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🎁 | Christmas gifts that last for more than 40 years ... Book card JA Toshoken Ishikawa for children who lost their parents in a traffic accident


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Christmas gifts that last for more than 40 years ... Book card JA Toshoken Ishikawa for children who lost their parents in a traffic accident

 
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A transmission ceremony was held in Kanazawa City on the 22nd, and Koichi Nishizawa, Chairman of the JA Bank Ishikawa Steering Committee, presented book cards to the representatives of four JAs in the prefecture.
 

Christmas gifts were given to children in Ishikawa prefecture who lost their parents in a traffic accident. JA Mutual Aid Ren Ishikawa ... → Continue reading

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Koichi Nishizawa Chairman of the Steering Committee

Medal (Japan)

In this section,Japan OfMedalI will explain about (Nihon no Kunsho).

Overview

JapanInMedalWas established after the Meiji era as a system for the state to commend individual achievements and achievements.investiture,conferring a peerage(Abolished in 1947 (Showa 22)),Honoras well as the AwardHonor, as wellToast,insigniaAmong the above, it is said to be a chapter decoration belonging to the honor[1][2]..In other words, a medal is one of those given by an honor along with a medal.An emblem worn to show honor,Award BureauIn addition to medals, there are medals and insignia that are stipulated by the laws and regulations under their jurisdiction, and these are collectively referred to as "medals, etc." 39) Article 4).

JapanInMedalIt is,EmperorAwarded in the name of[3].Article 7 of the Constitution of JapanNo. 7 is the emperor'sNational actAs one ofhonorThe emperor awards a medal as one of the "honor" based on the same article.Although there is no explicit provision in the Constitution of Japan regarding the substantive right to decide the awarding of honors,Article 7 of the Constitution of JapanAdvice and approval andAdministrative powerThe Cabinet has substantive decision-making power because it is the subject of[4].

Establish a medal systemlawNot,Cabinet Order(Consumed as a Cabinet OrderProclamation,Edict)as well asCabinet Office Ordinance(Consumed as Cabinet Office OrdinancePrime ministers,Cabinet Decree) Is operated[3]..Regarding the honor system and the honor system, some points have been discussed (Issues related to the honor system and honor systemSee section).

Now22 typeOrders that exist[5]Is the 8th year of the Meiji era, Declaration No. 54 "", and the 10th year of the Meiji era, the 97th issue of the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Court.Meiji21年勅令第1号「」(平成14年(2002年)改正前は明治21年1月4日勅令第1号「各種ノ勲章等級製式及ヒ大勲位菊花章頸飾ノ製式」)及び、昭和12年勅令第9号「Order of CultureIs defined by.

The current 22 medals areOrder of the Chrysanthemum,Order of the Paulownia,Asahi Rising Sun,Rui Hosho,Order of the Precious CrownandOrder of CultureBroadly divided into[5]..菊花章(大勲位菊花章)と桐花章(桐花大綬章)は、「旭日大綬章又は瑞宝大綬章を授与されるべき功労より優れた功労のある者」に対して特に授与することができるものとされるThe Order of the Chrysanthemums (Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemums) and the Order of the Paulownia Flowers (Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun) are especially awarded to "those who have more than the achievements to be awarded the Order of the Asahi Sun or the Order of the Paulownia". Be supposed to be able to[6]..旭日章、瑞宝章は「国家又は公共に対し功労のある者」に授与され、旭日章は「社会の様々な分野における功績の内容に着目し、顕著な功績を挙げた者」、瑞宝章は「国及び地方公共団体の公務又は…公共的な業務に長年にわたり従事して功労を積み重ね、成績を挙げた者」とその対象に違いが設けられているThe Order of the Rising Sun and the Order of the Rising Sun are awarded to "people who have made a contribution to the nation or the public", the Order of the Rising Sun is "a person who has made remarkable achievements by paying attention to the contents of achievements in various fields of society", and the Order of the Rising Sun is "the country". And the public affairs of local public bodies or ... those who have been engaged in public affairs for many years and have accumulated achievements and achieved good results "and their targets are different.[6]..宝冠章は「特別ノ場合婦人ノ勲労アル者」に授与すると定められ(宝冠章及大勲位菊花章頸飾ニ関スル件1条1項)、現在は外国人に対する儀礼叙勲やThe Order of the Precious Crown is stipulated to be awarded to "special cases of women's merit al-persons" (the Order of the Precious Crown and the Grand Medal of the Kikuhana Akira Necklace, Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX), and is currently used as a ritual honor for foreigners.royalOperated only in special cases such as honors for girls[7]..The Order of Culture is awarded to the "Cultural Development Niseki Achievement Outstanding Naruto" (Order of Culture,Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture (PDF) ).All of them are for individuals only, and are not awarded to groups or corporations.If it is an individual, it does not matter whether it is a survivor or a dead person.It does not matter whether you are a Japanese citizen or a foreigner.

The award is the spring and autumn award,Dangerous work worker honor, Elderly medal, Death medal, Foreigner medal[8]..The Spring-Autumn Medal is a regular medal issued twice a year in spring and autumn.春秋叙勲は、春はSpring and autumn honors, in spring4/29(Showa Day), Autumn11/3(Culture Day), Approximately 4,000 people receive the award each time[8][9][10]..Dangerous work worker honorsPolice officer,SDF,Firefighter,Prison officer,Maritime SheriffIt is issued on the same day as the Spring and Autumn Awards for former civil servants aged 55 and over who have engaged in dangerous work such as, and about 3,600 people receive the award each time.[8][11]..高齢者叙勲は、春秋叙勲で受章していない功労者を対象として毎月1日に発令され、年齢満88歳に達したのを機に叙勲されるThe Elderly Award is issued on the XNUMXst of every month for those who have not received the Spring / Autumn Award, and is awarded when they reach the age of XNUMX.[8]..死亡叙勲は、叙勲対象となるべき者が死亡した際、随時叙勲されるThe death award is given at any time when the person who should be the target of the award dies.[8]..外国人叙勲は、国賓等に対する儀礼的な叙勲と功労のあった外国人に対する叙勲があり、いずれもThere are two types of foreigner honors: ceremonial honors for state guests, etc. and honors for foreigners who have made a contribution.Minister of Foreign AffairsBased on recommendations from[8]..なお、文化勲章は1年に1回発令され、11月3日のThe Order of Culture is issued once a year on November XNUMXrd.Culture DayIn addition, the emperor gives a parent (directly) in the palace.[8]..For any of the honorsOfficial gazetteThe name of the recipient and the medal that was awarded will be listed in the section "Medal / Medal" (Article 1).In addition, many newspapers report the names of recipients of the Order of Culture, the Order of Culture, the Order of Culture, and the Order of Culture.

The medal is the "criteria for awarding medals" (2003å¹´(Heisei15 years)5/20CabinetDecision)[6]It is done based on.In addition to formal requirements such as being 70 years of age or older, the award candidate will be investigated for the content of "service to the state or the public" and the history of awards and punishments.This investigation is thorough and there is no punishment (Road Traffic Lawviolation,Law on securing storage places for carsIncludes fines for violations. ) Of courseBankruptcy,Bankruptcy proceedings start decisionWith or withoutMayorInquired to and used as selection material[12].

In the selection of recipients, first of all, the "Summary of Nomination Candidate Recommendations" decided by the Prime Minister[13]On the basis of the,Chairman of the House of Representatives,Chairman of the House of Councilors,National Diet Library Director,Chief of the Supreme Court,Prime Minister,Ministers,Director of the Board of Audit,President of the National Personnel Authority,Secretary of the Imperial Household AgencyAnd the head of the foreign bureau in the Cabinet Office (Fair Trade CommissionChairman,National Public Safety Commission Chair,Financial Services AgencySecretary,Consumer Affairs AgencyThe Secretary) recommends candidates for the award to the Prime Minister.次に、内閣総理大臣がこの候補者を審査して、閣議決定が行われるNext, the Prime Minister examines this candidate and a cabinet decision is made.[9]..After that, it is announced after being performed by the emperor and getting approval.叙勲者の多くを占めるのは、各省大臣からの推薦(省庁推薦)によるものであるMost of the honorees are recommended by each minister (recommended by ministries and agencies).[14].. In addition,Dangerous work worker honorThe selection procedure is set separately for[15]..このほか、2003年(平成15年)秋の叙勲より導入された一般推薦制度もあるIn addition, there is also a general recommendation system introduced in the fall of XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX).[16]..もっとも、2008年(平成20年)秋の叙勲における一般推薦による受章者は4028人中5人と、ごく少数にとどまっているHowever, the number of recipients of the general recommendation in the autumn of XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX) is only XNUMX out of XNUMX, which is very small.[14].

After receiving the medal, "Death penalty,ImprisonmentAlso cIndefiniteWakaha for more than XNUMX yearsimprisonmentWhen the reason stipulated in the Order for Deprivation of the Order (Kunsho Chidatsurei, Royal Decree No. 41 of 291) occurs, the medal is deprived (deprived).The decree also stipulates that the medal cannot be used while being detained by law.

