease. Generally, the eyes are closed and meaningful mental activity is stopped, but it can be easily done by appropriate stimulation.AwakeningTo do. For this reason sleepConsciousness disorderIs completely different from. Also including humansCerebrumIn some developed animals during sleep夢You may experience some kind of hallucination called.

Sleep in the short termNutritionIs more important than ingestion.mouseIn the experiment, when sleep was completely deprived of sleep, death occurred in about 1 or 2 weeks, which is shorter than that without food. With extreme weaknessbody temperatureIn poor regulation and brainThalamusHas been damaged. Even in the case of humans, by continuing to sleep deprived, thinking ability declines and妄想,HallucinationIs said to occur and death is caused by compulsion for a considerable period of time.[6][7].

Human sleep

Sleep type

In the 20th century, human sleepEEGとEyeballIt has become known that it can be classified by the pattern of movement. Rapid eye movement (Rapid Eye Movement) With sleepRem sleep (Rapid eye movement sleep, REM sleep), stage I-IV, sleep without rapid eye movementsNREM sleep (Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Non-REM sleep)[4].

Stage I (N1)
Drowsiness. On the EEG, seen at awakeningalpha waveIs reduced and a low amplitude potential is seen.
Stage II (N2)
EEG, sleep spindle (sleep spindle) Is seen.
Stage III (N3)
Low frequencyδ waveWill increase (20%-50%).
Stage IV (N4)
δ wave is 50% or more.
Rem sleep(REM)
  • Rapid eye movement (Rapid Eye Movement), the EEG of REM sleep is relatively earlyθ waveIs the main subject. If you wake up during this period,夢I often remember the contents of. Brain activity during REM sleep is similar to when awake, and the energy consumption rate is almost the same as when awake. Only rapid eye movements occur because the actions of motor neurons that control parts other than the eye muscles are suppressed. Account for 20-25% of total sleep[4].

Adults repeat between stages I and REM during sleep,cycleIs about 90-110 minutes[4].

Falling asleep and stages I-IVRem sleepSpecial to control the transition betweenNeuronThere are groups. Upon falling asleep, the falling asleep neurons located in the forebrain base (ventral lateral preoptic area) are activated. During REM sleep transitionBrainstemThe cholinergic REM hypnotic neurons located at In wakefulness, each neuron in the brain is independently active, but in stages I-IV, adjacent neuronsLow-frequencyAnd work in sync with.

Changes in sleep throughout life

NewbornThen, I sleep 1 hours a day intermittently, and 16-2 hours for a 9-year-old child.adultNeeds 6-9 hours of sleep (in healthy people) overnight[3].. The pattern changes from a pattern of getting a lot of short-term sleep in infancy to a pattern of getting a good night's sleep as an adult.

Old ageBecomes a pattern of dozing many times in the daytime and sleeping only for a few hours at night[3].. Sleep may also be shallower and NREM sleep may be completely lost[4].. This is why older people are more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation and insomnia. However, sleep is not always shortened in all elderly people due to individual differences.

Environmental impact

There is a theory that the shift of the sleeping style of early sleep and early wake up as human age is influenced by the advance of the phase of circadian rhythm.[8]. But,Biological clockThe study found that the nerve cells that control the biological clock tend to decrease with age, but the circadian cycle of the biological clock has little effect on age.[8].. Takemura Takeo says that the reason why human sleep habits are advanced is that there is a certain correlation between the circadian rhythm of sleep and the circadian rhythm of core body temperature, but the physiology of living according to a free-run rhythm such as day-night change and time It is said that the physical correlation will be lost and that the person will fall asleep according to the circadian rhythm of deep body temperature, which tends to advance the phase with aging.[8].

Sleep and substances in the body

Neurotransmitters that maintain wakefulness includeNoradrenaline,Serotonin,histamine,acetylcholine,OrexinHowever, nerve cells that produce these neurotransmitters are suppressed during sleep. GABAergic mental system in ventral dorsal preoptic area is thought to be involved in the suppression[Source required].. Some acetylcholinergic nerves are also involved in the production of REM sleep.

It is said that the brain falls asleep when calcium ions are taken into cells[9].

