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Use for general cleaning at the end of the year AI technology for smooth garbage separation Hodogaya Ward, Yokohama City

 
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If you don't know how to dispose of garbage that is different from usual, use the artificial intelligence (AI) technology developed by the Yokohama City Resources and Waste Recycling Bureau to interactively guide you on how to dispose of garbage. Why don't you use "Information"?
 

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence(Jinko Shinou,British: artificial intelligence,AI〔エーアイ〕)とは、「『Calculation(computation)” and “Computer(computer)”IntelligenceTo studyComputer science(computer science) A field”[1]. "言语 OfUnderstanding,inference,problem solvingIntellectualcommunication skillTheA humanLet the computer do it for youTechnology'[2], OrcomputerIntelligent by (computer)Information processing system OfdesignAnd regarding realizationResearchAlso called "field"[3]。大学でAI教育研究は、Department of Information Engineering[4][5],Department of Information Science and Engineeringコンピュータ科学専攻などの組織で行われている[6](engineering〔エンジニアリング〕とは、数学・化学・物理学などの基礎科学をIndustrial生産に応用する学問[7][Note 1]).

"Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(ニッポニカ)』の解説で、Information engineering者・通信工学者の佐藤理史は次のように述べている[1].

"If you don't be afraid of misunderstanding and simply change your mind, you can say,recognition, Inference, language operation, creativity, etc.), what procedure (algorithm) And whatデータIs it a field to study "whether (prepared information and knowledge) can be prepared mechanically?"[1].'

Overview

Various technologies that realize human intellectual ability on a computersoftware-Computer system[9].. Application exampleNatural language processing(Machine translation-Kana-Kanji conversion-ParsingWait)[10], Imitate expert reasoning/judgmentExpert system, Analyze image data and identifypatternTo detect and extractImage recognitionEtc.[9]. In 1956Dartmouth ConferenceJohn McCarthyWas named by. Currently, the description of intelligence usingInformation processingIt is also used in the sense of approach in research.Household electrical machinery OfControl system,Game software OfThinking routineIt is also called this way.

Programming language LISP by"ELIZA"counselorImitatedprogram(Artificial brainless) Is often quoted, but the realization of a research/information processing system called an “expert system” that causes a computer to play the role of a human expert becomes a problem because the description of common sense that humans implicitly make becomes a problem. Is difficult to use. As an approach to the realization of artificial intelligence,Fuzzy theory"Or"neural network, Etc. are also known, but it is conventional artificial intelligence.GOFAI The difference from (Good Old Fashioned AI) lies in the symbolic clarity of the description. afterwards"Support vector machineAttracted attention. Also, learn based on your own experienceReinforcement learningThere is also a method. "In this universe, intelligence is the most powerful trait (Ray KurzweilAs is the case with the word ")", mechanically expressing and implementing intelligence is an extremely important task.

2006 yearsDeep learningAppearance of (deep learning) and after the 2010sbig dataWith the advent of, it went beyond the epidemic to permeate society. From 2016 to 2017, AI that introduced deep learningFull information gameTop players such as Go, which is an incomplete information game.pokerThe world's top-class players[11][12],MahjongThen "Microsoft Suphx (Super Phoenix)" reaches the first stage as AI for AI[13]Became the most advanced technology of the times[14].

Types of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence in the second artificial intelligence boomMachine learningThere is something like the following.

Expert system
A conclusion is obtained by applying the inference function. Expert systems can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them. For example, in the pastMicrosoft OfficeHas a system that when a user types in a character string, the system recognizes certain features and makes suggestions accordingly.
Case-based reasoning (CBR)
Based on a past case similar to the case, a partial correction is made and a trial is performed, and the result and the case are stored in the case base.
Bayesian network
Behavior-based AI: A method to build an AI system from scratch

On the other hand, computational intelligence (CI) is based on repeating development and learning (for example, parameter adjustment,ConnectionismSystem). Learning is an experiential method, with non-symbolic AI and unaesthetic AI[Note 2],Soft computingIs related to The method is as follows.

neural network
Very powerfulPattern recognitionA system with power. Almost synonymous with connectionism.
Fuzzy control
It is an inference method in uncertain situations and is widely used in modern control systems.
Evolutionary computation
It is a technique inspired by biology and seeks the optimal solution of a problem by applying the concepts of evolution and mutation. This methodGenetic algorithmSwarm intelligenceare categorized.

