Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🎁 | Is it okay to give a "smartphone" as a Christmas present for children?


写真 

Is it okay to give my child a Christmas present, a "smartphone"?

 
If you write the contents roughly
In the future, it will be natural to live in the information society.
 

Christmas is coming soon.Not many parents decide what to give their children a Christmas present ... → Continue reading

 Valed Press

Bared (VaLEd.press) is a media that supports the future and curiosity of children together with their parents. Not only for parents who have children who will learn programming and STEM education from now on, but also for children who actually learn and the destination where they must be involved, and for those who want to open a programming class from now on. This refers to a portal site that can deliver information.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Information society

Information society(Good luck)OrInformation society(Good luck)Is情报Has the same value as various resources and functions around them社会That thing.Also, to change into such a societyInformatization(Johoka)That is.In a narrow sense, a society that is changing to such a society may be defined as an information society, and such a society may be defined as an information society to distinguish it.In this case, the one that developed the information societyAdvanced information society(Loach loach),Advanced information society(Loach loach)Sometimes called.

Overview

There is no uniform standard among experts who use the term information society as to what kind of activity is prominent in what sense, but a common argument is as follows. There is something.

  • Information-related industries and related technologies show remarkable growth compared to other economic and technical sectors
  • For the economic prosperity of workers, businesses and nationsInformation technologyIs becoming an important key
  • Information technology permeates various situations such as politics, culture, education, and daily life, and brings about major changes.

In addition, a society in which various activities dealing with information are remarkable is called an information society, and a society in which the speed of transition to such a society is remarkable (a society in which informationization is remarkable) is referred to as an information society. You can also see how to use it.

1990 eraAfter the middleインターネット,Mobile phoneWith the spread of information society, the words and concepts of the information society and the information society have come to be widely used, but the idea is1960 eraIt is usually said to go back to the first half.Basically, it is a term often used by critics, futurists, bureaucrats, sociologists, and others who think about the changing times and large-scale social changes.Those that predict the ideal state of the information society and those that advocate the ideal form are generally called "information society theory".

The concept of information society and information society may be used to predict or propose as a future social image, and may be regarded as a feature of modern society.By the way, it is very rare to argue that informatization has already been completed or that the retrograde phenomenon of informatization (a situation that should be called deinformatization) is in progress.As introduced below, the concept of information society has received a lot of criticism, but such a theory also denies the possibility of informatization and that informatization is inappropriate as a concept that characterizes society. Although it sounds a warning that informatization is dangerous and cannot be a rosy future, deinformatization is progressing, informatization is already a thing of the past, etc. Not a discussion.

Characteristics of the information society

Most typicallyHunting and gathering society,Agricultural society,Livestocksociety,Industrial societyIn that case, it has a strong meaning as one of the development stages of society.A series of events that triggered the establishment of an industrial societyIndustrial revolutionIn response to this, the progress of the information societyInformation revolutionIt may also be called.

There are various synonyms in the information society.Synonyms are usually accompanied by words related to "information", such as multimedia society, digital society, knowledge society, network society, advanced information society, information network society, and global network society.Some of them have replaced the word "society" with "era."In addition, what is recognized as a coined word by a specific theorist is the intellectual society (Taichi Sakaiya), Information civilization (Shunpei Kumon), Complex network society (Osamu Sudo),and so on.

In addition, "information", "network","MediaDoes not include words such as ""Post-industrial society, "Postmodernity" (demodernity), "post-Fordism", "late capitalism" and other concepts and terms are often recognized as relevant in content.These concepts are sometimes used to refer to the qualitative transformation of society and the economy triggered by information and information technology, or the dramatic development.However, the social effects of information and information technology are not always emphasized, and they are one of the many factors that bring about social change, or when measuring results rather than causes, or social changes. Some are positioned as indicators.

There are various opinions when it comes to what will be informatized, but the first conspicuous discussion wasEconomyIt is the computerization of.

In general, when informatization is seen only in the economy, there are cases where it is called the information economy and does not matter to society in general.However, such research on the information economy is often cited and interpreted in the context of information society theory, and treated as one basis to support the arrival of the information society.In general, information society theory is argued as including information economic theory (conversely, information society theory may be incorporated into information economic theory).