2018å¹´6/13,University of Tsukuba OfMasashi YanagisawaBy the research of the professor's team,mouseIn the experiment of 80 kinds of in the brainproteinIt was discovered that sleepiness is triggered by the activation of the function ofNatureIt was announced in the electronic version. The team said that certain proteins help sleep to rest nerves and restore function.Sleeping disorderHe pointed out that it may lead to the development of treatment methods.[10][11]

Recommended time

Recommended Sleep Times by the US Sleep Foundation
ageNecessary Time
Newborn (0–3 months)14-17 hours[12]
Infant (4–11 months)12-15 hours[12]
Infant (1–2 years)11-14 hours[12]
Preschool (3-5 years old)10-13 hours[12]
Schoolchildren (6–13 years old)9-11 hours[12]
Youth (14–17 years)8-10 hours[12][13]
Young (18-25), Middle-aged (26-64)7-9 hours[12]
Old man (65 years old and over)7-8 hours[12][14]

There are individual differences in the amount of sleep required for humans, often 7-8 hours.University of California San DiegoPapers on Sleep medicine by Daniel Kripke et al.[15],Nagoya UniversityResearch of Akiko Tamokoshi, Graduate School of Medicine[16][17]People with seven hours of sleep a day have a lower risk of death than others, according to the report. However, it's not known if a person who sleeps for a long time or a person who sleeps for a long time will be less likely to die if he sleeps for seven hours.

People who sleep more than 9 hours each night have an increased risk of stroke of more than 23%.People who take a nap for 90 minutes or more have a higher risk of stroke than 25%.However, although long sleep is associated with stroke, it is premature to recommend less than 9 hours of sleep because the causal relationship is unknown.[18]。 実際、毎日10時間以上の睡眠をとると、認知機能低下のリスクが高まる可能性があるが[19],Sportsmanは運動能力を改善し、平均スプリント時間を改善し、日中の疲労感とスタミナを改善し、幸福の全体的な評価を改善するなど、多くの利点が見つかった[20][21].. on the other hand,Lack of sleepは多くの問題を引き起こす。

Children need more sleep than adults to grow up. Newborns need more than 18 hours a day, but decrease as they grow[22].. In early 2015, the National Sleep Foundation published two years of research output:[12].

1900å¹´By then, people's general sleep cycle was to sleep 4-5 hours after the sun went down and a second sleep during the day, but it seems to be done artificially in the 2th century. It is a system that becameEight-hour work systemStudies have pointed out that insomnia is caused by the adverse effects of[23].

Lack of sleep

Lack of sleep is important to lifeImmunologyPower""Natural healing power, Etc. are adversely affected,Growth hormoneIt also causes a modulation in the secretion of. For infants, toddlers and adolescentsgrowthHas an adverse effect on the height and makes it difficult to grow tall. Due to lack of sleepstomach,IntestinesThere are many people who get sick. FaceSwelling, The complexion and skin condition are visibly worse. Also, lack of sleepobesityTend to invite. MentallyFeelingHas an adverse effect onDepression(Or unstable changes in manic or depressed state), moody,Human relationsCauses deterioration. It is also a basic function of the brainMemoryIt has a negative impact on your ability to concentrate, etc.SchoolworkThe effect of (study) has a serious effect on the quality of work in adults. In the latter case, work mistakes increase, and manual workers are seriously injured.Fatal accidentProbability of encountering (Industrial accidentIt has been clarified by various labor statistics that it increases the incidence rate).

  • People with short sleep times suppress their appetite in the bloodLeptinIs lessappetiteImproveGhrelinThere are many. As a result, the shorter the sleep time, the easier it is to increase appetite.obesityThe risk of becoming[24].
  • If you have a chronic lack of sleepHigh blood pressure,Diabetes mellitus,Dyslipidemia,Myocardial infarction,AnginaSuch asCoronary artery disease,Cerebrovascular disease such asLifestyle-related diseasesProne to[25].. It also lowers immunity,influenzaSuch asInfection,cancerBecome a trigger or exacerbation factor for[26].
  • During sleep, sleep deprivation affects a child's physical ability and academic performance because it has the function of efficiently organizing by omitting extra information from the information experienced and learned during the day and processing it as a long-term sensation and memory. It has a great impact. The reduction of sleep to process the content of learning is serious for children who are on the rise in learning.[27].
  • It is possible to get rid of the lack of sleep by sleeping for a long time the day after staying up late, but it is said that sleeping for a long time the day before does not allow "sleeping" such as staying up late the next day. In addition, the former "summary sleep" can also eliminate lack of sleep, but it is not preferable because it deteriorates the quality of sleep and disturbs the balance and rhythm of mind and body.