Attempts have been made to create an intelligent system that integrates these.ACT-RNow, let's apply the inference rules of experts to neural networks andProductionGenerate through.

In the 3rd artificial intelligence boom, deep learning has outperformed the artificial intelligence of the 2nd artificial intelligence boom in various areas such as image recognition, text analysis, and voice recognition, and research on deep learning has been actively conducted. ing. recently,DQN,CNN,RNN,GANAnd various derivations of deep learning have emerged and are active in various fields. In particular, GAN (Adversarial Generation Network), in addition to deep learning's success in areas such as recognition and prediction, has shown significant advances in image generation technology.Masaya MoriPoints out that the application field of conventional artificial intelligence is expanding against the background of these results, and the application of creating content called Creative AI has also started.[15].

History

Although the construction of AI has been attempted for a long time, solving the symbol grounding problem and the frame problem has become a major obstacle.

initial

Early 17th century,Rene DescartesProposed that the body of an animal is just a complex machine (Mechanics).Blaise PascalFirst in 1642Mechanical calculatorWas produced.Charles BabbageAda lovelessHas developed a programmable mechanical computer.

Bertrand RussellAlfred North WhiteheadPublished The Principles of Mathematics and revolutionized formal logic.Warren McCullochWalter PittsPublished a paper titled "Logical Calculation of Ideas Implicit in Neural Activity" in 1943, laying the foundation for neural networks.

Late 1900s

In the 1950s, AI was beginning to produce vigorous results. John McCarthy at the first conference on AI[Note 3]Was created. He is also a programming languageLISPWas developed. As a method to enable testing regarding intellectual behavior,Alan TuringIs "Turing testWas introduced.Joseph Weisenbaum TheELIZAWas built. this isVisitor-centered therapyI do[Note 4].

In the proposal for the Dartmouth Conference held in 1956, it was first used as a term in human history and was established as a new field.

Between the 1960s and 1970s,Joel Moses The Macsyma(Maximaプ ロ グ ラ ム[Note 5]In it we show the power of symbolic reasoning in integration problems.Marvin MinskySeymour PapertPublishes "Perceptron" to show the limits of simple neural networks, Alan Carmelauer is a programming language Prolog Was developed. Ted Shortriffe established a rule-based system for medical diagnosis and therapy,Knowledge representationAnd showed the power of reasoning. This is sometimes called the first expert system.Hans MorabeckHas developed the first computer-controlled vehicle that runs autonomously on a course with obstacles.

In the 1980s, neural networksBack propagationWidely used by algorithms.

Also in this eraRodney brooksHowever, he advocated the theory that the body is essential for intelligence (physical nature).

In the 1990s, various applications were successful in many areas of AI. Especially in board games, in 1992IBMDevelops TD gammon, a computer dedicated to backgammon that is comparable to the world champion,deep blueIn August 1997Garri KasparovWas beaten by Othello in August of the same year.NECOf Othello dedicated computer · World ChampionKen MurakamiLost[16].Defense Advanced Research Projects BureauIs the firstGulf WarHe used AI to schedule units at and found that the cost saved by it outweighed all government investment in AI research since the 1950s. In Japan, Shunichi Amari (member of the Japanese Academy) enlightened energeticly and produced excellent results, but the black box nature of logic was pointed out.

1998ToUnstructured dataFormalInternational standardIsXMLWas proposed, but from hereWebAn attempt has been made to apply the semantics suitable for each application to the above unstructured data and to perform processing. In the same year,W3C OfTim Berners-LeeAllows the Web to perform intelligent processingSemantic WebWas proposed. This technology adds a meaning to the data on the Web and internationally standardizes a method for causing a computer to perform intelligent processing. This standard includes a data format that represents an ontology in knowledge engineering.OWLIt was once popular because it also includedExpert systemIt turns out that it is a variant of. Although the standardization was completed in the first half of the 2000s, it has not been popularized yet because the Web developers could not find the merit corresponding to the development man-hours.