The Constitution of JapanArticle 14In the latter part of paragraph 3, it is stated that "the awarding of honors is effective only for the generation of those who actually have it or who will receive it in the future."HereditaryThere is nothing to do, and only the person who has been awarded can use it (yes, wear it).なお、本人またはその親族が受けた勲章は財産としてのThe medal received by the person or his / her relatives is a property.SeizureIs forbidden (Civil Execution LawArticle 131 No. 10,National tax collection lawArticle 75, Paragraph 1, Item 9).また、授与された有体物としての勲章はIn addition, the medal as a tangible thing that was awardedProperty rightAs the target ofinheritanceSubject to.

Trademarks that are the same as or similar to the medal cannot be registered as trademarks (Trademark lawArticle 4, Paragraph 1, Item 1), a person who uses a medal or something made to resemble a medal despite not being qualifieddetentionOrFeeBe treated by (Light crime lawThere are also some legal restrictions related to medals, such as Article 1-15).

History

Bakumatsu

Japan isWestern EuropeIt was the one who established the full-scale medal system following the countriesMeijiIt's an era,BakumatsuAlsoSatsuma DomainWas producing and awarding "Gong tiles".1867年(Keio3 years),FranceOpened inParis World ExpositionFrom JapanEdo Shogunate・ Satsuma Domain ・Saga DomainParticipated for the first time, and each exhibited.At that time, while the Shogunate designated the representative of the "Taikun Government of Japan", Satsuma also independently named the representative of the "Taikun Government of Japan" and acted as if it were an independent government from the Shogunate. It was.さらにそのことを具体的に示すため、フランスのTo show that more concretely, in FranceLegion of HonorSatsuma Ryukyu Kingdom's tiles are produced locally and this isNapoleon IIIThe following was given to a senior French government official[17]..This is Japan's first Western-style medal "Satsuma Ryukyu National Medal".一方、パリでの状況を知った幕府も勲章制度を検討したが、間もなくMeanwhile, the Shogunate, who learned about the situation in Paris, also considered a medal system, but soonResignationWas welcomed.この時に計画され、図案まで検討されていたのがWhat was planned at this time and even the design was being consideredAoi MedalHowever, it ended up being a phantom.Also,Meiji RestorationAs a result, the Satsuma Ryukyu National Medal also lost its significance, and as a result, the one awarded in Paris was the first and last one.[18].

Establishment of a medal system

The modern system was being developed under the Meiji Restoration1871年10/15(Meiji 49/2), The new government is a legislative body that deliberates on the medal systemLeft houseI consulted with.1873年(Meiji 6) In JulyJunjiro Hosokawa,Matsudaira Norikata5 people said "Medal[Annotation 1]I was appointed as an interrogator to collect materials and research on medals.1875年(8th year of Meiji)4/10,Award-winning apologyEmitAward tiles Enactment of military tiles(Meiji 8Proclamation(No. 54)[Annotation 2]PromulgatedOrder etc.とAwardSystem was established.The decree stipulates that those who have honored honors from the first prize to the eighth prize will be given the first prize to the eighth prize, respectively.このとき定められた賞牌の制式は、現在のThe award ceremony established at this time is the current one.Asahi Rising SunIs the basis of[Annotation 3][Annotation 4].

At the end of the same yearPrince Arisugawa TakahitoThe following 10 royal families were honored for the first time.royalThe next time the award was given to anyone other than1876年(Meiji 9)Taiwan troopsBy the merit ofSaigo servantWas hailed as the first prize.また同年には、清国との交渉に功のあったアメリカ人のAlso in the same year, an American who was successful in negotiating with the Qing dynastyLegendreAnd the FrenchBoissonadeWas awarded the second prize as the first foreign honors system.

Expansion of system

1876 (9th year of Meiji)10/12, Secretariat for Awards in the Shoin (in December of the same year)Award Bureau(Renamed) was installed,Council OfIto HirobumiWas appointed as the first secretary, and Matsudaira Norikata was appointed as the deputy secretary.[Annotation 5].. same year11/15By the decree of the Daijo-kanMedal(The military tilesMilitary Medal of Honor) (Declaration No. 9 of the Daijo-kan in 141).また、同年Also in the same year12/27 OfPoemAs a result, the grand medal was placed at the top of the first prize.大勲位には、対応する勲章としてFor the Grand Cordon, as the corresponding medalGrand Cordon of the KikuhanaとOrder of the ChrysanthemumWas enacted[Annotation 6].1888年(21th year of Meiji)1/3To facilitate the operation of the system and follow the examples of other countriesOrder of the Precious CrownとRui HoshoIs newly established, and the Order of the Rising Sun ranks higher than the Order of the Rising Sun.Asahi Sun Kirihana DaihoshoHowever, the Order of the Chrysanthemums ranks higher than the Order of the Chrysanthemums.ChrysanthemumWas placed (Meiji 21 Royal Decree No. 1).

また1890年In (Meiji 23), the martial arts were outstandingsoldierMilitary affiliationAwarded toGold medal(Kou XNUMXst to Kou XNUMXth grade) was established[Annotation 7].1896年In (Meiji 29), the Order of the Precious Crown was revised from XNUMXth grade to XNUMXth grade.1919年In (Taisho 8), it was decided that women could also be awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure.さらにfurther1937年(Showa 12) is a single-class award given to those who have made academic and artistic achievements.Order of CultureWas enacted.

Suspension and resumption of the system

September 1945 (Showa 20),Second World War OfThe end of the warAnd followGHQJapan due to the occupation rule ofOfficialThe system has changed radically, making it difficult to apply the traditional rules of merit.1946å¹´(Showa 21) Due to a cabinet decision on May 5, survivor medals will be temporarily suspended except for royal and foreign medals and the Order of Culture.[19].. According to the Constitution of Japan, which came into effect in 1947 (Showa 22), "the awarding of honors, medals and other honors does not entail any privilege" (Article 14 paragraph 3), And various privileges associated with the honor have been abolished.

The Constitution will be carried out by the Emperor with the advice and approval of the Cabinet.National actAs one of the "to confer the honor" (Article 7 No. 7), Since then, the deceased, the royal family, the medals for foreigners, the Order of Culture, and the medals for survivors after resumption are based on the same article.

In 1948 (Showa 23), the establishment of a new honor system began to be considered.[20]For a while after that, except for the Order of Culture and the Order of Culture, the Order of Culture and the Order of Foreigners, the survivors were not awarded.But,1953年(28)9/18Resumed the award for survivors who urgently need to be honored by a Cabinet decision.[21]..再開されたのは、同年に西日本を中心として各地に風水害が発生し、これに対し救難、防災、復旧に尽力した功労者が多数に上り栄典制度活用の必要性が痛感されたことによるものであるThe resumption was due to the fact that wind and flood damage occurred in various places, mainly in western Japan, in the same year, and many people who have contributed to rescue, disaster prevention, and restoration have come to realize the necessity of utilizing the honor system. is there[22]..また、1955年(昭和30年)には、内閣に臨時栄典制度審議会が設置され、新たな栄典制度の創設について審議が重ねられたIn XNUMX (Showa XNUMX), an extraordinary honor system council was established in the Cabinet, and deliberation was repeated on the establishment of a new honor system.[23].. 1948年(昭和23年)からFrom XNUMX (Showa XNUMX)1963年By (38), the bill on the honor system was submitted to the Diet three times by the Cabinet, but none of them was passed.[Annotation 8].

1963 year (Showa 38 year)7/12,Ikeda CabinetCabinet decision decided to resume survivor awards[24]..This does not stipulate a law concerning the honor system including honors, and it is decided to perform survivor honors based directly on Article 7-7 of the Constitution.生存者叙勲再開の閣議決定に従い、翌Following the Cabinet decision to resume the survivor's honor, the next1964年(39)4/21The new "Criteria for Medal" was approved by the Cabinet.[25][Annotation 9]..これは戦前の叙勲制度が官吏及び軍人中心のものであったのに対し、日本国憲法の下では国民の各界各層を対象とする叙勲制度とするために叙勲の基準を新たに定めたものであるWhile the prewar medal system was centered on government officials and military personnel, under the Constitution of Japan, the standard of medal was newly established in order to make it a medal system for all levels of the people. is there[22]. And29th of the same month,Yoshida ShigeruToGrand Order Chrysanthemum flower emblem,Ishibashi Tozan-Satoshi KatayamaRaniThe First Order of the Order of the Rising SunThe survivor's medal was announced.Since then, the awards have been issued twice a year in spring and autumn.

Issues surrounding the basis law

There is also a position that the resumption of the honor system without the law is regarded as a problem in relation to the legislative power, and it is pointed out that the content should be stipulated by a law such as the "honor law".[26].

As of September 2021, there are no laws regarding the honor system, including the honor system, in Japan.Therefore, the honor system and the honor system areArticle 7, No. 7 of the Japanese Constitution Emperor OfNational actBased on the "Awarding the Honor", which is defined as one of the above, based on the Cabinet Order (Cabinet Order, Royal Decree), Cabinet Office Ordinance (Cabinet Office Ordinance, Cabinet Office Ordinance), Cabinet Office Ordinance, etc.CabinetIs actually doing the office work and operating[3].

