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👩‍🎓 | YouTube channel for children "Gakken Kids TV" is now available


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Distribution of YouTube channel "Gakken Kids TV" for children started

 
If you write the contents roughly
In the first stage, we will focus on early childhood (preschooler) content, and then plan to develop content for elementary school students and junior high school students.
 

Gakken Plus and aquwa will jointly launch a YouTube channel for children "Gakken Kids TV" on November 11th ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

children

children(ChildrenSays the following.

  • The child I made[1].parentThe child[2].. A child paired with a parent. Child to parent.
  • Young[1][2].. Those who are old[2]. (Children,小 児) It may include elementary and junior high school students.

Depending on your thinking,FetusAlso(English editionDoinglifeMay be included in the child as[3].

In addition,Parent-child,(English editionIt shows the relative relationship withclan-PeopleorReligiousAlso used to indicate relationships within. It is also used to show the relationship to some concept, and it can be used to identify specific things like "natural children" or "children of the 1960s".,PlaceorEnvironmentIt may also be used to refer to a group of people who have undergone a situation such as[4].

Some terms are also used to refer to those who are young and lack of thought and behavior.[2], Such as "childish", "childlike", "messenger of child", etc.慣用 句Also[5].

Note that the word child is notAnimalAlso used for[6],Biology Not limited to, it is also used in the expression "child-bearing" to refer to a state in which a big thing and a small thing are combined[7].

A child whose meaning is to pair with one's own child or parent

The word "child" also refers to the child I have[1].KojienIn the fifth edition, the meaning is mentioned first in the explanation of "children".[1].DaijisenAlsoMusuko,DaughterAre listed[2].

In addition,letterIn, "children"Humble languageUsed as[8].. To show the other party, such as "Miko-sama"HonorificIs used[8].

Legal and social standards

United Nations OfConvention on the Rights of the ChildLet's have a child

Anyone under the age of 18, unless the adult is reached earlier under the laws applicable to children.

Has been determined[9].. The treaty has been ratified by 194 of the 192 member states.EnglishThe usage ofFetusMay also be included in the category of children[3].

However, “children” and their developmental stages are, by nature, gradual and inseparable, and the concept is historically constructed and reflects differences in society and culture.lawWhen determining adults and children in Japan, it is necessary to set a uniform line because legal stability will be impaired if individual maturity is taken into consideration.[twenty one].. Therefore, according to the purpose of each law, various definitions are used to define "child" individually.[10].

Definitions/divisions in Japan

In Japan, established in 1896 (Meiji 29)Civil lawBy the age of 20, the adult age is defined (Article 4)[11],Right to voteExcluding some rights such as drinking (Underage Drinking Prohibition LawArticle 1) Smoking (Underage Smoking Prohibition LawAdult rights including Article 1) etc. are given[10][12].

In addition,DemographicsIn the above, those under the age of 15 are considered "children",Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAccording to the demographics of, the population under 15 is defined as "younger population".

Definition and division of the world

National Diet LibraryAccording to the survey, 186 out of 18 countries around the world are adults. This excludes JapanMajor countries summitApplies to all target countries[12].. However, for 18-year-old adultsWestern countriesWas reflected in 1960-70's reflecting the active social behavior of the younger generation, and was set in 1968 in England.[12].. on the other hand,Asia,Africa OfDeveloping countriesThen the situation is different, and it will be owed earlyConscriptionThere is also an opinion that an adult age was set in order to grant the right of election etc. in response to the obligation of[12].

From a labor perspectiveInternational Labor Organization (ILO) has set three types of minimum working age in the ILO Convention No. 138 according to the work content. The minimum age is the age at which compulsory education is completed, and is basically set at 3 years old,Developing countryThen you can be 14 years old. On the other hand, light labor requires a younger age of 13 (12 in developing countries) as the minimum age. Conversely, the working age for dangerous work is 18 years or 16 years, subject to appropriate vocational training. In addition,Agriculture:Or help,Part-time jobAre excluded[22].

initiation

There is a custom of distinguishing children and adults by some kind of ritual, and these are the initiation (Rite of passage). Many were trials, penances, and changes in personal appearance.[23].

in JapanFormer clothesAlso corresponded to one of these[24]However, it is now obsolete in society.Coming-of-age ceremonyIt can be said that it is becoming a mere ritual.

Hayao KawaiSaid lack of initiation was a problem[twenty one],Peter Pan Syndrome,Psychosocial moratoriumIt is also thought to be a cause of the occurrence[23].