More specifically, a society is considered to be an information society or an information economy on the following grounds.

  • Mainly manufacturing, processing and distribution of informationindustry(Information industry) and similar industriesGross national productA large proportion of
  • A large proportion of the labor force engaged in occupations that mainly handle information
  • The rapid growth of the information industryeconomic growth rateHigh degree of contribution to
  • Increasing proportion of the workforce engaged in occupations that mainly handle information
  • Provided by the information industryInformation serviceHowever, it has a high degree of contribution to increasing productivity and competitiveness in other sectors.
  • Consumer goodsThe informational aspect of the product has a greater influence on the value of the product than the other aspects.The informational aspect isAdsVarious definitions such as product image, brand image, product design (as opposed to practical functions), etc. added by
  • Information goodsIncreased consumption.The rise of consumption in pursuit of spiritual affluence instead of consumption in pursuit of material affluence
  • With the development of information infrastructure, the location of companies will become more free, and it will be easier to expand functions such as paperwork and production globally.In addition, there is a possibility that the power relations in international competition and inter-regional competition will be altered or altered.
  • In an economy where information goods are the mainstream, the conventional principle of competition based on scarcity cannot be established, and a shift to a shared and co-creative economy is required.
  • Changes in corporate management style, labor-management relations, labor style, etc. due to the use of information technology

In addition, various theories have been proposed regarding various aspects such as politics, culture, and life, but what is characteristic of research on informatization in the economic field is a strong interest in measuring the degree of informatization. Is.There are many discussions about whether informatization is really a change that is happening, and what kind of index can be used to best grasp it, and there are many statistics comparing the degree of informatization in each country.

In politics, for exampleE-government,Electronic voting, The research that measures and observes the utilization of the Internet by political parties and talks about the computerization of politics with it is not so active.Instead, there is much debate about how politics will change as such informatization progresses.It, on the one hand, has been the subject of empirical case studies and survey studies, and has been validated as an ongoing informatization.However, there are few cases where the main purpose of such surveys is to make a diagnosis of the kind that the information society has been realized, that it is about to be realized, and that information technology has just begun.

On the other hand, there is a theory that uses terms such as e-democracy and cyber politics to describe the radical transformation of politics.Many consider case studies and prominent cases as pioneering cases and develop relatively bold discussions (some are not).The political systems of the information-oriented society depicted include anarchism, direct democracy, global democracy, civil society rehabilitation, grassroots democracy, and community rehabilitation.However, some of the early information society theories and those assuming mainframe computers predict the large-scale accumulation of knowledge and the dramatic development of planning and prediction technology that utilizes it.In addition, there are many theories that generally warn of the rise of technocracy in the information society and the increase in government management and monitoring capabilities.

Origin as a theory

Some of the most frequently mentioned studies and works are listed below as influential editorials that initially advocated the concept of the information society.

Generally, in the context of information society theory and information society theory in Japan, Tadao Umesao is said to be the first, and there seems to be no theory that goes back to that time.In addition, it was Yujiro Hayashi who proposed the term "information society" in Japan.In the English-speaking world, sociologist Daniel Bell and critic Alvin Toffler are mentioned very often, and Machlup is rarely mentioned, but there seems to be little dating back to Machlup.Other researchers and works tend to be included or not included depending on the introducer.

The achievements of Machlup and Umesao in the early 1960s are usually considered to be independent of each other in Japan.Umesao's achievements are not well known in the English-speaking world, but rather Yoneji Masuda is prominent as an information society theory originating in Japan.

Yoneji Masuda's theory of information society was touted at that time.Futures studiesHowever, the issue of how the development of information media transcends the economic field and promotes value transformation across society and culture, and how individuals can independently create value in it. It can be said that it stands out among the early researchers in terms of its attention.

Looking at this alone, it seems that there was pioneering research in the 1960s, and full-scale research and writing began to be published around 1970.However, although Bell did not actually publish in the form of an independent book, he has been discussing post-industrial society since the early 1960s, the earliest being the title of a seminar held in Boston in 1962. It goes back to (Bell, 1973; Ito, 1980).By the way, it is generally believed that Touraine's work in France, using the same term post-industrialization, was independent of Bell's.