Therefore, first of all, the problem is that it may be a violation of the Constitution for the Cabinet to implement a honor system including a medal system under the laws and regulations below the Cabinet Order, without being based on the basis of the law.In this regard, according to the government's view, Article 73, No. 6 of the Constitution "enacts a Cabinet Order in order to implement the provisions of this Constitution and the law." That is, the right to enact a Cabinet Order is stipulated as the authority of the Cabinet. The Cabinet has enacted a Cabinet Order to implement the "Giving a Honor" of Article 7-7 of the Constitution, which is the "regulation of this Constitution ...", and has established a Honor System based on this Cabinet Order and the Cabinet Order. Since it is being implemented, there is nothing against the Constitution.これに対して反対説の立場によれば、憲法73条6号に定める内閣の政令制定権は、「憲法及び法律を実施するために」行使されるところ、ここでいう「憲法及び法律」は一体として読むべきであり、憲法を直接実施する旨の政令を定めることはできず、法律の存在が前提になるとしOn the other hand, according to the opposition, the Cabinet Order-making right stipulated in Article XNUMX, Item XNUMX of the Constitution is exercised "to implement the Constitution and the Law", but the "Constitution and the Law" here is It should be read as a unit, and it is not possible to establish a cabinet order to directly implement the Constitution, assuming the existence of a law.[27]The implementation of the honor system, which lacks the underlying law, is unconstitutional.

Next, the government's view is that regarding the meaning of "legislation" and the scope of legislative matters stipulated in the latter part of Article 41 of the Constitution, "legislation" means "establishment of legal norms that limit the rights of the people or impose obligations". On the premise of the view that the act requiring the establishment of such legal norms is a legal matter (rights restriction matter theory), the act of awarding the honor does not limit or impose the rights of the people, but its meaning. It is not the original legal matter, and the legal basis is not required for the awarding of the honor.It should be noted that Article 11 of the Cabinet Law stipulates that "a Cabinet Order cannot impose obligations or provide provisions that limit rights without the mandate of the law" because of the same view. ..On the other hand, the position of the opposition is based on the view that the meaning of "legislation" in the latter part of Article 41 of the Constitution is "almost all general and abstract legal norms" (general legal norms theory). Is an administrative act that is generally general (the number of people who are subject to the law is an unspecified number of people) and abstract (the number of cases covered by the discipline of the law is an unspecified number of people). I need.From the standpoint of the theory of restrictions on rights, the decree to deprive the medal (Imperial Ordinance No. 41 of 291), which stipulates that the medal should be deprived in the event of certain misconduct, should be stipulated by law. Although it is understood to include it, the decree has been amended as a cabinet order even after the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan.

In addition, whether or not the current decree related to honors (Cabinet Order, Royal Decree) and Cabinet Office Ordinance (Cabinet Office Ordinance, Cabinet Office Ordinance) is really effective is also an issue.In this regard, according to the government's view, the current cases such as the establishment of medals (Daijo-kan Decree No. 8 of 54) and the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Court Kikuhana and the sub-chapter manufacturing ceremony (Taisho-no. 10 of 97) Since the decree related to honor does not fall under "all or part of the laws, orders, royalties and other acts related to national affairs that violate the provisions of this Constitution ..." stipulated in Article 98, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution, even after the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan It is considered to be effective because it is effective and has been revised by proper procedures as a Cabinet Order.On the other hand, according to the position of the opposition, on the premise that the awarding of honors is a legal matter, laws and regulations such as government ordinances related to honors (decree of the Daijo-kan, imperial ordinance) and Cabinet Office Ordinance (Taikoku, Cabinet Ordinance) ,Law Concerning the Effectiveness of the Provisions of Orders that are Effective when the Constitution of Japan is Enforced(Act No. 22 of 72) "Actually effective when the Constitution of Japan is enforced" as stated in Article 1.commandIn 1 (Showa), according to Article 4 of the same law, because it was not amended by the "Resolution of the Diet" of Article 1-1947 of the same law, although it corresponds to "the provisions of the law that stipulate matters to be stipulated by law". 22) Suppose that it expired only on December 12st[Annotation 10]..The current law list of the first law and the Japanese law index of the National Diet Library have also been changed to expire.

Institutional modernization

1999年(11) in AugustLDPLaunched the Honor System Review Project Team[Annotation 11], Next day2000年(12)4/13I have compiled a report entitled "Reform of the Honor System".同年9月にはIn September of the same yearMoriThe Prime Minister set up an "Advisory Panel on the Ideal Way of the Honor System" (approved by the Prime Minister on September 12, 9), and after eight discussions since then.2001年(13)10/29The "Report of the Advisory Panel on the Ideal Way of the Honor System" was compiled in.

1st Koizumi Cabinetby2002年(14)8/7Based on the Cabinet decision of2003年In (15), the Cabinet Order related to honors was revised, and the honor system was significantly revised in line with the report of the Advisory Panel.1st Koizumi Cabinet 1st Remodeling Cabinet2003 (Heisei 15)5/20A new "Criteria for awarding medals" was decided by the Cabinet decision.叙勲の官民格差が改革の対象となったほか、時代にそぐわないという点から数字を用いる「勲○等」形式のIn addition to the fact that the public-private disparity of honors has been the subject of reform, it is in the form of "honor ○ etc."Order etc.Is abolished[Annotation 12], The medal grade has been simplified.これまで男子のみが対象であったUntil now, only boys were targetedAsahi Rising SunWas to be awarded regardless of gender, while it was awarded only to womenOrder of the Precious CrownBecame a special medal awarded only in ceremonial cases to royal girls or foreign women.In addition, a general recommendation system for honorary candidates has been established.この時の改正ではIn the revision at this timeRui HoshoThe color of the sword has been changed from a yellow line on a white background to a yellow line on a blue background, and a paulownia leaf-like button (a decorative metal fitting attached between the medal and the metal fitting that hangs it) has been added, similar to the Order of the Rising Sun. Ta[Annotation 13].

Decree related to the honor system

The relevant laws and regulations of the honor system are as follows.以下の法令・告示は、位階令及び位階令施行細則については内閣府大臣官房人事課、その他は内閣府賞勲局が所管するThe following laws and notifications are under the jurisdiction of the Cabinet Office Minister's Office, Personnel Division for rank orders and detailed rules for enforcement of rank orders, and the Cabinet Office Award Bureau for others.[28][29].

  • The Constitution of JapanArticle 7 No. 7
  • law
    • None
  • Cabinet Order (including those that have effect as a Cabinet Order)
    • Order enactment (Meiji 8 Daijo-kan Declaration No. 54)
    • Grand Cordon of the Supreme Chrysanthemum and Sub-Chapter Formulation (Meiji 10 Taiseikan No. 97)
    • Reward Ordinance (Declaration No. 14 of the Daijo-kan in 63)
    • Order of the Precious Crown and Collar of the Supreme Chrysanthemum, Necklace Niseki Suru (Meiji 21 Royal Decree No. 1)
    • Ceremony for medal (Imperial Ordinance No. 21 of 76)
    • Order to deprive the medal (Imperial Ordinance No. 41 of 291)
    • Order of rank (Imperial Ordinance No. 15 of 325)
    • Order of Culture (Edict No. 12 of 9)
    • Request for return of rank, medal, etc. (20 Royal Decree No. 699)
  • Cabinet Office Ordinance (including those that have effect as Cabinet Office Ordinance)
    • Detailed Regulations for Enforcement of Order for Deprivation of Orders (Cabinet Ordinance No. 41 of 2)
    • Detailed Regulations for Enforcement of Rank Order (Taisho 15 Cabinet Ordinance No. 6)
    • Place, medal, etc. Return of request No. Enforcement of case (Cabinet Ordinance No. 20 of 68)
    • Cabinet Office Ordinance (15 Cabinet Office Ordinance No. 54) that stipulates the formula and shape of various medals and the Great Medal Kikuhanasho
    • Cabinet Office Ordinance that stipulates the formula and shape of the reward (Cabinet Office Ordinance No. 15, 55)
  • notice
    • Collar of the Supreme Chrysanthemum, Necklace, Chain Abbreviation, No. 35 (Cabinet Notification No. 2 of XNUMX)
    • Regulations for wearing medals, etc. (Prime Minister's Office Notification No. 39 of 16)
    • Medal Ribbon Wearing Regulations (15 Cabinet Office Notification No. 9)
    • Regulations on Ribbon for Uniforms (15 Cabinet Office Notification No. 10)
  • Cabinet decision, Cabinet approval, Prime Minister decision, etc.
    • Reform of the honor system (Cabinet decision on August 14, 8)
    • Criteria for awarding medals (Cabinet decision on May 15, 5)
    • Regarding the selection procedure for each recipient of the Order of Culture and the Order of Culture (Cabinet approval on June 53, 6)
    • Recommendation Guidelines for Candidates for Spring and Autumn Awards (May 15, 5, Prime Minister's decision, May 16, 15, Cabinet meeting report)
    • Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Chunqiu Foreign Award (decided by the Prime Minister on May 15, 5, Cabinet report on May 16, 15)
    • Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture (decided by the Prime Minister on December 2, 12, Cabinet report on December 12, 2)
    • Regarding the selection procedure for recipients of the Dangerous Business Workers Award (Cabinet approval on May 15, 5)
    • Regarding the selection procedure for recipients of the Medal (approved by the Cabinet on May 15, 5)
    • Criteria for awarding the Medal with Dark Blue Ribbon (decided by the Cabinet on November 55, 11)
    • Awarding and transmission ceremony of medals, insignia, rewards, etc. (Cabinet decision on July 38, 7)