Second AI boom in Japan

In Japan, after the trend of expert systems, neuro-fuzzy became popular. However, as the research progressed, there was no shortage of computing resources and data, symbol grounding problems, and frame problems, and there was no AI that would radically change the way the industry was, and the boom ended.

Expert system (application of knowledge engineering)

In the 1980s, a large number of expert systems based on knowledge engineering came to be proposed, mainly in laboratories of large corporations, and AI ventures specialized in expert systems were launched one after another. The fifth generation computer is the ultimate project born from the fashion.

Fifth generation computer (high-performance Prolog inference machine)

Japan spent 1982 billion yen as a national project from 1992 to 570Fifth generation computerHowever, the knowledge engineering method adopted requires enormous manual input of rules, and there is a problem that unified rules cannot be made when the interpretation of expert knowledge differs among experts. The real expert system was not realized. The actual product is a parallel type Prolog dedicated machine that directly interprets Prolog instructions by the CPU hardware mechanism and executes them at high speed, but in the commercial sense, no application destination was found.

Neuro Fuzzy[17]

From the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, ON/OFF control that has been used as a conventional electronic control method,PID control,Intellectual control is actively studied and knowledge engineering rules are used to overcome the problems of modern controlFuzzy control,Learning and classifying data featuresneural network, A method called neurofuzzy that combines the two has reached a boom mainly in Japan. In 2Subway opened in Sendai OfATOAdopted for[18]Then, in line with the high-end routes during the bubble era, many models of white goods, which have significantly increased the number and types of sensors and optimized driving based on various data, have begun to be released.

As for fuzzy, it is known that Japan had a particularly big boom in Japan, as Japan has obtained 2018/1 of the patents of the world by 5.[19].. Today's white goods use control technology that has been further developed since that time, but it has already become commonplace, and users are not aware of it. Neuro-fuzzy has become a boom1990 eraStillbig dataThere is no concept (after the spread of broadband connections2010Was first proposed toData MiningWas not applied to industry. But,neural networkThis is the first case of an epidemic involving ordinary people,Deep learningIt can be said that this is a social phenomenon that can be said to be the prehistory of the boom.

History of the boom

Matsushita Electric started research on fuzzy control that makes use of human ambiguity in control from around 1985, and launched fuzzy washing machine No. 1990 "Aizuma Go Fuzzy" on February 2, 1. I rowed. "Aizuma-go Day Fuzzy" is a washing machine that optimizes driving flexibly based on data collected by more sensors than before, and was the first washing machine of its kind in the world. Since the introduction of the most advanced technology of fuzzy control at the time matched the high-class route during the bubble era, fuzzy attracted a great deal of attention in the world despite the fact that it was a control technology behind the scenes.[19].. The degree of fashion was such that "fuzzy" was selected in the gold medal in the new word category of the 1990 New Word/Buzzword Awards. After that, Matsushita Electric developed a neuro-fuzzy control that automates the complicated tuning of fuzzy rules, and was not only evaluated at academic societies by overcoming the limitations of conventional fuzzy theory, but also successfully applied to white goods. It caused a further boom. Following the success of Matsushita's efforts, other companies also launched a number of products that use similar intelligent control. Until the mid-1990s, the name of intelligent control technology was widely used as a sales phrase for white goods for general use by manufacturers, and the product name of a washing machine was "Aizuma-go FUZZY", a classification of vacuum cleaners. "Neuro-fuzzy vacuum cleaner" and "Neuro-auto" in the operation mode of the air conditioner[20][21][22][23][24][25].

The methods of neuro, fuzzy, and neuro-fuzzy require conventional simple on/off control and objective modeling of an object with mathematical expressions (this task becomes extremely difficult when the object has a complicated mechanism). Compared with PID control and modern control, fuzzy and neuro, which can use the characteristics of human subjective experience and measured data, can increase the flexibility when adapting to the environment while reducing the development man-hours. Had an advantage[17].. However, despite the efforts of the developers, due to the small calculation capacity and the small amount of data that can be collected, the control of existing machine tools and home appliances has reached the limit to some extent. Theoretically, this is a combination of fuzzy sets and neural networks incapable of deep learning, and there is a limit to the improvement of recognition accuracy even if abundant computation resources and data are given.