Historical concept

Ancient greece

Ancient greeceOf the eraPhillon of AlexandriaIn "Creation of the World" written byElegyWritten in the formatSolonThere is a part with a view of children. This represents the life of a person in steps of seven years.BoysIn this case, the age of physical maturity is in the fourth 4 years (7-22 years), and the age of mental maturity is in the sixth 28 years (6-7 years). Not all. Philon has the same 31-year incrementsHippocratesThe following views were also recorded: children under 7 years old (παιδιον), children up to 14 years old (παις), boys up to 21 years old (μειρακιον), young people up to 28 years old (νεανισκος)[25].. However, it is considered that the two main terms used to describe children at that time were παις and τεκνον. παις is a broad term that refers to other concepts such as “slave” and “gay people” in addition to children, and its meaning isIndo-EuropeanThe etymology is "small" or "not important" in the system. τεκνον is a word derived from τικτω, which is the word “birth”. Although there are exceptions, παις is considered to be a word created based on the relationship between the child and father, and τεκνον based on the relationship between the child and mother.[25][twenty one].. And conceptually, for boys, "Demos" (people)Before registration, it was common for girls to think before marriage as a "child".[25].

Plato,ア リ ス ト テ レ スExamined the time when a child became an adult, based on the maturity of these seven years. Plato's "Law" and "Political Science" argue that the age of marriage is 7-30 for men and 35-16 for women. The reason is that reproductive ability is enhanced from this age in each sex, and in the case of boys, the father reaches the reproductive limit at the age of 20,inheritanceI pointed out that the timing is suitable for[25].. Aristotle saysAnimal magazine], the growth stage of human beings is expressed in the theory of human growth every 7 years, and with adultsAthens OfCouncil of XNUMX people (βουλη) refers to a person who is qualified to take a public office after being named (βουλη), and in the earlier stages said that he was only a “provisional” or “apprentice” citizen. And "Nikomachos ethics, "Children and animals can take voluntary action but lack moderation, cannot exercise choice, and are subject to desire and passion. Therefore, he said that he must be watched by a person with reason[25].

Forming the concept of children

France OfHistorianPhilip AriesThe book "Birth of <child>],EuropeThen.中 世It was said that the concept of "child" did not exist until. Because of the high mortality rate in childhood, birth was not considered a member of the family. Eventually, after achieving some growth,apprentice,Serviceな どThe laborStarted to work for and was treated as a "small adult". for that reason,clothing,EntertainmentThere is no distinction from grown adults insexmoralThere was no consideration given to[27].. However, 13th centuryThe United KingdomThen,ReligiousandlawThere is also a claim that there was a concept of children different from adults from the perspective of[10].

In Japan, children had a strong sense of belonging to their parents. It was common for children to take over their homes, and they had to obey their parents. When poor houses such as rural areas suffer povertyFor saleOr sent to the service,foundling,ThinningWas done[28].

Jean-Jacques RousseauExplained in his 1762 book "Emile" that he treats children as "small adults" in his theory of passive education. The period from birth to age 12 is a childhood[29]能力organIs the stage of internal development[30], Education that teaches how to use many developed abilities and organs (human education) is counterproductive.[29], Education to expand and complete abilities and organs (natural education)[29]Insisted that[30].

The concept of children as non-adults occurred only to boys in the Middle Ages,womanWas not formed about[10].. As for the view of children as an infant and an adult,The early modern periodWas established since[10].. Appears from around the 16th-17th century家族In consciousness, the eyes of young children were adored at home because of their cuteness. Also socially,clergyman,moralistConsideration for children was born from a group that tried to realize an intelligent custom. These were linked around the 18th century, and society sees children as "small adults".AsylumThen,愛情CantDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularby[10]EducationThe recognition was formed in the way that there is something that must be done[27].

This transformationA paintingThis can be confirmed by following the changes in. In the 16th century, children's images begin to show a distinctive young appearance. From the late 17th century,gameYou will be drawn to enjoy.toy,Children's literatureIt was around this time that[31].

Changes in family meaning and education

In the same book, Aries also touches on changes in the body that educates children. Until the Middle Ages, children grew up full-fledged during apprenticeship, either at home or at work in the home. that is,家族 communityBecause I had a strong personality of being part ofParent-child relationshipWas not an environment that fosters[27].. In the modern world, the separation of work, social affairs, and personal life progressed,HouseOnly the family will live in it. Here, the unit of the family is emphasized rather than the community, and the position occupied by the children is increasing. Also, for the wealthy childrenDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAt the same time, the "teacher" and "student" categories were separated into "adults" and "children". Schools became a transit point for providing the education necessary for social life, and when they left school, they were separated by "adults" and until then "children".[27].