Chronological table

Abbreviated chronology of the medal system[30].

dateMatter
Meiji 4 Year
9/2
(1871
October 10)
Consulted the left house about the award (medal) system.
1875å¹´
(8th year of Meiji)
4/10Issue an apology for the award.Promulgation of award tiles (Proclamation No. 8 of Daijo-kan in 54).
12/31Awarded the Grand Cordon of the Asahi Sun to 10 royal families.
1876å¹´
(9th year of Meiji)
10/12The Award Bureau was established in the Shoin (renamed the Award Bureau on December 12, the same year).
11/15Promulgated amendments to the award service medal enactment (Medal service medal enactment, Meiji 9 Daijo-kan Declaration No. 141).The award tile was renamed to the medal (the service medal is the service medal).
12/27According to the rescript, the grand medal is placed at the top of the first prize.
1877å¹´
(10th year of Meiji)
7/25Enacted Honors Pension Ordinance (Order of the Rising Sun Pension).
1886å¹´
(19th year of Meiji)
10/25Round sword flower on the sword of the Order of the Rising Sunrosette) Is added (Attachment to the circle of circles) is published in the official bulletin.[31].
1888å¹´
(21th year of Meiji)
1/4Promulgation of the Order of the Precious Crown and the Great Medal of the Chrysanthemum Flower Akira Necklace Niseki Suru (Meiji 21 Royal Decree No. 1).Newly established Order of the Precious Crown and Order of the Sacred Treasure.Place the Asahi Sun Kirihana Daihosho and Kikuhanasho necklaces (Meiji 21 Royal Decree No. 1).
1889å¹´
(22th year of Meiji)
2/11Imperial Japanese ConstitutionPromulgated.
1890å¹´
(23th year of Meiji)
2/11New Order of the Golden Kite (Order of the Golden Kite No. 23)
11/29Enforced the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.
1894å¹´
(27th year of Meiji)
10/3Promulgated the Order of the Golden Kite Pension (Imperial Ordinance No. 27 of 173).
1896å¹´
(29th year of Meiji)
4/13The Order of the Precious Crown was revised from 5th grade to 8th grade (Meiji 29 Royal Decree No. 136).
1919å¹´
(Taisho 8)
5/21The Order of the Sacred Treasure can also be awarded to women (Imperial Ordinance No. 8 of 232).
1937å¹´
(12)
2/11Promulgated the Order of Culture (Edict No. 12 of 9).
1941å¹´
(16)
6/28Abolished the medal pension and the Order of the Golden Kite pension.
1946å¹´
(21)
5/3Cabinet decision to suspend survivor honors.
11/3The Constitution of JapanPromulgated.
1947å¹´
(22)
5/3Enforced the Constitution of Japan.Promulgated Cabinet Order (Cabinet Order No. 22 of 4) regarding the abolition of the Cabinet Order.The House of Peers Ordinance, Official Ordinance, Order of the Golden Kite, etc. will be abolished, and part of the Order of the Golden Kite will be amended.
1948å¹´
(23)
6/10In the 2nd DietHonor BillSubmitted (approved by the House of Representatives on July 7, the same year, the House of Councilors examination has not been completed).
10/15Cabinet decision on "Matters related to the awarding of the Order of Culture".Awarded the Order of Culture on Culture Day.
1949å¹´
(24)
6/1The Award Bureau was abolished and the Prime Minister's Office Award Bureau was established.
1951å¹´
(26)
4/3Person of Cultural Merit Pension Law (No. 26 of 125) promulgated.
1952å¹´
(27)
12/17In the 15nd DietHonor BillSubmission (not completed by the House of Representatives).
1953å¹´
(28)
9/18Cabinet decision on "Matters concerning the handling of honors for survivors".Revived some of the survivor honors.
1955å¹´
(30)
1/22Promulgation of revision of the Medal with Medal (Addition of Yellow Ribbon and Purple Ribbon Medal)
12/13Established an extraordinary honor system council in the Cabinet (until February 1956)
1956å¹´
(31)
4/10In the 24nd DietHonor BillSubmission (Continued examination of the House of Representatives, 25th Diet examination not completed).
1963å¹´
(38)
7/12Cabinet decision on "Start of Survivor's Medal" and "Examples of awarding medals, insignia, rewards, etc."
1964å¹´
(39)
1/7Cabinet decision on "About the rank and honor of the war dead".
4/21"Criteria for medal" was decided by the Cabinet (April 4, the same year, notification of rules for wearing medals, etc.).
4/25Announcement of the 1st War Dead Medal (April 4, the same year, 29st Survivor Medal).
7/1Prime Minister's OfficeEstablished the Award Bureau in Japan (Cabinet Secretariat Award Bureau abolished).
1967å¹´
(42)
1/18Promulgated the Act on Special Measures Concerning Old Medal Pension Recipients (Act No. 42 of 1).
1970å¹´
(45)
10/16Cabinet decision on "Gift for the war dead".
1978å¹´
(53)
6/20Cabinet decision on "Selection procedure for each winner of the Order of Culture and the Order of Culture".
2000å¹´
(12)
9/26An advisory panel was set up in the Cabinet on the ideal form of the honor system (October 10, the same year, the first meeting).
2001å¹´
(13)
1/6Reorganization of central ministriesBy the Bureau of AwardsCabinet OfficePlaced in.
10/29Submit a report and a round-table conference on the ideal state of the honor system.
2002å¹´
(14)
8/7Cabinet decision on "Reform of the honor system".
8/12勲章従軍記章制定ノ件(勲章制定ノ件、明治8年太政官布告第54号)、褒章条例(明治14年太政官布告63号)、宝冠章及大勲位菊花章頸飾ニ関スル件(明治21年勅令第1号)の改正を公布(いずれも施行は2003年(平成15年)5月1日)。数字を用いる「勲○等」形式の勲等、勲七等・勲八等に相当する勲章を廃止。
2003å¹´
(15)
5/20Cabinet decision on "Criteria for awarding medals".
11/3Announcing the award under the new system.Dangerous work worker honorIs announced for the first time.The Order of the Rising Sun is awarded to women for the first time.
2011å¹´
(23)
3Great East Japan Earthquake-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentDue to the influence of, the issuance of the Spring Medal, Dangerous Workers' Medal, and Medal is postponed for the time being.[32].
6The postponed Spring Medal, Dangerous Workers Medal, and Medal will be awarded and transmitted (announced on April 4 of the same year).[33][34].
2016å¹´
(28)
2"Advisory Panel on the Awarding of Honors in Response to the Changing Times" will be established in the Cabinet Office[35][36]..After that, all four meetings will be held.
9/16Formulated "Medium-term priority policy for conferring honors" (Cabinet approval on September 28, 9)[35][37].
2019å¹´
(First year of Reiwa)
5/21Announcement of Spring Medal[38]..例年4月29日に行われる「春の叙勲」の発令を、同年5月1日の新天皇即位後に延期したためBecause the announcement of the "Spring Medal", which is usually held on April XNUMX, was postponed after the coronation of the new emperor on May XNUMX, the same year.[39].

Type and rank

Types of medals

The current types of Japanese medals and their English translation names are as follows.[5][40].

Name (lower line is English translation name) / imageRemarks
Grand Cordon of the Chrysanthemum
Supreme Orders of the Chrysanthemum
Highest medal in Japan
 Great Order of Chrysanthemum
Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.png
Grand Order Chrysanthemum flower emblem
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.png
Order of the Paulownia
Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Among those who should be awarded the Asahi Sun Grand Cordon or the Mizuho Grand Cordon, those who are particularly outstanding in their achievements or achievements will be awarded.
 Paulownia flower emblem
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers.png
Asahi Rising Sun
Orders of the Rising Sun
Awarded to those who have a merit to the state or the public.
 Asahi Sun badge
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun.png
Shigemitsu Asahi
Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star
The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star.png
Asahi Japan China badge
Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon
The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon.png
Asahi day small badge
Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette
The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette.png
Asahi Nikko Sosho
Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays
The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays.png
Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun, Silver Rays
The Order of the Rising Sun, Silver Rays.png
Rui Hosho
Orders of the Sacred Treasure
Awarded to those who have many years of service to the state or the public.
 Ruiho Daihosho
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure.png
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star
The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star.png
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon
The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon.png
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Rosette
The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Rosette.png
Order of the Sacred Treasure
Order of the Sacred reasure, Gold and Silver Rays
The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Rays.png
Ruiho Monokosho
Order of the Sacred Treasure, Silver Rays
The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Silver Rays.png
Order of Culture
Order of Culture
Order of Culture.png
Awarded to those with outstanding achievements in cultural development.
Order of the Precious Crown
Orders of the Precious Crown
Only women can be awarded.It is used only in special cases such as ceremonial honors for female royal families and foreigners.
 Order of the Precious Crown
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown.png
Order of the Precious Crown
Order of the Precious Crown, Peony
The Order of the Precious Crown, Peony.png
Crown White Butterfly
Order of the Precious Crown, Butterfly
The Order of the Precious Crown, Butterfly.png
Treasure crown Fujihanasho
Order of the Precious Crown, Wistaria
The Order of the Precious Crown, Wistaria.png
Apricot leaf emblem
Order of the Precious Crown, Apricot
The Order of the Precious Crown, Apricot.png
Honorable wave light emblem
Order of the Precious Crown, Ripple
The Order of the Precious Crown, Ripple.png