Since then, the theory has not improved steadily due to the limitations of the computer's ability, and there has been no noticeable progress. Boom has gone[26].. After the boom, it was not generally noticed, but as a behind-the-scene technology, it is used not only for home appliances but also for social infrastructure such as rainwater drainage, parking lots, building management systems, etc., and it has sufficient performance and stability. Has been proven. Designed by humans around 2003OntologyDeveloped into the field of network intelligence that utilizes (expressed as fuzzy rules)[27].

2000 era

In 2005, Ray Kurzweil wrote, "Overwhelming artificial intelligence transcends humans in terms of knowledge and intelligence, advances science and technology and transforms the world.Technical singularity(Singularity) will visit in 2045."

In 2006,Jeffrey HintonBy the research teamAuto encoderbyneural networkThe deepening method ofDeep learningThe direct origin of).

Early 2010s

Since the beginning of the 2010s, an environment for research and development that handles huge amounts of data has been established, and AI-related research has begun to make great progress again.

2010In the UK Economist magazinebig dataWas proposed. In the same yearQuestion answering system OfWatsonBut the quiz show "Jepady!It was a big news that we defeated humans in the practice game of[28].2012In the image processing contestJeffrey HintonThe third AI boom began when his team won the victory after achieving significant accuracy improvement over the conventional method.

In 2013National Institute of Informatics[Note 6],Fujitsu LaboratoriesDeveloped by the research team ofToro Robot,” said that he challenged the mock examination of the University of Tokyo entrance examination. The examinees actually faced using a dedicated program for calculating mathematical expressions and analyzing wordsUniversity entrance examination center examinationAnd deciphered the question of the University of Tokyo second examination.Yoyogi Seminar"It was difficult to pass the University of Tokyo, but it was acceptable for private universities"[29].

In 2014, was a Japanese artificial intelligence scientistMotoaki SaitoHe also proposed the concept that the production cost of food, clothing, and shelter will approach zero as much as possible due to the advancement of automation and computer technology before the singularity.

Jeff HawkinsHowever, he is continuing his research toward its realization, but he is developing his own theory in his book "Thinking Brain Thinking Computer".

In various countries around the world, both military and civilian research and development are progressing toward practical use, but especially unmanned fightersUCAVAnd unmanned carsRobot carAlthough it is still under development, full automation was still experimental in the 2010s (UCAV is used, but some operations are often done from the ground).

For robots,CSAILAdvocated by Rodney BrooksInclusive architectureThe theory has appeared. This does not precede conventional knowledge of "I think, therefore I am", but uses an action-type system that learns from the environment using only the neural network of the body. Based on thisGenghisA six-legged robot, called a robot, acts as if it were alive, even though it has no so-called "brain".

Late 2010s

Rice in October 2015DeepMindCreated by the companyAlphaGoAfter winning the human professional Go player, a technique called deep learning has attracted attention, and in addition to research on artificial intelligence itself, research on the influence of artificial intelligence on employment etc. is also underway.[30].

In October 2016, DeepMind announces "Differentialable Neural Computer", an artificial intelligence technology that derives the relevance of input information and approximates the hypothesis.[31]Then, in November of the same year, a deep learning system that enables "one-shot learning" that does not require a large amount of data[32], The following June 2017, developed a system with human-like cognitive ability such as relational reasoning[33].. In August 2017, the symbol grounding problem (Symbol grounding problem) Was solved[34].

Traditionally, AI has come to win over humans even in the poker of imperfect information games that have been considered unsuitable for AI.[35]

An even more ambitious effort, Google officials said, is developing AI that can perform more than a million tasks with a single piece of software.[36]

The third boom of artificial intelligence: AGI (general purpose artificial intelligence) and technical singularity

The invention of deep learning in 2006 and after 2010big dataDue to the improvement of the collection environment and the high performance of the GPU, which is a computational resource, Deep Learning won the image processing contest by overwhelmingly different from other methods in 2012, and the concept of technological singularity rapidly increased. It has gained the attention of intellectuals all over the world and can now be perceived with a sense of reality. With the invention and rapid spread of deep learning, in the field of research and development,Demis HasabisLeading DeepMind, Vicarious, IBM Cortical Learning Center, whole brain architecture, PEZY Computing, OpenCog, GoodAI, nnaisense, IBM SyNAPSE, etc.General-purpose artificial intelligence(AGI) Has been launched in many projects. At these research and development sites, the brain was reverse engineered and constructed.NeuroscienceApproach that combines machine learning with machine learning is promising[37].. As a result, theories that deal with multiple tasks at the same time, such as Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) theory and the updated version of Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) theory, that take one step further from deep learning that deals with only one task, are being proposed. ..