Social attitude towards children

The social attitudes towards children vary from culture to culture in the world and from time to time. In 1988EuropeIn a survey conducted in countries,イタリアHas a strong child-centered tendency NetherlandsThen weak.オーストリア,The United Kingdom,アイルランド,West GermanyOther countries occupied intermediate positions[32].

Child socialization

play

Generally, "play" is a distraction[33]Tend to be unproductive[26]However, this is only for adult play, and play is at the center of life for children.[33], Especially in early childhood, life is all about play[34].. And kids learn a lot through play[35].. Article 1959 of 7 states: "Children have the right to be given ample opportunities for play and recreation.[36].. Says that play is an important element for children.[26].

Johann Huizinga"Play is a voluntary act/activity,RuleThe act of feeling tension and joy while accepting and complying with[twenty one].. In play, children learn independently and independently so as not to break the rules and break the play itself.[35].. Pretend play that imitates an adult evokes interest in social life, forms attitudes and personality, andtheaterNatureartIt is also argued that it can be developed into creative creation[37].

Formation of friends

Every childgrowth-developmentAcquire sociability with. Infants and very small children are happy to play alone[38].. The first person these children have to interact with is a caregiver, and in many cases it ismotherIs[39].

If there are other children there, they may collide or try to eliminate them. But eventually they started playing together, finding fun in sharing and interaction. And the number of people to play with has increased to 3 or 4,FriendWill form a group called[38].. For childrenBrother,sisterIf they are, they are the ones who make the initial fellowship. thisBrothers and sistersRelationships are relationships that play an important role in experiencing the competition and cooperation that we face through social life.[twenty one][39].KindergartenBy the time we entered the park, the children joined our circle of friends,GroupWill be able to enjoy the experience in[38].. Where the childPreschool educationReceived through various playunderstanding,思考-creativityorProblem solvingだ け で な く,Expression,Social-CooperativenessAlso wear[40][41].

Education

In many countries, children who have reached a certain ageCompulsory educationIs applied. hereCountry,社会Minimum required as a member of言语-culture-specificationTo promote the development of individuality/ability and personality formation[42].. According to the School Education Law, the compulsory education period in Japan is 6 to 15 years old.[19],Mozambique,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere are exceptions such as the above, but many other countries also have educational systems for 6-9 years from around the age of 10.[43][44].

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) andLearning disabilityChildren in South Africa may require special assistance in training to develop social skills. Children with ADHD may have difficulty establishing good friendships. Attention-deficient children may have difficulty catching social cues around them and may have difficulty acquiring social skills through experience[38].

Responsible age

Human beingsmarriage,voteThe age that is accepted when people can take responsibility for social promises changed with the times, and nowadayslawHas become a problem to be enacted.Ancient romeThen the child was deemed not to be liable for the sin, and the Christian church later adopted this position. In the 19th century, the age of non-crime responsibility was considered to be under 7, and humans over the age of 7 became liable for their actions. In other words, if a person over the age of 7 was accused, he was sent to the same prison as an adult, and the punishment such as whipping, stigmatization, and hanging was executed just like an adult.[45].. In modern times, the age of criminal responsibility in many countries such as Canada and the United States is 12 years or older, but when criminalized, there are many cases where they are to be held in a juvenile detention facility different from adults. ..

According to one study, at least 25 countries around the world do not set the age of children for compulsory education. And the minimum age for employment and marriage varies. In at least 125 countries, children aged 7 to 15 are being tried and imprisoned for criminal activity. In some countries, the law provides for schooling until ages 14 to 15, but employment is permitted from a younger age. children `sRight to educationWhat threatenschild labourOr in captivity[46].

Child mortality

In Britain in the 1600s, two-thirds of children died under the age of four, so life expectancy remained around 2.[47].. This was dramatically improved and the survival rate of children increased.Industrial revolutionIs the period[48].

According to the population health experts, compared to the 1990sInfant mortalityIs declining rapidly. Compared to 20 years ago, 5 under-five deaths in the United States%Went down.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,MalaysiaAlso reduced the number of deaths to 7.0%[49].

Children and labor

The United Kingdom

Child labor began to become a social problem in the 18th and 19th centuries beginning in England.Industrial revolutionIt was a period. Hired as an unskilled worker at low wages[10], The children who were forced to work long hours in the factory while being placed in a poor living environment,Friedrich EngelsTouched by ""Charles DickensAlso drawn in novels, etc.[twenty one].Karl MarxAlso"Capital theory』, touched the existence of a four-year-old factory worker[52].