In Japan, from early onAdministrationHas paid attention to the concept of information society and information society.It is rarely cited among researchers, but the earliest is probably the Economic Planning Council Information Research Committee.1969 It will be "Japanese Information Society: Its Vision and Challenges" edited in.There are two types of books, one is a book published by Diamond and the other is a pamphlet. For the latter, Saeda (2) has the background and analysis of the time.

Main criticism

A number of criticisms have been presented against such information society theory and information society theory.

  1. "Technical determinismBeing like that.
    That is, the criticism is that they tend to focus on information technology and think that it is the key to predicting social change, and that other factors—culture, politics, economy, etc.—are not fully considered.
  2. Information revolutionCriticism that the situation called is never actually coming.
    20st centuryEven in the second half ...Cable TVThere are some technologies that are thought to bring about major changes in society, and are discussed as such, but they do not actually end up being widely used or become widespread but do not bring about major social change. It's over.Some argue that the theory that heralds the arrival of the information society tends to downplay or ignore such past examples.In general,MediaIt is pointed out that the idea of ​​changing society is very common, and that it ends up being irrelevant.
    Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the argument that the penetration of media, new information, and communication technology will greatly change society exists far back in the birth of the "information society."Telegrams and newspapers have been thought to bring about social change, and the content of social change discussed there contains issues that are very similar to those prevailing in the information society theory today.
  3. There is no qualitative change in the information itself or a drastic change in the social structure.
    Related to the above-mentioned skeptical view of the arrival of the information society, recent developments in information technology may cause quantitative changes in information, but not qualitative changes in the transmitted information. Criticism that.It is said that information technology has brought about the speed, amount, and means of transmitting information, and that they have not brought about drastic changes in the mechanism by which society moves.
  4. Industrial societyIt's just an extension of.
    It is related to the criticism that the above-mentioned drastic change in social structure will not occur, but informatizationindustryIt may bring efficiency and express delivery to the system, but it is criticized that the underlying structure has not changed from the industrial society.
  5. The debate that heralds the arrival of the information society wants to market technologyInformation industryIt functions as an advertisement for the information technology, or aims to become an information technology nation.CountryCriticism that he is responsible for one side of the.
    It may be pointed out that research in the information society is often funded by such companies and governments.This is not necessarily a criticism in the form of "such predictions are wrong."Rather, it has implications such as being manipulated by the speculation of companies and nations, neglecting to look at things critically, and forgetting to seriously think about what is really desirable for society. In many cases.
  6. Through revolutionary changeユ ー ト ピ アThose who disagree with the tone that is realized.This type of criticism does not necessarily deny the arrival of something that could be called an information society, but warns that it is far from an ideal society and will cause various harms.The negative visions of the information society drawn by many researchers are as follows.
    • Database,Surveillance cameraSurveillance and management technology represented byPoliciesWas infringedFreedom of speech,Freedom of thoughtIs a threatened society.In fact, the British government has extensively introduced surveillance cameras (CCTVs), primarily to reduce crime, and is controversial.
    • By a few companiesNews agency Monopoly(Oroligopoly) And a healthy distribution of diverse speechDemocracyIs threatened, minority opinions, companies and資本主義An anti-democratic society in which opinions that criticize
    • The result of a small number of companies monopolizing (or oligopolizing) the cultural industry, causing consumers to lose sound morals and judgment, misunderstand "", and lose cultural diversity and creativity. Born, poor, empty society
    • Information technologyDeep understanding ofInformation processingA society where the gap between rich and poor is widening between some elites and others, who are capable and have access to information, and a stronger structure of exploitation is established.
    • crimeAnyone can easily touch the related technology to executeSecurityIs a society that is dramatically deteriorating.The number of crimes that actually abuse the Internet is increasing rapidly.
  7. Due to the excess of information, it becomes impossible to obtain the information that should be obtained, andFalse informationThe meaning of the information itself is impaired due to the flooding of information.In other words, there are criticisms that "the information society is a society in which information turns into garbage."
  8. Individuals lose control of their information.In order to start shopping and live, personal information is required to be provided everywhere in society, and the provided information will be used not only at the primary destination but also everywhere.However, informants will not be able to grasp or manage it.[1].

footnote

  1. ^ "Introduction to data mining without using mathematical formulas"Yushi Okajima