Moving a model in a virtual space such as a 3D game and learning about the real world at high speed has also achieved great results (simulationLearning by).

In addition, we think that it is impossible to reproduce intelligence with AGI alone, though there are only a few, and researchers who require whole-body simulation to reproduce body intelligence and AL (artificial life) that behaves more like living creatures There are also researchers who challenge the creation of, and researchers who challenge the digital reproduction of consciousness (artificial consciousness), which seems to be closely related to intelligence.

With the advent of large amounts of computing resources at a reasonable cost, big data has emerged, and companies are extremely interested in utilizing vast amounts of data. R&D competition on artificial intelligence is being developed by making various investments. Also in 2011D-Wave SystemsbyQuantum annealing methodWith the commercialization of the next generation, the next-generation IT infrastructure called quantum computer capable of ultra-parallel processing began to be rapidly put into practical use. The environment is starting to improve. In response to this trend, from around 2016, news programs for the general public have become prominent reports of artificial intelligence research and development, new service development, and quantum computers.

In 2017Elon MuskConnects human brains to machines to keep humans abreast of rapidly evolving artificial intelligenceBrain Machine InterfaceAnnounced that they had launched Nura Link, which researches and develops, and became a hot topic all over the world. It is predicted that the Internet of people will emerge with the Brain Machine Interface.

2017In 10 monthJeffrey HintonProposed a capsule network that enables learning including the relative positional relationship between elements.[38].

International University on March 2018, 3GLOCOMAnalysis suggests that using problem-solving AI can contribute to social change.[39].

2018 year 8 month,OpenAIAnnounces an AI that implements curiosity and performs no-game scores, no goals, no rewards, and purposeless exploration.It is said to be the most human-like AI ever. [40]

In September 2018, the MIT Lincoln Research Laboratories developed an architecture that clearly shows the process of identifying the inference of a neural network, which was previously a black box.[41]

In 2019, significant progress has been made in language processing, which has been considered difficult in deep learning so far, and it has surpassed humans in reading comprehension tests using Wikipedia. (BERT, ROBERT.)[42]

Early 2020s

2020GPT-3, a natural language processing program that learned English from a huge number of pages on the web, was developed by OpenAI, and posted and talked on a major American bulletin board site for a week without anyone noticing.The reason why I noticed it as a program was not that the text was unnatural, but that the number of posts was abnormal.[43]It also paved the way for programming in natural language, such as "create a web page with a layout like Google."

Deepmind also completed Alpha Fold 2 and scored high on the protein folding prediction benchmark, which has been a challenge in biology for XNUMX years.It is also said to be a Nobel Prize-class achievement.

2021As of February, 2 companies in JapanRetail tradeDemand forecast type automatic ordering system forsinopsHas succeeded in reducing the shortage rate by 34.7% and the waste loss rate by 19.1%.[44].

AI development in each country

President of the Times in 2013 in AmericaBarack ObamaIs a brain research projectBRAIN Initiative"Announced.

GoogleIs working with the Allen Institute for Brain Science to develop software for processing large amounts of data produced by brain scans. As of 2016, the amount of data of Brainmap managed by Google has already reached 1 Zetta bytes.[45][46].. Google has also started collaborative research with the Max Planck Institute in Germany and is conducting research on reconstructing neural circuits from electron micrographs of the brain.[47]

