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🎁 | Become a child Santa!Charity gift recruitment <Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu>


Photo Become a child Santa!Charity gift recruitment <Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu>

Become a child Santa!Charity gift recruitment <Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu>

 
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Gifts for junior and senior high school students such as toys, stuffed animals, board games, books, and fashion accessories are also appreciated.
 

At the Yokohama Bay Hotel Tokyu (general manager of Kazuhiko Jinnai) in Minatomirai, children in nursing homes in the prefecture will continue in 2020 ... → Continue reading

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ボ ー ド ゲ ー ム

ボ ー ド ゲ ー ム(Board game) is on a dedicated boardPiece(stone(Also called), move, remove, and playGameIs the general term for.Board game,Board gameAlso called. Also,"BodgeIt may be abbreviated as.

Overview

So-called at stores such as toy storesAnalog games-テ ー ブ ル ゲ ー ムThe whole game is sometimes sold as a board game, but in the general game classification, it refers to a game that expresses a situation by placing pieces or stones on a specific board.[1][2].. As for analog games other than board games, card games (Playing cards,ASuch.It differs from board games in that the situation is determined by the cards you have.[1]), Tile game (Mahjong,DominoSuch.It is essentially the same as a card game, and differs from a board game in that the situation is determined by the handicraft.[1]), Dice game (Half,ChinchirolineEtc.), XNUMXD games (Jenga,One blackbeard crisisEtc.)テ ー ブ ル ゲ ー ムSee).

Board games are generally classified into the following five types based on the characteristics of the game and historical changes.[3].

  1. Racing game- DiceUse, etc. to move the pieces on the board, and compete for which can reach the goal first.Sugoroku,Backgammonetc.
  2. Capture game-Move pieces on the board to capture the opponent's pieces, annihilate the opponent's pieces, or specify a specific piece (キ ン グAnd so on).checker(Drafts),チ ェ ス,Shangchi,Shogietc.
  3. Siege game-Compete to capture and expand your power by surrounding your opponent's pieces on the board.Go,Othello(Reversi) etc.
  4. Array game-Compete to arrange pieces on the board in a specific way.Renju(Gomoku),Nine Men's Morrisetc.
  5. Mancala -Move the pieces from hole to hole on the board by a method called sowing, and compete for the number of pieces finally taken.Owari,(English edition)etc.

However, the five types of games are not completely separated. For example,Fox and gooseThere are games that fuse multiple elements, such as the fox side aims to capture but the goose side aims to siege (note that foxes and geese are often classified as siege games because of their historical background). ). Also, using dice, but aimed at the exchange of assets, not the goalMonopolyNew games are appearing one after another such that traditional classification does not apply.

As a traditional board game where competitions have been held regularly,Backgammon, checkers (drafts), chess, xiangqi, shogi, go, Othello (reversi), renju (gomoku), owari (mankara)and so on. this house,World Mind Sports GamesThere are four board games adopted: checker (drafts), chess, shanchi, and go.[4],Mind Sports OlympiadDecametalon has adopted five board games: backgammon, checkers (drafts), chess, go, and Othello (reversi)[5].

In general board games, most of the information is displayed on the boardGame theoryIs a complete information game in, especially the traditional board gamesTwo person zero sum finite definite complete information gameMany are applicable to. However, as an exception, racing games use dice, so the conditions for confirmation are not usually met.

History

It is estimated that the history of board games dates back to at least 3000 BC before archaeological finds. The oldest board game is believed to have been a racing game.

The oldest board game unearthed so far is a racing game found in ancient Egyptian ruins around 3500 BC and 3100 BC.SenateIs. Games like Seneto have been found around the world since then, and today's southeastern city of Iran is around 3000 BC.Shahr-e SukhteIn addition to being excavated from the ruins of,Board SugorokuIt is said that even in Japan, the people in power were so enthusiastic that the powers banned the play. Senate in the Eastern Roman Empireタ ブ ラNext toBackgammonIt is believed that it came to be called.

Also, from the ruins of ancient Egypt, in addition to Senet(English edition)A game using a board in the shape of a mythical snake god has been excavated.

In ancient Mesopotamia, a city-state around 2600 BCUr(Current(I.e.One of the oldest urban states in human history, located in the southern part of the city)(English edition)Has been discovered.

What has been played in the Americas for a long time is the race gamePatriIs. Patri isAztecWas played inTeotihuacan,MayaBut after the board that seems to be a similar game remains. The game is said to have disappeared due to Spanish conquest,LookIt has been pointed out that the relationship with.

In the Middle East around the 10th centuryAlquerqueA game called is being played, this is changing in various places and drafts (checker) Is said to have become. Also, reversi (Othello) Is said to have originated from the English checkers.

One of the earliest capture gamesChatrangaThere is. Chatranga is said to have already existed around the 6th century, and as the chatranga spread throughout the world, the types of pieces changed andチ ェ ス,ChineseShangchi,JapaneseShogiIs believed to have been established.

In Northern Europe,VikingBetween the beginning of the 5th centuryTaflA game called (also known as the Viking game) has come to be played. This is an asymmetrical game in which two players are divided into an attacking side and an escaping side. Later, the fox became a motif,Fox and gooseIt is believed that Also in IrelandFidoherThat game is left in the lore, and how to play is unknown, but it is said that it is one of the variations of Tafl.