Order of medals and awarding / transmission

The order of each medal and the example of the awarding and transmission ceremony of the medal are as follows.[5][41][42].

sequenceMedalAward / communicationreference
(Old system honors, etc.)
1Great Order of ChrysanthemumThe award ceremony will be held in the palace, and the emperor himself will award it directly to the recipients (Miyanaka Parent Ceremony).Grand Order
2Grand Order Chrysanthemum flower emblem
3Paulownia flower emblem First prize
4 Asahi Sun badge  Ruiho Daihosho  Order of the Precious Crown  Order of Culture[Annotation 14]
5 Shigemitsu Asahi  Order of the Sacred Treasure  Order of the Precious Crown -An award ceremony will be held in the palace, and the Prime Minister will hand the recipients in the presence of the Emperor (Miyanaka transmission ceremony).Honors second prize
6 Asahi Japan China badge  Order of the Sacred Treasure  Crown White Butterfly -At the order of the Prime Minister, the Director of the Cabinet Office Award Bureau will notify the minister in charge, and the minister in charge will notify the recipients as appropriate.Third grade
7 Asahi day small badge  Order of the Sacred Treasure  Treasure crown Fujihanasho -Fourth grade
8 Asahi Nikko Sosho  Order of the Sacred Treasure  Apricot leaf emblem -Honors XNUMXth prize
9 Order of the Rising Sun  Ruiho Monokosho  Honorable wave light emblem -Honors, etc.

Medal used by the emperor and royal family

The medal is awarded in the name of the emperor, but the emperor himself also uses it.天皇が佩用するのは、最高位の大勲位菊花章頸飾のほか、桐花大綬章及び文化勲章であるIn addition to the highest-ranked Kikuhana emblem necklace, the emperor uses the Kirihana Daihosho and the Order of Culture.[44]..For important ceremonies and ceremonies, the Grand Medal Kikuhanasho and Kirihana Daihosho are used, and for the Order of Culture parental ceremony, the Order of Culture is used.これらの勲章はいずれも、内閣総理大臣の決裁により天皇が持つAll of these medals are held by the Emperor by the approval of the Prime Minister.[45].

The royal family also uses the medal.[Annotation 15]..This medal is awarded by the emperor, but the procedure for awarding it is unusual.

Number of recipients

Number of recipients of the Spring and Autumn Award

The number of recipients of the Spring / Autumn Award since the fall of 15, when the new system was announced, is as follows.[46].

Heisei 15
(2003)
Heisei 16
(2004)
Heisei 17
(2005)
Heisei 18
(2006)
Heisei 19
(2007)
Heisei 20
(2008)
Heisei 21
(2009)
Heisei 22
(2010)
Heisei 23
(2011)
Heisei 24
(2012)
Heisei 25
(2013)
Heisei 26
(2014)
Heisei 27
(2015)
Heisei 28
(2016)
Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:Spring:Fall:
Grand Order
Order of the Chrysanthemum
Neck decoration0000000000000000000000000000000
Great sword000000000000000000000000000
Order of the PaulowniaGreat sword000101102100021110010000101
Asahi Rising SunGreat sword98122861684471191253421696610777
Shigemitsu148107889519912111381311121598141291218717
Grand Cordon of the Order1227052435053454194464040354140395954384432444624444543
Small cordon252303262243217214185201218275221209201186185166204230210190203180176174173225200
Somitsuaki531496535545550566605599535490564539563558569566522488555570589539549555578510560
Monoluminous chapter78677573738372868510686736573708675106100838610810912899105100
Rui HoshoGreat sword642210636232121112442410130
Shigemitsu393636363727433737344442413620263332342938413741362734
Grand Cordon of the Order258253264241243265251248241250262288274286267270294264259266283281257283271256257
Small cordon663722702665691703681685679587695707674732725735700755704713761733695689676704701
Somitsuaki113211021077120911011100109411261121116810611039103510131017100510019958941021988100798310239261037998
Monoluminous chapter96394610369901049102110359991015100110361111111110721253115311741165113111541188114910601147113410971137
Subtotal406740154063405740284047402840364060397340284068402440184173406440794110394040994193410440284086396440234055
Toast
[Annotation 16]
silver cup010000000000010000000000000
Wooden cup102000001000000000000000000
Total406840164065405740284047402840364061397340284068402440194173406440794110394040994193410440284086396440234055

Number of Dangerous Workers Awarded

After the first in November 2003 (Heisei 15)Dangerous work worker honorThe number of recipients is as follows[47]..The number in parentheses is the number of female recipients.

AnnualPolice officerSDFFirefighterPrison officerWaitMaritime SheriffTotal
1 timesMay 20031923 (3)887 (3)634 (0)1 (0)90 (0)3535 (6)
2 timesMay 20041743 (3)939 (5)650 (0)0 (0)100 (0)3432 (8)
3 timesMay 20041759 (4)942 (4)627 (0)169 (3)84 (0)3581 (11)
4 timesMay 20051804 (2)928 (4)604 (0)180 (1)80 (0)3596 (7)
5 timesMay 20051802 (3)929 (3)604 (0)179 (1)79 (0)3593 (7)
6 timesMay 20061806 (3)917 (1)608 (0)180 (0)80 (0)3591 (4)
7 timesMay 20062022 (5)680 (1)623 (0)179 (3)90 (0)3594 (9)
8 timesMay 20071993 (2)695 (4)634 (0)179 (1)90 (0)3591 (7)
9 timesMay 20071817 (2)933 (4)602 (0)179 (0)85 (0)3616 (6)
10 timesMay 20081816 (0)935 (4)602 (0)179 (1)85 (0)3617 (5)
11 timesMay 20081816 (2)932 (3)610 (0)169 (0)85 (0)3612 (5)
12 timesMay 20091827 (4)932 (7)614 (0)160 (1)84 (0)3617 (12)
13 timesMay 20091832 (1)936 (6)615 (0)148 (0)85 (0)3616 (7)
14 timesMay 20101835 (4)936 (4)619 (0)145 (2)88 (0)3623 (10)
15 timesMay 20101835 (0)937 (5)619 (0)144 (0)87 (0)3622 (5)
16 timesMay 20111828 (3)935 (3)610 (1)147 (0)89 (0)3609 (7)
17 timesMay 20111839 (1)934 (7)622 (0)136 (1)93 (0)3624 (9)
18 timesMay 20121842 (1)941 (8)620 (0)137 (2)94 (0)3634 (11)
19 timesMay 20121835 (1)941 (9)621 (0)137 (3)99 (0)3633 (13)
20 timesMay 20131853 (2)936 (5)625 (0)137 (1)94 (0)3645 (8)
21 timesMay 20131838 (0)930 (6)621 (0)140 (1)86 (0)3615 (7)
22 timesMay 20141839 (2)935 (6)632 (0)139 (0)84 (0)3629 (8)
23 timesMay 20141845 (0)933 (4)623 (2)138 (2)63 (0)3602 (8)
24 timesMay 20151836 (3)934 (8)620 (0)137 (1)84 (0)3611 (12)
25 timesMay 20151840 (3)933 (3)638 (0)137 (2)60 (0)3608 (8)
Total46,025 (54)22,810 (117)15,497 (3)3,576 (26)2,138 (0)90,046 (200)

Number of recipients of the Order of Culture

After 2003 (Heisei 15)Order of CultureThe number of recipients is as follows[48]..The number in parentheses is the number of female recipients.

Annual2003å¹´
Heisei 15
2004å¹´
Heisei 16
2005å¹´
Heisei 17
2006å¹´
Heisei 18
2007å¹´
Heisei 19
2008å¹´
Heisei 20
2009å¹´
Heisei 21
2010å¹´
Heisei 22
2011å¹´
Heisei 23
2012å¹´
Heisei 24
2013å¹´
Heisei 25
2014å¹´
Heisei 26
2015å¹´
Heisei 27
Order of Culture5 (1)5 (0)5 (1)5 (1)5 (0)8 (1)5 (0)7 (1)5 (0)6 (0)5 (0)7 (1)7 (1)

Medals

Contents of the medal

Recipients of the medal will be awarded a medal in addition to the medal.The medal is the name of the recipient, the name of the medal to be received, the date of receipt, the name of the grantee, etc.National sealIt is a certificate that has passed.The text and content of the medal differ slightly depending on the type of medal (both are written vertically).[30].

The Emperor of Japan will give ○○○○ to ○○○○ at the Imperial Palace, where he will sign his name and make a national seal. Reiwa ○ Year ○ Month ○ Day Prime Minister ○○○○ Seal Director of the Cabinet Office Award ○○○○ mark No. ○○○○
  • Other than those above
The Emperor of Japan gives ○○○○ ○○○○ to the Imperial Palace. ○○○○

In the case of a medal for a foreigner, "give" means "give", and in a place other than the Imperial Palace, for example.Akasaka Imperial PalaceInParent officeWhen the Great Seal is printed, "at the Imperial Palace" changes to "at Akasaka".