2016th 13 in China5 year planAI as a national project[48], As a brain research project(English editionAlso launched[49], The public and private sectors are promoting AI research and development[50].. Chinese educational institutions have also gathered genius children under the age of 18 and openly invested in the development of AI weapons[51].Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)(English editionProfessor(English editionAccording toPoliciesIt is said that it is in an environment where it is easier to research AI and experiment with new technologies compared to the conscious Western countries[52][53][54].. Motoaki Saito, who promotes research and development of supercomputers in Japan, also asserts that China may lead in the development of AI[55].. It is said that China occupies three-quarters of the world's deep learning computers[56].. According to the US government, since 2013, China has surpassed the United States in the number of papers on deep learning since XNUMX.[57].(English edition,(English editionThe Chinese are monopolizing the top ranks in AI global competitions.[58][59].. Major AI company Google,Microsoft,ア ッ プ ルWas also an executiveTaiwanese AmericanScientist(English editionSay that China is taking over the hegemony with AI.(English editionWas published by the American political world and media.[60][61].

French PresidentEmmanuel MacronDeclares that it will spend $5 billion (about 15 billion yen) in five years to support development in the AI ​​field[62], Opened an AI laboratory in Paris and invited Facebook, Google, Samsung, DeepMind, Fujitsu and others. Long-term cooperation in AI research has also been decided with Britain. For the EU as a whole, €2020 billion will be invested through the “Horizon 215” plan. South Korea will invest $20 billion by 2022. Six AI institutions were established and a reward system was created. The goal is to be in the top four AI worlds by 6. [63]

According to the Nikkei newspaper research, the number of AI research papers by country was 1st in the United States, 2nd in China, 3rd in India, and 7th in Japan[64].

Production

The programming language isC++BesidesPythonIs widely used. In order to use deep learning, mathematical knowledge such as differentiation, linear algebra, and probability/statistics at a university level or higher is required. Knowledge of neuroscience is also important for brain simulation.

concern

Artificial Intelligence Society OfYutaka Matsuoは、著書『人工知能は人間を超えるか』内に於いて、A humanAgainst反 乱を起こす可能性を否定しているが、人工知能の危険性について、警鐘を鳴らしている著名人もいる。

  • Stephen Hawking「人工知能の発明は、人類史上最大の出来事だった。だが同時に『最後』の出来事になってしまう可能性もある」[65]
  • Elon Musk「人工知能はDevilIs like calling[66]
  • Bill Gates「これは確かに不安を招く問題だ。よく制御できれば、Mech robotは人間に幸福をもたらせる。しかし、数年後、ロボットの知能は充分に発展すれば、必ず人間の心配事になる」[67]

Human rights violations

Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyProfessor of(English editionは、莫大な資金力とhuman rightsHas the repression ofPeople's Republic of Chinaが人工知能の開発競争で成功すれば、民主的な国家が技術革新に優位という既成概念が変わると述べ[52]Called one of the "Fathers of Deep Learning"Yoshua Bengioは、中国が市民の監視や政治目的で人工知能を利用していることに警鐘を鳴らしており[68][69]、世界の人権団体やメディアは、中国に代表される人工知能で人権を抑圧する政治体制を「デジタル権威主義」[70][71]"Digital dictatorship"[72][73][74]"DigitalPolice state'[75]"Digital totalitarianism"[76]"AI dictatorship"[77]I called.

中華人民共和国では、ヘルメットや帽子に埋め込んだセンサーから、国民の脳波と感情を人工知能で監視する、中国政府支援のプロジェクトが推し進められ[78][79][80][81],Online censorship[82][83]Officials,刑 務 所From prisonerscrosswalkArtificial intelligence to monitor even pedestrians[84][85][86][87][88][89],Surveillance cameraPolicemen OfSunglassesSmart glasses[90],Mech robot[91]ToFace recognition system(Sky net) With artificial intelligenceSurveillance society-Management societyHas been made[92][93][94][95].

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regionでは、監視カメラやMobile phoneなどから収集した個人情報を、人工知能で解析する(English edition,Race profilingOf the ethnic groups selected inUighurを法的手続きを経ずに、2017年6月時点で約1万5千人もterrorism,crimeを犯す可能性があるとして、Xinjiang Uygur Re-education CampToPreventive detentionしているとする、中国政府の内部文書である(English editionHas been reported[96][97][98]、AIを使った政府による特定の民族の選別や、コンピュータが人間をConcentration campSend toHuman rights violationは「前例がない」として、国際問題になっている[99][100].Hong KongThen, the fear of becoming a surveillance society by artificial intelligence similar to mainland China[101],2019-2020 Hong Kong Democratization Demoが起きた際は、Surveillance cameraを搭載したスマートStreet lampが、市民に次々と破壊された[102][103].