References

  • Tadao Umesao (1963). "Information Industry Theory" Broadcast Asahi January Issue p.1-4
  • Shunpei Kumon (1998). "The Great Pioneers of Information Society",[1](Retrieved September 2003, 7)
  • Economic Council Information Research Committee (1969). "Japanese Information Society: Its Vision and Challenges" Diamond
  • Saburo Saeda "Information Society in Japan-The Past 30 Years, The Next 30 Years" "Soken Review" Mitsui Knowledge Industry v.26 pp.8-18.,[2](Retrieved September 2003, 7)
  • Information Industry Office, Heavy Industries Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry (1969). Toward an Information Society: -Our Challenges- Report of the Information Industry Subcommittee of the Industrial Structure Council Computer Age
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry Industrial Structure Council (1969). Report on measures for the development of information processing and information industry
  • Japan Information Processing Development Corporation (1972). "Plan for Information Society-National Goal Aiming for 2000 AD"
  • Yujiro Hayashi (1969). "Information Society" Kodansha's New Book
  • Yutaka Fukuda (1996). "Topology of Informatization" Ochanomizu Shobo
  • Hiroko Kano (2007) "Information Society: The Composition of a Super-Efficient Society" Kitaooji Shobo
  • Hideo Fukunaga (2008). "Advanced Information and Contemporary Civilization-On the Decline of" Participation "" Tadao Umesao, Supervised "Civilization in the Earth Era" Kyoto Tsushinsha
  • Bell, Daniel (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.
    (Japanese translation: Daniel Bell, "The Arrival of a Post-Industrial Society: An Attempt to Predict Society", translated by Tadao Uchiyama et al.
  • Beniger, James R. (1986). The control revolution: technological and economic origins of the information society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Drucker, Peter F. (1969). The Age of Discontinuity.
    (Japanese translation Peter Drucker, Age of Discontinuity, translated by Yujiro Hayashi, Diamond, 1980)
  • Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of postmodernity: an enquiry into the origins of cultural change. New York: Blackwell.
    (Japanese translation David Harvey, "Postmodernity Conditions", translated by Naoki Yoshihara, Aoki Shoten, 1999)
  • Ito, Yoichi (1980). The'Johoka Shakai' approach to the study of communication in Japan. Keio Communication Review 1 (March, 1980).
  • Kumar, Krishan (1995). From Post-Industrial to Post-Modern Society: New theories of the contemporary world.
  • McLuhan, Marshall (1967). Understanding Media --The Extentions of Man.
    (Japanese translation Marshall McLuhan, Media Theory: Aspects of Human Expansion, Translated by Yutaka Kurihara et al., Misuzu Shobo, 1987)
  • Machlup, Fritz (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    (Japanese translation Fritz Machlup "Knowledge Industry" translated by Takeo Takahashi et al., Industrial Efficiency Junior College Publishing Department, 1969)
  • Masuda, Yoneji (1981). The information society as postindustrial society, Bethesda, MD: World Futures Society. (1981 Institute for the Information Society, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Naisbitt. J. Megatrends: ten new directions transforming our lives. Macdonald, 1984.
    (Japanese translation John Naisbitt "Mega Trend" translated by Kenichi Takemura, Mikasa Shobo, 1982)
  • Porat, Marc Uri (1977). The Information Economy: Definition and measurement. (V.1 --v.5) Washington DC: United States Department of Commerce.
    (Japanese translation Mark Polato "Introduction to Information Economy", translated by Seisuke Komatsuzaki, Computer Age, 1982)
  • Roszak, T. Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Postindustrial Society. London: 1973.
  • Touraine, Alan. (1971). The Post-Industrial Society: Tomorrow's social history: classes, conflict and culture in the programmed society, New York: Random House.
    (Original work Alain Touraine, La Société postindustrielle, Paris, Denoel, 1969)
    (Japanese translation Alain Touraine "Post-industrial society" translated by Juri Aikawa and Jun Nishikawa, Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1970)
  • Webster, Frank (1995). Theories of the information society. London: Routridge.
    (Japanese translation Frank Webster "Reading" Information Society ""Akeo TabataTranslated by Seitosha, 2001)

Related item


 

Back to Top
Close