Papermaking, printing, etc. of medal paperNational Printing BureauIs going.勲記には上記の文面・署名・The above text, signature, and medalSeal-In addition to the mark, the design (model, rattling) of the awarded medal is imprinted.For printing this model,DecalcomaniaA technique called (Decalcomania, transfer printing) is used.This technique is a technique in which skilled craftsmen manually apply colors to the transfer paper one by one, which takes several days.また、勲記の中央部真上にはAlso, just above the center of the medalChrysanthemum flower emblemIs printed.この菊花紋章も金下刷りの後、純金粉を塗布、さらに空押し(浮きだし)を行ってつくりあげたもので印刷とは思えないほど浮き上がって見えるThis chrysanthemum flower emblem is also made by applying pure gold powder after printing under gold, and then pressing it in the air (embossing), and it looks like it is printed.[22].

Certificate of merit / certificate of merit

In a document similar to the medalCertificate of meritThere is[50]..A certificate of merit is a document issued at the request of the recipient in case of loss of the medal.For whatever reason, the medal itself will not be reissued by the state.In addition, the bereaved family within the second degree of the recipient isCertificate of meritYou can apply for the grant.

modulation

Manufacture of medals

All Japanese medalsJapan MintIs manufactured in[51]..造幣局では章はい類の製造は1887年(明治20年)から、勲章や褒章等の製造は昭和初期から行っているThe Japan Mint has been manufacturing chapters and worms since XNUMX (Meiji XNUMX), and has been manufacturing medals and rewards since the early Showa period.[22][Annotation 17].. 2007年(平成19年)度には、造幣局は内閣府賞勲局との間で締結した勲章製造請負契約に基づき27,436個の製造を行い、納品したIn XNUMX (Heisei XNUMX), the Japan Mint manufactured and delivered XNUMX pieces based on the medal manufacturing contract concluded with the Cabinet Office Award Bureau.[55]..なお、勲章製造に携わる職人も造幣局職員であることから国家公務員の身分で扱われIn addition, since the craftsmen involved in the production of medals are also employees of the Japan Mint, they are treated as national civil servants.[56], There is an example of Katsujiro Tanabe, who was commended for 1970 years of work in 45 (Showa 40) and was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, which was manufactured by a junior staff member.[57][58][59].

The manufacturing process of the medal consists of about 10 processes.[22][60].

  1. Kokuin : First, make an "original version" based on the original drawing of the medal.The original plate is made of plaster to a size 4 to 5 times the size of the actual one, and the pattern of the medal of the actual size is carved on the steel material with an NC engraving machine to make a "pole mark".The resulting pole mark is modified to make the pattern clearer.
  2. Close-up : Attach the pole mark to the press (compressor) and press the pattern of the medal on the silver material plate.The pressed material is punched into the shape of a medal with a punching die to make a chapter body.
  3. Cutout : Cut out according to the shape with a jigsaw or wire cutting machine.
  4. File : Use several types of files to shape the chapter body.
  5. Arranged cloisonne : QibaoIn the part whereglazeServe.
  6. Cloisonne baking : Put in an electric furnace and bake the glaze.Arrange and bake the cloisonne about 5 times, and during that time, fix scratches such as pinholes.
  7. Hafu : Gloss is obtained by rotating and polishing a "feather cloth" (buff) that is a bundle of cotton cloth.
  8. plating : Add gold plating to the required parts.
  9. 立 立 : Completed by assembling various parts.

Lost or damaged medal

If the medal is lost or damaged, the country will not reissue the medal for any reason.しかし、自費で調製または修理することはできるHowever, it can be prepared or repaired at your own expense[50]..If you wish to prepare, order from the Japan Mint after receiving the "Notice of Medal Preparation" issued by the Cabinet Office Award Bureau, which also serves as proof of being a recipient.In the case of repair, you will be issued a "Medal Repair Notice" and apply for repair to the Japan Mint.

Abbreviation

The Mint has been targeting honors 1967 and above since around XNUMX.Abbreviation"Small medal"[61]Is preparing[62], From May 2003, 5, it is legally stipulated by the Ribbon Ribbon Wearing Regulations (May 1, 15, Cabinet Office Notification No. 5).[63], It is not issued by the government at the same time as receiving the award, but the individual who needs it is supposed to present the "Notice of Medal Content" to the Mint and place an order directly.[64]..略小勲章の意匠は各勲章の正章に準じ、綬に各略綬と同じロゼットを仕付けて等級を示すThe design of the abbreviation medal follows the regular chapter of each medal, and the same rosette as each abbreviation is attached to the ribbon to indicate the grade.[61]..寸法は縦が約6cm(宝冠章は5.5cm)、横が約2cmであるThe dimensions are about XNUMX cm in length (XNUMX cm for the Order of the Precious Crown) and about XNUMX cm in width.[64]..なお、褒章には略章が存在しないThere is no abbreviation for the reward.[64].

Medal and pension

Honors pension
Order etc.Upper limitLower limit
First prize840 Yen740 Yen
Honors second prize600 Yen500 Yen
Third grade360 Yen260 Yen
Fourth grade180 Yen135 Yen
Honors XNUMXth prize125 Yen115 Yen
Honors, etc.100 Yen85 Yen
Honors XNUMXth grade75 Yen60 Yen
Honors, etc.50 Yen40 Yen
* 1: According to the salary table at the time of abolition[Annotation 18]
* 2: In addition to this, the recipients of the Order of the Rising Sun, Kirika Daiho, are:
A 1500 yen pension was set.
Order of the Golden Kite Pension
Order of the Golden KiteFlat rate
First grade1500 Yen
Order of the Golden Kite1000 Yen
Order of the Golden Kite700 Yen
Order of the Golden Kite500 Yen
Order of the Golden Kite350 Yen
Gong XNUMXth grade250 Yen
Gong XNUMXth grade150 Yen
* 1: Amount at the time of abolition[Annotation 19]

The Meiji government1877å¹´(10th year of Meiji)7/25,Honors Pension Ordinance(Order of the Rising Sun Pension) was established and the whole life pension will be paid according to the honors.1894å¹´In (Meiji 27), pension payments will be stipulated for recipients of the Order of the Golden Kite.Order of the Golden Kite Pension Order(Edict No. 27 of 173) was promulgated.further,1915å¹´(TaishoIn the 4th year), it was decided to pay a whole life pension of 1500 yen to those who have made outstanding achievements among the recipients of the Order of the Rising Sun, Kirika Daiho.However, due to the worsening financial situation, etc.1941å¹´In (Showa 16), both the Order of the Golden Kite Pension and the Order of the Golden Kite Pension were abolished, and it was decided that no pension would be paid to subsequent recipients.In addition, as of the end of December 1945 (Showa 20), the medal pensions (honor pension and Order of the Golden Kite pension) that had been paid until then were completely abolished.

Enforced in 1947 (Showa 22)Article 14 of the Constitution of JapanIn paragraph 3, "The awarding of honors, medals and other honors does not entail any privilege. The awarding of honors is effective only for the generation of those who actually have it or who will receive it in the future." It was said.

1967年In (Showa 42), a lump sum of 10 yen will be paid to those who received the Order of the Golden Kite pension based on the Order of the Golden Kite Pension.(Act No. 42 of 1) was established[65][Annotation 20]..同法の国会審議において憲法14条3項との関係が問題となったが、政府はこの一時金の支給は従来受けていた経済的な利益に対する損失補償であって栄典授与に伴う特権ではないとして同条には違反しないと答弁したIn the Diet deliberations of the law, the relationship with Article XNUMX (XNUMX) of the Constitution became a problem, but the government paid this lump sum as compensation for loss on the economic benefits that it had received in the past, not as a privilege associated with the awarding of honors. Replied that it did not violate the same article[66].

1951å¹´(Showa 26)Person of Cultural Merit Pension Law(Act No. 26 of 125) was promulgated and enforced, and the annual amount is 350 million yen (as of 22. The latest revision of the regulations) for persons of cultural merits who are "persons with outstanding achievements in improving and developing culture". Is1982å¹´(57). ) Is paid.On the other hand, "Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture"[67]Regarding the candidates for the Order of Culture, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology said, "A person with outstanding achievements regarding the development of culture.Among the Person of Cultural MeritIt is stipulated that it will be "selected" and recommended to the Prime Minister.

The current system does not directly connect the medal and the pension because the pros and cons of having the pension in the medal became a problem.[68]..したがって、勲章の授与に併せて金品やTherefore, along with the awarding of the medal,pensionWill not be paid.ただ、文化勲章受章者はHowever, the recipients of the Order of CultureCultural MeritTo make it customary to be selected from (Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture (PDF) ) A pension as a Person of Cultural Merit will be paid.政府見解によれば文化勲章と文化功労者は、制度としては別々に運用されているため憲法14条3項には抵触しないと解釈されているAccording to the government's view, the Order of Culture and Person of Cultural Merit are interpreted as not in conflict with Article XNUMX (XNUMX) of the Constitution because they are operated separately as a system.[69]..しかし、そもそも文化功労者の地位自体が栄典であり年金自体が栄典に伴う特権であるとすれば合憲性の問題が残ることになるがHowever, if the status of Person of Cultural Merit itself is an honor and the pension itself is a privilege that accompanies the honor, the issue of constitutionality remains.[68], Constitutionally, if it is within the limits appropriate for commending achievements in common senseEquality under the lawIt is understood that it cannot be said to be contrary to[70].