中華人民共和国は、AI監視技術をMiddle East-Asia-Africaなど、世界各国に輸出しており[104][105][106][107][108][70],United Nations OfSpecialized institutionIsInternational Telecommunication Union(ITU)を通じて、中国がAI監視技術の国際標準化も主導してることから、中国のような人権侵害が世界に拡散することが、人権団体から懸念されている[109][110].

ChineseSocial credit systemThere is a concern that a system that uses artificial intelligence to utilize big data to determine the aptitude of people, as represented by, will lead to fixing the gap between social classes.[111],European Unionでは2018年5月から、人工知能のビッグデータ分析のみによる、雇用や融資でのDiscriminationを認めない、EU General Data Protection RegulationWas enforced[112].

マサチューセッツ工科大学がFace recognition systemの精度で、Microsoftと中国のMegviiは9割超で、IBMは8割に達したのに対して、Amazon.comは6割でRacism的なバイアスがあるとする研究を発表した際は、Amazon.comと論争になった[113].

Military use

Armed forces of major powers are trying to automate in the field of missile defense. The US Navy has a fully automatic air defense systemPhalanx CIWSCan be used to destroy anti-ship missiles with a Gatling gun. Israeli army anti-aircraft missile systemIron domeOwns theGaza StripThe target is automatically detected on the boundary line betweenGuardium,Samsung RCWSIs running and shooting multiple humans[114][115].. It is also argued that AI will create new military capabilities, change the command of the military, training, deployment of troops, transform war, and that change will determine the military balance between large powers.[116].P-1 (Patrol aircraft)It may be installed in the battle command system for support like.

June 2016, USUniversity of Cincinnati"ALPHA", which was developed by a research team of the company, was announced to have unilaterally won a simulated air battle with a former US military pilot. AI programs use genetic algorithms and fuzzy control, which does not require high processing power to operate the algorithms.Raspberry PiCan work on[117][118].United States Department of DefenseIssued a ban on the development of autonomous killing weapons that did not rely on human judgment from a humanitarian perspective in 2012, and made it permanent in 2017.[119].

As the ability of human beings to survive artificial intelligence,OODA loopIs attracting attention[120].

Some scientists and tech leaders argue that military use of AI will accelerate global instability. In 2015ブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ スHeld in Stephen Hawking, an American space venture companySpace xFounder Elon Musk,ア ッ プ ルCo-founder ofSteve Wozniak, An open letter was issued by scientists and entrepreneurs.Droneや銃火器を操る人型ロボットなどAI搭載型兵器は、Gunpowder,nuclear weaponsに続く第3の革命ととらえられ、うち一部は数年以内に実用可能となると予測。国家の不安定化、暗殺、抑圧、特定の民族への選別攻撃などに利用され、兵器の開発競争が人類にとって有益なものとはならないと明記された。

In March 2015,Harvard UniversityLaw school and international human rights organizationHuman Rights WatchDemands a ban on autopilot weapons[121].. In March 2017,United NationsFirst Official Expert Meeting on Military Use of AI Held in[122]、2019年8月に同会議は、AI兵器の運用をめぐる事実上初の国際ルールを採択するも、法的拘束力は盛り込まれなかった[123].

East-West conflict

New Cold War,US-China Cold Warの状態にあるとも評されている、アメリカ合衆国・中華人民共和国・ロシア連邦は、核開発に匹敵する開発競争を人工知能の軍事利用をめぐって行っている[124].

中国は、2017年6月に119機のDrone群の自律飛行実験で、前年2016年に103機の飛行実験に成功したアメリカ軍の記録を更新して、翌2018年5月にはNorth Americaの都市を爆撃するCG映像も発表し[125]In June of the same year, the world's largest test using 6 autonomous unmanned boats[126]を行うなど、AIの軍事利用の技術(特にスウォームと呼ばれる大量のLoitering weaponsなどの自律兵器の統合運用)で中国が急速に進展しており、アメリカに追い付く可能性があることについて懸念し、アメリカ合衆国では将来に備える必要があるとの主張もされている[116].