Sound asleep

The state of deep sleep is called "deep sleep". The state is expressed as "sturdy"[28].. Medically refers to slow wave sleep of stage III and IV of non-REM sleep and is also called "deep sleep"[29].. It is important to be in this state for the recovery of brain function and the reconstruction of memory.

In young adults, the amount of slow-wave stage III/IV sleep is significantly higher in women than in men, but the amount of REM sleep is 30% of the total sleep time, which is not different between men and women.[8].. In middle-aged and older men, the amount of deep sleep decreases, especially in men, the arousal response during sleep increases, and stage IV slow-wave sleep becomes almost zero. Except for those in their twenties, men tend to have longer total sleep time, and as men get older, more men take naps, so women are more efficient and of higher quality than men. You can say that you are sleeping[8].

To get a good night's sleep, sleep cycle (Biological clock) Is fixed (especially the wake-up time is fixed), at the time of waking up every daySun light(Recent studies have shown that there is a mechanism in the body that makes you sleepy about 14 hours after being exposed to intense sunlight), 1 hour after being exposed to sunlight. Have breakfast within, exercise a few hours before going to bedbathingBy raising the body temperature, the body temperature drops sharply when you fall asleep, and by dimming the lighting from 30 minutes to 2 hours before going to bed.MelatoninWith a daily diet that stimulates the secretion ofcarbohydrateとprotein(Tryptophan) Ingest well,TryptophanbySerotoninandMelatoninBy taking a bath before falling asleep and warming the bedroom when falling asleep, to synthesize and secretebody temperatureIncreases melatonin, which increases the activity of sleep-on neuronsbrain OfPineal gland2500 while waking up to generate inル ク スMore thanLightTake a bath[30], Darken the bedroom[31]And so on.

About short sleep

  • In rare cases, humans with genetically short sleep periods (Short sleeper) Exists.
  • Some people sleep when they are sleepy, resulting in "short sleep" several times a day, but some claim that it was the case with the ancients.
  • It's true that some people claim that they live a healthy life without sleeping at all.[32][33].. For example, I lived in New Jersey, USAAl Harpin(1862?-1947) is "a man who has never slept in his lifetime"New York TimesThe magazine has been featured in the article at least twice[34][35], Relatively well known.

Cultural and regional differences

Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD)
Average sleep time per day (1)[36]
CountryTimeCountryTime
Japanese flag JapanXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼8 hours03 points
 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³8 hours06 pointsGerman flag ドイツXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
Italian flag イタリアXNUM X hours X NUM X minutesMexican flag メキシコXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
OECD logo.svg OECD18 countriesXNUM X hours X NUM X minutesBritish flag UKXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
Belgian flag ベルギーXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒ³ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰XNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
Polish flag ポーランドXNUM X hours X NUM X minutesCanadian flag カナダXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
Australian flag オーストラリアXNUM X hours X NUM X minutesTurkish flag トルコXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
 ãƒ‹ãƒ¥ãƒ¼ã‚¸ãƒ¼ãƒ©ãƒ³ãƒ‰XNUM X hours X NUM X minutesSpanish flag スペインXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes
United States flag アメリカ合衆国XNUM X hours X NUM X minutesFrench flag FranceXNUM X hours X NUM X minutes

世界

スペインBeginning with地中海In rural areaslunchAfter that, take a break, including sleep.シ エ ス タ) ”, And is said to have the effect of improving health.

2000 eraEnter米 国But,Lifehack(Hacker cultureA short nap is attracting attention as an extension of the work technique at one end of the. By taking a napbrainIs said to work better,Brain laborPeople engaged in (so-calledWhite collar) Is emphasized. On the other handThe laborIncrease in time地中海The number of companies that do not carry out siesta is increasing even in rural countries.

Japan

Electric train,busThere are many people who commute to work or attend school, and because of the very good security of these transportation facilities, some sleep in them.

Manual laborThere are many occupations (so-calledBlue collarIn), after lunch during lunch break, a short sleep of about 15 to 30 minutes may be taken until work resumes in the afternoon. Although it is a short time, it has an important role of recovering from fatigue accumulated in the morning and recovering attention. Taking a nap or not will change the accident rate in the afternoon. In the field of manual labor where drowsiness is directly linked to the danger of life, on-site supervisors who are responsible for accident prevention often encourage workers to take a nap, and try not to wake up those who are taking a nap as much as possible. It is common to cooperate to secure an environment where people can sleep.