Other honors

In addition to medals, national honors include rewards (medals, rewards, cups) and ranks.

  • Award
  • Prize cup
  • Rank

In addition, the Cabinet, ministers of each ministry, and local governments give various awards to those who have made great achievements in place of medals and rewards, or in order to honor them in a timely manner.Although these do not fall under the "honor" of Article 7, item 7 of the Constitution of Japan, they are honors alongside medals and rewards.

As a commendation for timely commendation, it is a kind of Prime Minister's commendation.National Honor AwardThere is.The National Honor Award does not have as strict awarding standards and procedures as medals and rewards, so it is often awarded to popular people at that time.

National Police Agency Police officerAnd give to the citizens who have meritinsignia,Fire Department Commissioner FirefighterAndFirefighterInsignia to give toAdministrative agency,Local governmentVarious honors given byJapanese Red Cross SocietySome awards a medal-shaped insignia along with the awards, such as the merit badge given by.

In addition, it has both the meaning of the award and the meaning of the symbol that shows each person's career.Defensive memorialIs also a kind of award.防衛記念章はThe defensive memorialMinister of Defense SDFThere are 34 types depending on the content and background of the achievements that were the reason for the award.

The medal isOrderThe rewards and insignia are translated into English.MedalIt is translated and distinguished.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Médaille.FrenchIt means a medal and a medal.
  2. ^ Since there is no title, it is called by the subject.賞牌従軍牌制定ノ件は翌The next issue is the establishment of award tiles1874年(Meiji 9) After the revision by the Daijo-kan Declaration (Meiji 9 Daijo-kan Declaration No. 141)Enactment of the Medal of HonorIt is called, and it was enforced on May 2003, 15.Cabinet OrderAfter revision by (Cabinet Order No. 14 of 277)Medal establishmentCalled.
  3. ^ From the top, there are eight types: the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Blue Tung Leaf, and the White Tung Leaf.
  4. ^ The current formula is stipulated in the Cabinet Office Ordinance (Cabinet Office Ordinance No. 15, 54), which stipulates the formula and shape of various medals and the Kikuhana badge necklace.
  5. ^ 1878年In March (Meiji 11), the Secretary was renamed the Governor and the Deputy Secretary was renamed the Deputy Governor (Daijō-kan No. 3 in 11).
  6. ^ The formulas for the Order of the Chrysanthemums and the Order of the Chrysanthemums were established by the Daijo-kan in 1877 (Meiji 10) (Daijō-kan No. 10 in 97).Later, the Order of the Chrysanthemum was made a sub-chapter of the Order of the Chrysanthemum.
  7. ^ The Order of the Golden Kite comes with the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan1947å¹´(ShowaWas abolished in 22)
  8. ^ Each is Cabinet Law No. 2 of the 118nd Diet (1948å¹´(Submitted in June 23), Cabinet Law No. 6 of the 15th Diet (33)1952å¹´(Submitted in June 27), Cabinet Law No. 12 of the 24th Diet (160)1956å¹´Both (submitted in April 31) are "honor bills" submitted by the Cabinet.
  9. ^ At this time, the provisionally set age requirement of 70 years or older became the principle of the subsequent Spring and Autumn Awards, and the current Spring and Autumn Award Candidate Recommendation Guidelines (2003å¹´(15)5/16Prime Minister decided, same20 DayIt has been taken over by the Cabinet Report).As a general rule, the award for dangerous workers is 55 years or older.
  10. ^ In the "Current Japanese Law" edited by the Judicial Law Investigation Department of the Minister of Justice, the rules for applying for foreign medals (Daijo-kan Declaration No. 18 of 35) are treated as having expired for the same reason.
  11. ^ this is,8th of the same monthIn the Liberal Democratic Party Cabinet SubcommitteeKamei ShizukaThis is in response to the president of the Political Survey, who instructed that "as we enter the 21st century, we should make a drastic examination to make the honor system suitable for the new era."
  12. ^ The two letters "honor, etc." remain in the case of the establishment of the medal, and the concept still exists.詳細はDetail isOrder etc.reference.
  13. ^ The design of the 鈕 is changed according to the grade, and the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, and the Order of the Rising Sun are XNUMX paulownia flowers, and the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, the Order of the Rising Sun, and the Order of the Rising Sun are XNUMX. It is a paulownia flower.
  14. ^ Since the Order of Culture is a single class, its position has long been ambiguous and has been regarded as "between the first and second medals."しかし文化勲章が創設60年目の平成9年度(1997年)以降は親授されるようになったことから、以後はやはり親授の対象となっている大綬章(旧勲一等)と同位にあるものと考えられるようになったHowever, since the Order of Culture has been awarded since XNUMX, the XNUMXth anniversary of its founding, it is on par with the Great Honor (formerly the first prize), which is also the subject of the Order of Culture. Came to be considered[43].
  15. ^ As mentioned above, Japan's first medal recipientPrince Arisugawa TakahitoThere were seven royal families. 7年(明治1875年)末、初の賞牌授与式がAt the end of 8 (Meiji XNUMX), the first award ceremony was held.Miyanaka TempleThe Emperor Meiji wore the medal, and the Order of the Rising Sun was awarded to Arisugawanomiya and others.
  16. ^ Chrysanthemum crest (Kikumon) given in place of the medal for the giftChrysanthemum flower emblem) And the paulownia seal that is awarded based on the Medal with Ordinance () Cabinet Office Award Bureau (2014). “Target of cup". 2016/5/1Browse.).The ones listed in this table are those of the chrysanthemum crest, which is awarded in place of the medal.
  17. ^ The medals were manufactured by the Japan Mint for three years from 1877 (Meiji 10) to 1880 (Meiji 13), but later by private companies.しかし、3年(昭和1929年)に発生したHowever, it occurred in 4 (Showa XNUMX).Sales caseFrom the viewpoint of the influence of the above and the necessity of unifying the quality of medals, the Mint will be in charge of manufacturing again, and it continues to the present day.[52][53][54].
  18. ^ The amount at the time of enactment is the same as when the first to fourth grades were abolished, the upper limit is 120 yen and the lower limit is 100 yen for the fifth grade, the upper limit is 84 yen and the lower limit is 70 yen for the sixth grade, and the upper limit is 60 yen and the lower limit is 46 for the seventh grade. Yen, 36th grade had an upper limit of 24 yen and a lower limit of XNUMX yen.
  19. ^ The amount at the time of enactment was 900 yen for the first grade, 650 yen for the second grade, 400 yen for the third grade, 210 yen for the fourth grade, 140 yen for the fifth grade, 90 yen for the sixth grade, and 65 yen for the seventh grade.
  20. ^ The Act on Special Measures Concerning Old Medal Pension Recipients is based on Article 11, No. 160 of the Act on Enforcement of Reform-related Laws of Central Ministries (Act No. 77 of 23).2001å¹´(13)1/6It has been abolished with.