In the United Kingdom, a factory law was enacted in 1833, which put restrictions on children's labor, but the working age was 9 years or older, and the labor was less than 12 hours a day. Also, due to the small size of the body, it is dangerous and may cause health problemschimneyclean upWas also used for the tough labor like[52].

The turning point was the Ordinance for Elementary School Education, which came into effect in 1870, and begins with the establishment of compulsory education for children under the age of 13. This was not immediate, but coupled with productivity gains played a role in the first half of the 20th century to move children from vulnerable factory labor to modern education schools.[52].

Japan

The reason why children started to take factory labor in Japan wasMeijiOf the eraWealthy soldiers,Aquaculture industry, Industrialization centered on the yarn and textile industries began to spread.[28].. Among them, children were generally hired, but the working environment was worse than that of adults, and they were conveniently used, such as being dismissed during a recession. The first volume of "Job Construction Information" in 1903 (Meiji 36), compiled by the Ministry of Agriculture and Industry, shows that long hours of simple work sometimes lead to all-night work, and it seems that workers continue to work with no dust breaks and dust. Reported[53].Yokoyama GennosukeLeft a record of his visits to factories in Osaka, but according to it, girls under the age of 15 were mostly used in the spinning field, including some 7-8 years old. There was already a school system in 1872 (Meiji 5), but they did not have a satisfactory education.[52].. 1916 (TaishoFactory law enacted in 5 years)[Note 1]However, it was not sufficient such as long working hours and exemption from small businesses[52].

In the 20th century,World DepressionThe depression and social unrest that started in Japan also attacked children, and parents and childrenIn my heart,Child abuse,Child killingThe deterioration of the child labor environmentJuvenile crimeIncrease has become a problem[28][53].. In addition, due to the high infant mortality rate and the increasing momentum for international public protection of children, the National Child Protection Business Conference was held from 1926 to discuss legislation for child protection,Child Abuse Prevention LawAnd each Relief ActnurseryRelated laws, alsoNot attending schoolCorrespondence led to establishment of child protection law[53].

Current status

According to 2000 statistics released by the International Labor Organization (ILO), there are 2 million children in child labor in the world. Of these, 4600 million were under the age of 15. Established by the ILO in Convention No. 1,Human trafficking..ForcedBoy soldier-Forced labor-Buy spring-Child pornography-drugUnauthorized activities such as related work / Working on the streetStreet children[54]Unconditionally the worst labor[22]840 million children are engaged in[55].. Besides this,Domestic servantAbuse, forced labor orChild sexual abuseIs believed to be[56].

Children as the weak

"Children are deceived in 35 seconds," Carroll Coop said.[twenty one][57].. Children are generally not mature in thought and judgment, and are not resistant to external stimuli due to their high sensitivity.[10].

This characteristicBoy soldierIs a factor that causes In addition to being easy to collect, children are amenable to education and training and easy to inject specific ideas. As a result, juveniles are more loyal to orders and more cruel than general soldiers.地雷In some cases, children were walked to eliminate them. Also,armsIn many cases, it is used for "disposable" such as terrorist attacks by taking advantage of its light weight and the fact that it makes it harder for the enemy to be wary.[58].. Although the Convention on the Rights of the Child and various international treaties prohibit the conscription of children,povertyThere is also a reason such as the collapse of the community, the fact that it is ineffective in the situation where there are frequent regional conflicts and civil wars.[58].

Notation in Japanese

JapanIn the world of education, law, administrative documents in2000 eraAround the timechildrenI refrained from saying that it was a discriminatory impression, etc.ChildWas often used[59].

In the national language of elementary and junior high schools, "ko" is a kanji for first-year elementary school students, and "companion" is a sixth-grade elementary school kanji.IntermixIs the "child" notation[59]But,textbookIn, even after the sixth grade of elementary school, the notations "child" and "child" were mixed depending on the publisher. As an example, it is recorded in the company's official textbook for third-grade students.Lu XunIn "hometown" ofSchool books,Educational publication,Mitsumura booksIs "child", whileTokyo BooksSanseidoIs written as "child"[59].. Some reference books for teacher recruitment tests also recommended "child" notation based on the former MEXT notation.[59].. Note thatJapanese alphabetOrTypographical errorAs "small companion"[59]And "children" were also seen.

However, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology20135In addition, we investigated the history of the notation of "children" that has been frequently used in the province. After confirming that there are no internal rules for notation,Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyHirofumi ShimomuraInstructed to standardize the notation within the ministry. As a result of the consultation, it was determined that the word "child" was not a discriminatory expression.[60],6The notation used in official sentences from lateUnified into "children" official[Note 2][61].