Sleeping while sitting is "DozingThere are cases where people unknowingly fall asleep in places or situations where they should not sleep, such as during class, at work, or while driving. In particular, falling asleep during class or work may be considered unmotivated, in the former casePointOr in the latter caseDismissalCan also be the target of.

The act of sleeping while driving isDozing drivingWill lead to an accident. Long-distance transportationbus,Track OfdriverIn order to avoid falling asleep after driving, you must drive or make various efforts to avoid drowsiness. Above allhighwayDriving such as is apt to be monotonous, and it is easy to fall asleep. The law stipulates a limit on the amount of time that people can drive continuously, and in many cases long-distance transportation requires a two-person shift system. Many trucks have a small sleeping bed behind the driver's seat that stretches out and blocks the light with blackout curtains to make it easier to sleep. Like trucks, bus drivers have various restrictions, and two people form a team, and while one driver is driving, the other driver can sleep in the sleeping space under the bus. It is often like this. In recent years, drivers have fallen asleep by continuously driving for a long time with unreasonable rotation under a harsh labor system.Sleeping disorderDriver had a serious accident社会 問題It became.

bathTobathingDozing insideDrowningThere is a risk of.

2001å¹´2Announced inNHKAccording to a survey, "WeekdayAt 7 hours 26 minutes,SaturdayAt 7 hours 41 minutes,SundayIt was 8 hours 13 minutes."[37].. According to a 2014 survey, the average sleep time was 5 hours and 44 minutes, which is the shortest in the world.[38].

Sleep behaviors that are affected by unconsciousness and cultural backgroundSleeping formFrom this point of view, there are also studies that compare and verify cultural anthropology and educational sociology.

As we get older, we go to bed earlyTo get up earlyIt is generally believed that "the habit of" is acquired.However, whether it is really habitual or not, it is often seen in elderly people.Sleep phase advance syndromeIt is not easy to judge whether or not it is the symptom of "."

Also, as a religious influenceBuddhismSleeping with the head in the north and the feet in the southNorth pillowIt is called and is repelled.

nap

Research on the effects of naps is also being conducted in Japan. By taking a nap,ACCIDENTBecause it is expected to prevent, improve work efficiency, improve self-evaluation, etc.Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularRecently, naps have been encouraged.In addition, taking a nap activates the brain, creating an environment where original ideas can easily come to mind.

Other research reports on nap

  • People who take a nap less than 30 minutes habitually compared with other peopleAlzheimer's diseaseHave been reported to reduce the risk of[39].
  • Older people have maximum after and before napblood pressureOn average 8.6mmHg, There was also a report that the blood pressure dropped by an average of 15.6 mmHg at the minimum blood pressure,Lifestyle-related diseasesPrevention is also expected[40]. (Hiroshima University)
  • A nap of 40 minutes or more increases the risk of metabolic syndrome[41].

How to take a nap

  • A good rule of thumb is around 1 to 3 pm (because if you take it late, you may not be able to sleep at night).
  • It is said that about 15 to 30 minutes is good. Taking one hour can lead to fatigue (because many people go into deep sleep and get up worse if they sleep for more than 1 minutes).

Animal sleep

Sleep time required depends on the body size of each species. Small sizerodent15 hours-18 hours,catThen 12-13 hours,DogThen 10 hours,elephantThen 3-4 hours,GiraffeIt takes only 20 minutes-1 hour. This is lower for large animals,Brain cellsIt is also thought to reduce the need to repair injuries[42][43].. Also, small animals tend to be targeted by other animals as predators, so their defenseless sleep times tend to be short. If the body is about the same,HerbivoreSleeps short,CarnivoreTends to be long. While herbivores are comfortable with the food they eat, they have low calories, high fiber content, and are obliged to eat and digest for long periods of time, resulting in short sleep times. On the other hand, carnivores have little opportunity to obtain food, while food is high in calories, so they do not need to eat once for a while. Therefore, there is a lot of time when nothing is done, and during that time it is considered that calorie consumption is suppressed by sleeping.