Source

  1. ^ Iwakura / Fujikashi Chapter 1
  2. ^ Japan Mint XNUMX Year History p 101
  3. ^ a b c 1975å¹´(Showa50 years)6/5, 75th House of Representatives Settlement Committee,Shigeru HaraFor lawmakersPrime Minister's OfficeAward BureauLong answer.
  4. ^ Masami Ito "Constitution (new edition)" Koubundou Publishers <Law Studies Course>, 1990, p. 147
  5. ^ a b c d Types of medals and targets for award, Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  6. ^ a b c Criteria for awarding medals,2003å¹´(Heisei15 years)5/20Cabinet decision.
  7. ^ Types of medals in Japan (Order of the Precious Crown), Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Outline of the medal / reward system, Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  9. ^ a b Selection procedure for each recipient of the Order of Culture (PDF) ,1978å¹´(53)6/20Cabinet approval.
  10. ^ Spring and Autumn Award Candidate Recommendation Guidelines (PDF) , 20035/16Prime Minister decided, same20 DayCabinet report.
  11. ^ About the selection procedure of the recipient of the award for dangerous business workers (PDF) , May 2003, 15 (Heisei 5) Cabinet approval.
  12. ^ "Regarding the application procedure for national honors and awards (notice)" (PDF) Refer to the form of "Penalty Record" in (October 10, 20, Ground Staff Office No. 322).
  13. ^ "Spring and Autumn Award Candidate Recommendation Guidelines (PDF) ","Spring / Autumn Foreigner Medal Candidate Recommendation Guidelines (PDF) ","Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture (PDF) Each outline of.
  14. ^ a b Asahi Shimbun (November 2008, 11). “Autumn medal, more than 4000 people, Hiroshi Okuda and others in the Asahi Sun Grand Cordon”(Japanese). 2008/11/3Browse.
  15. ^ "Regarding the selection procedure for recipients of the Dangerous Work Worker Award" (PDF) (Cabinet approval on May 2003, 15), Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  16. ^ "Recommendations (general recommendations) for those who are suitable as candidates for the Spring and Autumn Awards", Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  17. ^ Sato p 52
  18. ^ Mainichi Shimbun p 81
  19. ^ "Matters concerning the handling of honors and honors for officials and the handling of honors for the chairman, vice-chairman, member of parliament or mayor of the municipality and assistants of the House of Representatives with the enforcement of the official order for official appointment",1946å¹´(21)5/3Cabinet decision, National Diet Library.
  20. ^ "One of the Cabinet decisions on reform of the honor system", 1948 (Showa 23) February 2, Cabinet decision, National Diet Library.
  21. ^ "Matters related to the handling of honors for survivors",1953å¹´(28)9/18Cabinet decision, National Diet Library.
  22. ^ a b c d e Masanori Sato, "Medal and Reward" Jiji Gahosha,2007å¹´(Heisei19 years).
  23. ^ "About the establishment of the extraordinary honor system council", 1955 (Showa 30) February 12, Cabinet decision, National Diet Library.
  24. ^ "About the start of the survivor award", 1963 (Showa 38) February 7, Cabinet decision, National Diet Library.
  25. ^ "Criteria for honor",1964å¹´(39) April 4, Cabinet decision, round-table conference on the ideal state of the honor system "Arrangement of issues regarding the ideal state of the honor system" material.
  26. ^ Masami Ito "Constitution (new edition)" Koubundou Publishers <Law Studies Course>, 1990, p. 148
  27. ^ Toshiyoshi Miyazawa and Nobuyoshi Ashibe revised "The Constitution of Japan", page 572 and below, Shiro Kiyomiya, "Constitution I [3rd Edition]", page 429, Koji Sato, "Constitution [3rd Edition]", page 146 and below, Toshihiko Nonaka = Mutsuo Nakamura = Kazuyuki Takahashi = Katsutoshi Takami "Constitution II [4th Edition]" p. 202 (written by Kazuyuki Takahashi)
  28. ^ Decree under the jurisdiction,Cabinet Office.
  29. ^ Collection of materials related to honors and related laws and regulations,Cabinet Office.
  30. ^ a b "Basic materials on the symbolic emperor system" (People's Constitution No. 13) (PDF) , House of Representatives Constitutional Investigation Committee Secretariat, February 2003 (Heisei 15).
  31. ^ “Government Bulletin dated October 19, 10”. Cabinet Secretariat(July 1886, 10). https://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/2944232/1 2013/3/29Browse. 
  32. ^ "Great East Japan Earthquake: Medal and Medal, First Postponement Cabinet Office" Conclusion by the end of May "". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2011, 3). http://mainichi.jp/select/wadai/news/20110325ddm005040143000c.html 2011/4/11Browse. 
  33. ^ "23 Spring Medal Grand Cordon of the Order, Parental Ceremony, Shigemitsu, etc. Medal Transmission Ceremony". Cabinet Office Award Bureau(July 2011, 6). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/report/230624.html 2011/7/21Browse. 
  34. ^ “23 Spring Honors, etc.”. Cabinet Office Award Bureau. (December 2011). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/hatsurei/23haru.html 2011/7/21Browse. 
  35. ^ a b "List of information on the Advisory Panel on the awarding of honors in response to changes in the times"(2016). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/jihenkon/kaigi.html 2019/8/15Browse. 
  36. ^ "About the holding of an advisory panel on the awarding of honors in response to changes in the times (decided by the Chief Cabinet Secretary on January 28, 1)"(July 2016, 1). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/jihenkon/kettei280107.pdf 2019/8/15Browse. 
  37. ^ “Medium-term priority policy for awarding honors”. Cabinet Office Award Bureau(July 2016, 9). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/jihenkon/jyuten.pdf 2019/8/15Browse. 
  38. ^ "Reiwa first spring honors, etc."(July 2019, 5). https://www8.cao.go.jp/shokun/hatsurei/r01haru.html 2019/8/15Browse. 
  39. ^ "Chief Cabinet Secretary's Press Conference, Tuesday, February 31, 2 AM"(July 2019, 2). https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/tyoukanpress/201902/26_a.html 2019/8/15Browse. 
  40. ^ English translations of medals and rewards, Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  41. ^ Cabinet (1963-38-07). “Examples of awarding and transmission ceremonies of medals, insignia, rewards, etc.". 2011/7/18Browse.
  42. ^ Cabinet (2006-18-10). “Examples of awarding and transmission ceremonies of medals, insignia, rewards, etc. (PDF)". 2011/7/18Browse.
  43. ^ Toshio Kurihara "Medal Unknown Real Face", Iwanami Shinsho, 2011
  44. ^ Prime Minister's Office (May 2019). “Chief Cabinet Secretary Press Conference May 5st (Wednesday), 1st year of Reiwa". 2019/5/1Browse.
  45. ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun" dated May 2019, 5,To give His Majesty the Emperor 3 medals such as the Great Medal Kikuhanasho Necklace.
  46. ^ Cabinet Office Award Bureau (November 2012). “Number of recipients of the Spring and Autumn Award (Autumn 15-Autumn 28) (PDF)". 2016/6/24Browse.
  47. ^ Cabinet Office Award Bureau (November 2012). “Number of recipients of the Dangerous Work Worker Award (by year, by field) (15-) (PDF)". 2016/5/1Browse.
  48. ^ Cabinet Office Award Bureau (November 2012). “List of recipients of the Order of Culture (15-) (PDF)". 2016/5/1Browse.
  49. ^ Mr. Zdeněk Thoma (PDF) - Embassy of Japan in Czech Republic, Viewed May 2019, 8.
  50. ^ a b Cabinet Office Award Bureau (2011). “For those who have lost their medals due to the Great East Japan Earthquake". 2013/11/7Browse.
  51. ^ Mint Business"Currently manufactured medals and rewards", Japan Mint.
  52. ^ Asahi Shimbun (September 1929, 9). “Cursed voice of Mr. Amaoka's medal signature Approximately 15 people in office will also produce medals at the Japan Mint”. Tokyo Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun Tokyo Head Office): p. 11 
  53. ^ Hakamada, Satoshi, "40 Years with the Medal," Finance, Vol. 14, No. 12, Ministry of Finance, March 1979, 3, pp. 10-46.
  54. ^ "125 Year History of Mint" p. 81
  55. ^ Evaluation results by the 19 Ministry of Finance Incorporated Administrative Agency Evaluation Committee"Itemized evaluation sheet" (PDF) , Japan Mint.
  56. ^ Q & A about staff recruitment --Mint, viewed August 2019, 8.
  57. ^ Sanseido Publishing Service Edition, "Medal / Reward New Encyclopedia System Encyclopedia, Recipients' Knowledge" Japan Honor Awards Association, April 2009, 4, p. 1
  58. ^ "Government Bulletin" No. 13163, "Honorary and Honorable Mention", November 1970, 11.
  59. ^ Masanori Sato "New Edition Medal and Reward" National Government Bulletin Sales Cooperative, 2014, p. 63
  60. ^ Mint Business"Manufacturing of medals and rewards: Manufacturing process of medals (1)","Manufacturing of medals and rewards: Manufacturing process of medals (2)", Japan Mint.
  61. ^ a b List of abbreviation medals (PDF)
  62. ^ Akira Kawamura, "The Story of the Medal, The Road to Honor," p. 82
  63. ^ Ribbon Ribbon Wearing Regulations (PDF) --Cabinet Office, viewed August 2019, 8.
  64. ^ a b c Japan Mint: Abbreviated Small Medal
  65. ^ Law on Special Measures Concerning Old Medal Pensioners --The House of Representatives, viewed August 2019, 8.
  66. ^ 1964 year (Showa 39 year)2/21At the House of Councilors plenary sessionKenmichi ItoIn response to a member's questionHayato IkedaAnswer from the Prime Minister.なお、同法案の共同提出者の一人であるHe is one of the co-submitters of the bill.Takayuki KusabaSee also the answer by a member of the Diet.
  67. ^ "Guidelines for recommending candidates for the Order of Culture" (PDF) (Decision by the Prime Minister on December 2, 12, Cabinet meeting report on December 12, 2, revision on December 12, 14), Cabinet Office Award Bureau.
  68. ^ a b Masami Ito "Constitution (new edition)" Koubundou Publishers <Law Studies Course>, 1990, p. 251
  69. ^ 1953å¹´(28)2/20In the House of Representatives Cabinet Committee,Junzo SasamoriAnswers from the Prime Minister's Secretary-General's Award Bureau to the questions of members of the Diet.
  70. ^ Masami Ito "Constitution (new edition)" Koubundou Publishers <Law Studies Course>, 1990, p. 250

References

  • Kenji Ogawa, "Sociology of Medal," Koyo Shobo, March 2009.ISBN 978-4-7710-2039-9.
  • Norio Iwakura, Junji Togashi "Japanese Medal-Japanese Award System-" Daiichi Hoki Shuppan, January 1965.
  • Cabinet OfficeAward Bureau Japanese medals and rewards
  • "Medal and Reward" ,,Jiji Gahosha,2007å¹´(19)
  • "Medal Unknown Real Face", Toshio Kurihara, Iwanami Shoten, 2011 (Heisei 23)
  • "Medal", supervised by the Prime Minister's Office Award Bureau, Mainichi Newspapers, 1976.
  • Masanori Sato "Medal and Reward" Jiji Gahosha, editorial cooperation: Cabinet Office Award Bureau, Jiji Gahosha, December 2007.ISBN 978-4-915208-22-5.

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