In ancient chinaSpring and autumn era(BC 770-403) in the siege gameGoIs believed to have been born. From the play with Go equipmentGomokuWas born and maintained thisRenjuWas made. There is also a theory that Othello originated in Go.

In this way, several ancient games developed in various places and various traditional games were born.

In the 20th century, board games show new developments.Military operationOr companymanagementThe event was reproduced in detail on the board.MonopolySuch asSimulation gamesHas become popular. After that, the so-calledEuro gamesGames that are not bound by the traditional traditional games are being devised one after another.

Traditional games

The distinction between traditional games and modern games is not clear. Here, for the sake of convenience, games that were born by the end of the 19th century (1900) and are still being played are listed as traditional games. See history for games not already played.

Race game

  • Sugoroku
  • Snake and ladder(Indian style Sugoroku. The birth date is unknown. It was introduced to England in the 19th century and spread to the world.)
  • Pachishi (Indian game similar to backgammon. Later in the US "en: Parcheesi))
  • Backgammon(タ ブ ラInvented in England around the 17th century based on. After that, the doubling cube was introduced in the United States in 1920 and became the current shape.)
  • Yun Nori(Board game on the Korean Peninsula. If you reach the goal with four pieces, you win, but you can also capture the opponent's pieces in the process)
  • Halma (Invented in the United States in 1883 or 1884. You win if you move all your pieces before your opponent, but unlike other race games, you don't use dice.en: Chinese checkers,Diamond gamesPrototype)

Capture game

  • Look(Bull (English edition).. A board game played by Native Americans. The first reports of the existence of the game were 1902-1903, but they existed even before that. Use the dice to move the pieces to capture the opponent's pieces)
  • Drafts(Can be captured by jumping over the opponent's piece.checkerIs famous)
  • チ ェ ス(IndianChatrangaBut,PersianWas transmitted to Europe in the 9th century by several routes, spread to all Europe around the year 1000 AD, and the rules were modified from around 1200. Around 1475, it seems to have become the rule of current chess.[6])
  • Shangchi(Chatranga has changed in China. It is characterized by the fact that Shogun cannot leave the area called Kyumiya)
  • Changi(Shangchi changed in Korea)
  • Shogi(Chatranga has changed in Japan. The feature is that you can use the captured opponent's piece as your own piece.Middle shogiThere is a variation called "Kushogi". In the Hokuriku region, developed from shogiIt wasIs also playing a tile game)
  • Military shogi(A Japanese game, but in ChinaMilitary chessThere is a similar game from before. A board game characterized by the fact that the pieces are prone and not a complete information game. You can win by capturing the opponent's pieces and proceeding with the game and occupying the opponent's general command center)

Siege game

  • Fox game(Northern Europe, before the 14th century. It is considered that Tafl was developed. There are various variations such as Halatafl (fox tail), fox and dog, but the most famous one isFox and gooseIs. Two players are in charge of the fox and the goose, respectively. The fox aims to capture the goose and the goose aims to surround the fox.)
  • XNUMX Musashi(A Japanese board game. This is an asymmetrical game in which parents and children are played in the same way as foxes and geese. Parents aim to capture the children with the children in between, and the children aim to surround the parents.)
  • Go(It originated in ancient China, and detailed rules have been gradually prepared throughout East Asia including Japan.)
  • Reversi(Born in EnglandOthelloA game almost similar to. Reversi was played before the 19th century, but the name Othello was named in Japan in the 20th century).

Array games

  • Gomoku(It was played from the 18th century before using Go equipment. Rules were established in Japan in the 19th century,RenjuBecame)
  • Nine Men's Morris(It is thought that it was born in ancient Roman times,中 世(Famous in England)

Mancala

  • Owari(The most popular mancala game in Africa centering on Ghana)
  • (English edition)(Mancala games in Southeast Asia)

Modern games

For the sake of convenience, here are those devised after the 20th century (since 1901) (when the year of invention, the name of the creator, and the country of origin are clear, they are shown in parentheses as much as possible).

A line

Ka line

Sa line

Line

Na line

  • Nash

Ha line

Ma line

Ya line

La line

Wa line

  • Winery four seasons

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Koichi Masukawa (1978). Board gameCultural history of things and humans 29. Hosei University Publishing 
  2. ^ However, even a game generally called a board game is often converted into a computer game (video game), and in this case, you will play on the screen without using actual boards or pieces. ..
  3. ^ Tsuneo Samukawa; Yuzo Kishino; Shinji Yamashita; Tara Obayashi (ed.) "Encyclopedia of National Games" Taishukan Shoten (1998/07)ISBN 978-4-469-01260-6, Koichi Masukawa "Bonus Game" Hosei University Press (1978/07), Koichi Masukawa "Game System and Transition" INAX (1994/06)
  4. ^ Other than board games,Contract bridgeCard games such as are also adopted.
  5. ^ Other than board games,plot,memorySuch competitions are also adopted.
  6. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess, Second edition. Oxford; New York: Oxford University
  7. ^ "Board game "Machikoro" is nominated for "German Game Award 2015"! A feat of Japanese works". Dengeki Online. Co., Ltd.KADOKAWA (September 2015, 5). 2016/5/7Browse.

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