All terrestrialmammalianToRem sleepHowever, species differences in REM sleep time are independent of body size. For example,platypusOf the 9 hours of sleep, REM sleep accounts for 8 hours.DolphinRarely needs REM sleep.

vertebrateAnimals other than, for exampleArthropodThere is a state similar to sleep.NeurotransmitterObserving the change over time, it seems to be in a state similar to REM sleep[44].

Unlike humans, some organisms do not awaken for long periods of time. this ishibernationCalled. As an example of a hibernating organism,bear,Squirre,カ エ ルAnd so on.

The posture when sleeping also differs depending on the organism.FishGoes into sleep simply by floating in the water.FlamingoIs said to sleep while standing on one foot. AlsoDolphinIt takes a few seconds of hemisphere sleep (sleeping alternating cerebral hemispheres) repeatedly, so it is possible to continue swimming while sleeping. Hemisphere sleep is said to be impossible in humans due to the structure of the brain except for diseases such as brain disorders and serious side effects of drugs.

catMany people have the impression that they are curled up and sleeping, but this is when they are trying to protect themselves or when it is cold, and relaxed domestic cats who are convinced that they will not be attacked lie on their backs to dissipate their body heat. Sometimes I sleep.This example is not limited to cats, but animals such as dogs that live in places with a lot of hair and unstable climate and temperature.

Physiology

Awakening of the brain is caused by histamine in the brain, and blocking the histamine in the brain leads the brain to sleep[45].. Substances that interfere with histamine in the brain includeATPMetabolitesAdenosineThere is[45].AntihistamineSome of the components of the syrup interfere with histamine in the brain and induce drowsiness.[45]. Also,(English edition)Increases the amount of adenosine in the brain and induces drowsiness[45].

The sleep-inducing substance adenosineAdenosine deaminaseBy being metabolized byInosineHowever, the amount of inosine in the cerebrospinal cord is considered to be one of the insomnia biomarkers[46].. Adenosine also receives one phosphate from adenosine triphosphate (ATP),Adenylic acid A substance that returns to (adenosine monophosphate) but assists in the production of ATPCoenzyme Q10Is commonly used悪 夢It is said to increase. [Source required]

In addition, the short sleeper is associated with mutations in the DEC2 gene[47]However, the DEC2 gene is associated with lipid formation by ATP consumption (Assimilation) Is said to be suppressed[48].. DEC2 is also expressed in hypoxia[48].

B vitamins are also thought to affect sleep. Experiments at the University of Adelaide in Australia show that intake of vitamin B6 increases the amount of dreams remembered, while intake of a vitamin B complex containing vitamin B6 does not increase the amount of dreams remembered and improves sleep quality. There is a result that it has a lowering effect[49][50].

In addition, there is a theory that the progress of phosphorylation of synaptic proteins in the brain is related to sleepiness.[51].

Sleep deprivation markers

In addition,University of PennsylvaniaAccording to the study, changes in lipid metabolism occur when sleep deprivation occurs.

Sleep disorder markers

Learning

Many studies suggest that sleep plays an important role in memory both before and after learning new tasks.[54]..While sleeping, the brain is surprisingly busy.You can strengthen your memory while you sleep and "practice" the skills you learned while you were awake.新しいことを学ぶ際は、睡眠後の方がより良いパフォーマンスを発揮することができるYou can perform better after sleep when learning new things[55].

culture

Religious Faith

In ancient China, he was looking for a revelation about the cause of his death in the dream of a shrine priest sleeping on a dead corpse.[56].. In ancient Egypt,(English edition)A medical god calledImhotepThere is a temple ofDream divinationThe ceremony was held. These templesMiddle East-Ancient greeceWas also present. Medical deity identified with ImhotepAsclepiusThe templeAsclepeionIn such a case, a nap room was created, and the priest was actively taking a nap in hope of an illness outcome.[56][57].. This ritual is(English edition)It is called.

literature

A work that says that many years have passed since I fell asleepRip Van Winkle], [Epimenides],(English edition),眠 れ る 森 の 美女』And many others.

By the way, "Three-year sleeping taro』Is not sleeping, but indulging in thought, so it is different from the above pattern.

There are many myths and literature related to sleep and death.

Expressions related to sleep

oftendeadIs likened to sleep. The following are examples of comparing death to sleep. This is the dead stateBereaved familyIt is used to mean people who are sad or who are sad or who are dead.