Initially, the standardization of "children" notation was limited to official documents,2010 eraFollowing this, following this, the number of “children” notations other than official documents has been increasing compared to before. In the official textbooks for the above-mentioned national languages, as well as the Tokyo books, which have been actively adopting the notation of "children" until now, the parts that were described as "children" in the textbooks since the sixth grade of elementary school were changed to "children". Are[62].. Although private media such as newspaper companies do not standardize the notation,Mainichi NewspapersThe actual usage in newspaper articles2000Although the number of "children" has been around since then,2010Since then, the number of "children" has increased again, and the number is about the same as "children".[63].. However, according to a questionnaire to the general public by the company, 63.3% of the readers prefer the "child" notation and 25.4% of the "child" notation, with "children" prevailing in general.[63].

2020 yearsKobe newspaperAccording to the article,Hiroaki IimaAs for the opinion, the discriminatory image surrounding the word "companion" is "It's not based on historical facts, it’s just a myth"On the other hand, it is not always possible to say that "Kids" are not beautiful in Japanese, and "Kids" are not beautiful in Japanese." Introducing affirmation[64].. In addition, when we conducted a questionnaire to local newspapers nationwide, many reporters answered that "children" have a softer impression of letters (so we use it).[64].. The writer is free to choose which notation, and said "I think I should make my favorite notation" without "competiting further"[64].

Of a children's writerShiro YadamaAsserts that "children are Ateji and has no discriminatory meaning," and is developing a movement that "children's followers should wake up."[65].

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Promulgated in 1911 (Meiji 44). (The National Archives of Japan "The History of Japan in Official Documents, March 44 (1911)"
  2. ^ This is partly due to the petition of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for the abolition of the "child" notation by the group seeking the abolition of the interstitial writing, and the frequent mention of the correction of the interstitial notation by the Diet (the House of Representatives Science and Technology Committee). Japan Education Newspaper July 2013, 7

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  54. ^ "2. Actual conditions of child labor Children working on the street: Street Children". ILOOffice in Japan. 2012/3/25Browse.
  55. ^ "statistics". ILOOffice in Japan. 2012/3/25Browse.
  56. ^ "2. Actual conditions of child labor Children who are employed as domestic servants". ILOOffice in Japan. 2012/3/25Browse.
  57. ^ Mafumi Usui. “Criminal psychology of four small 6 girls in Tokyo confinement case". Niigata Seiryo UniversityGraduate School of Clinical Psychology. 2012/3/10Browse.
  58. ^ a b Keiji Ono. “To solve the child soldier problem (PDF)". Ministry of DefenseNational Institute for Defense Studies. 2012/3/30Browse.
  59. ^ a b c d e Takashi Kiyono "Construction of basic studies of Japanese language education (I) Kanji basics-Based on the notation of "child" and "child"-"Hokkaido University of Education Bulletin (educational science)" Vol. 59, No. 1, Hokkaido University of Education, 2008.
  60. ^ “Understand “child” as “child” Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Education uses it as an official document”. J-CAST News. (September 2013, 9). https://www.j-cast.com/2013/09/01182664.html?p=all 
  61. ^ "Children" to "children" Shimomura, Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Education, Education, Japan
  62. ^ "New Edition New National Language 3" (certified version on March 2018, XNUMX) Tokyo Shoseki Co., Ltd., XNUMX. 
  63. ^ a b "How to write "children""Mainichi Shimbun Review Center. (November 2018, 11). https://mainichi-kotoba.jp/enq-037 
  64. ^ a b c ""Child" or "Child" Which do you write? There are many "children" groups in newspapers.Maido News. (August 2020, 8). https://maidonanews.jp/article/13585181 
  65. ^ "Children's followers should wake up". 2020/12/1Browse.

Source

Here, the "source" presented in the notes/footnotes is shown.

  1. ^ "Introduction to Contemporary Law", Masami Ito, Ichiro Kato, Yuhikaku, 3rd Edition, 1999, p.22
  2. ^ Hayao Kawai "Pathology of Japanese Motherhood Society"Kodansha, 1997.ISBN 978-4062562195.
  3. ^ Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens, Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr., 1993 (1990), p. 12-13.
  4. ^ Johann Huizinga "Homo Ludens Human Culture and Play"
  5. ^ Toshikazu Yoshida (1987) “The Significance of Siblings” edited by Masaki Nagata, “Social Psychology of Family Relations” Fukumura Publishing, p.107.
  6. ^ Iwao Matsunaga “London's Underworld in Oliver Twit” Wako University Institute for Cultural Studies Annual Report “East, West, North and South” 1997
  7. ^ Carol S. Coop, "Protecting Children from the Trap of Perverts," 1997.ISBN 978-4890071029.

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