  • Eternal sleep
  • the eternal sleep

Further, there are the following proverbs including the words “sleep” and “sleep”. It mainly means "patient", "patient", or "sleeping and sober".

  • All things come to those who wait
  • Spare while sleeping
  • Sleeping child grows up (scientifically and medically correct, but misused when used as a proverb[58])
  • Sleep or wake
  • Waking up a sleeping child
  • Three hours when the plants and trees also sleep
  • Cat sleep
  • Forget bedtime
  • There is no easier than sleeping

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  32. ^ A man who has never slept(As of January 2011, 10Archive)
  33. ^ A man who never sleeps for 33 years Vietnam
  34. ^ “Hasn't Slept in 10 years”. New York Times(July 1904, 2). https://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F2061EF9355E12738DDDA00A94DA405B848CF1D3 2017/5/23Browse. 
  35. ^ “Man Who Said He Never Slept Dies at 94; New Jersey Doctors Are Skeptical of Claim”. New York Times(July 1947, 1). https://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60C1EFC3F5A107A93C6A9178AD85F438485F9&scp=1&sq=alfred%20herpin&st=cse 2017/5/23Browse. 
  36. ^ Society at a Glance 2009, OECD, (2009), two:10.1787/19991290, ISBN 9789264056879 
  37. ^ Source: NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute Public Opinion Survey Department 2000 National Lifetime Survey Report
  38. ^ In the City That We Love-The Jawbone Blog
  39. ^ Napping Alzheimer's disease prevention National Psychiatric and Neurological Center Musashi Hospital
  40. ^ How to make a body that will not get tired
  41. ^ "Sleeping for more than 40 minutes during the day'increases the risk of heart disease'". 2016/3/26Browse.
  42. ^ Sleep Mechanism Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  43. ^ Nagasaki[Broken link]
  44. ^ Kazuhiko Kume, Shoen Kume, Sang Ki Park, Jay Hirsh and F. Rob Jackson, “Dopamine is a regulator of arousal in the fruit fly,” Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2005, pp.7377-7384. [1]
  45. ^ a b c d Drowsiness Nikkei National Geographic October 2016, 10
  46. ^ a b Search for insomnia biomarkers (Research Project Number: 20406006)Same pdf version
  47. ^ The people who need very little sleep BBC 2015
  48. ^ a b Stra13 / DEC1 and DEC2 inhibit sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent mechanism. Choi SM, Cho HJ, Cho H, Kim KH, Kim JB, Park H. 2008
  49. ^ Effects of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and a B Complex Preparation on Dreaming and Sleep Denholm J. Aspy, Natasha A. Madden, Paul Delfabbro, et al. April 2018, 4
  50. ^ Vitamin B6 was effective for remembering dreams: research results Wired June 2018, 5
  51. ^ Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular horizontally of sleep need Nature Zhiqiang Wang, et al. June 2018, 6
  52. ^ Possibility of Preventing Alzheimer's Disease-Discovery of Camembert Cheese to Prevent Causative Substance Deposition- March 2015, 3, The University of Tokyo
  53. ^ Weljie, Aalim M .; Meerlo, Peter; Goel, Namni; Sengupta, Arjun; Kayser, Matthew S .; Abel, Ted; Birnbaum, Morris J .; Dinges, David F. et al. (2015). “Oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36: 3 are cross-species markers of sleep debt ”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (8): 2569–2574. two:10.1073 / pnas.1417432112. ISSN 0027-8424. 
  54. ^ "Sleep, Learning, and Memory | Healthy Sleep". healthysleep.med.harvard.edu. 2020/9/10Browse.
  55. ^ "11 Surprising Health Benefits of Sleep" (English). Health.com. 2020/9/10Browse.
  56. ^ a b Fujio Ikeda,Thoughts on the Dreams of Ancient Chinese (Summary of Report of the 4th and 5th Research Conferences: Asia, Africa, America)The Japanese Ethnological Society 1967 Volume 31, Issue 4, p.292-293, two:10.14890 / minkennewseries.31.4_292
  57. ^ The History of Dreams and Sleep Author Takashi Tachiki
  58. ^ This proverb was established at a time when the infant mortality rate due to malnutrition, illness, parasites, etc. was high, and in such cases, infants who are more likely to die often continue to cry without sleeping, In this case, "to grow up" refers to "to live safely without dying" rather than to the mere prominence of growth.

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