中国の軍用AI開発は、U.S. Forcesや政界に危機感を与え、2019年3月にJoseph DunfordChairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff,Patrick ShanahanSecretary of DefenseActing,Donald TrumpPresidentは、中国でのAI研究拠点の設立などでChinese PLAに協力していると、Googleを非難し[127][128], Google CEOThunder Pichaiはダンフォードやトランプ大統領と面談して、中華人民共和国のAI研究拠点の成果は、中国に限らず全ての人々に開放されていると釈明する事態になった[129].

アメリカ合衆国では、Googleがアメリカ軍のAIの軍事利用に協力する極秘計画「メイヴン計画」を行っていたことが、Googleの社員に暴露されており[130], March 2018United States Congressの公聴会では、同様に暴露された中国政府に協力する秘密計画「(English edition」とともに、人工知能を用いた兵器開発や人権侵害は拒否するとGoogleが誓った、2018年6月の人工知能開発6原則との整合性で、追及を受けた[131].

中国人民解放軍の戦闘機J-20の標的選択支援algorithmに、GoogleのAI研究者が関わったと報道された際は「AIではなく、統計学的なモデリング」と否定した[132]。また、Microsoftが中国軍の教育機関とAIの共同研究を発表した際も、同様に波紋を呼んだ[133].

January 2019Mark Esper国防長官は、中華人民共和国がAIによって新しい監視国家を構築しているだけでなく、中東でPterosaurs,rainbowな どDroneを大量に拡散させて、AIで自律的に攻撃するドローン兵器も販売していることに警鐘を鳴らした[134].

ロシアと中国は、既に実用化してるとされるhackingOther automation[135]Attack a specific individual,Deep fakeSpoofing and bot postings raise concerns about controlling public opinion, etc.[136].

Employment problem

Oxford UniversityDr. Michael Osbourne of2013According to a paper published in, about 49% of the working population in Japan is highly likely to be replaced by artificial intelligence and robots (47% in the United States and 35% in the United Kingdom).2030 erauntilfast food店で料理をする従業員が、Mech robotIt has been pointed out that there is a high probability that it will be replaced by AI and AI with 81%[137][138][139].

しかし、この論文に対して、LaboratoryThere are criticisms that it is overestimated because it includes jobs that can be automated at the level. When Michael Osbourne came to Japan in October 2016,Institute of Economy, Trade and Industryの岩本晃一が「どのような意図、いかなる前提で試算したのか」と質問したところ、「技術的な可能性を示しただけ、雇用増の部分は一切考慮していない」との回答が返ってきている。例えれば、現在既にShogiAI is emerging at the laboratory level, so at the moment, shogi around the worldPlayer全員が、既に人工知能に代替されている可能性があると示しているに過ぎないのである。

And make up the professiontask(業務)単位でみた場合に、70%超えのタスクが自動化される職業は9%程度(日本の場合は7%程度)にとどまるとの研究結果もある。またAIや機械化によって雇用が奪われるという主張もあるが、それらの技術によってタスク量が減少するが、AIや機械化を導入したり、維持したりする仕事や、それらの技術により新たな仕事が生まれることにより、雇用が生み出される可能性もある。しかし同時に、中程度の技能を有するルーティン業務が減少し、専門技能が求められない、低スキルの仕事と高度な技能が求められる仕事へと2極化していき、Economic disparityIs also expected to expand[140][141][142].

Philosophy and AI

Philosophy/Religion/Art

GoogleLaunched an artificial intelligence project in March 2019ethicsTo teach in the plane哲学PersonpolicyPlanner·EconomicsAnnounced that it will establish an AI ethics committee consisting of people and technologists[143].. But the ethics committeeAnti-science・AntiMinority-Skepticism about global warmingEtc. are also included, and Google employees requested dismissal[143].. On April 4, Google announced the dissolution of the ethics committee because it "turned out to be unable to function as expected"[143].

Oriental philosophyAccording to Yoichiro Miyake's theme of absorbing AI intoTakahito IguchiIs "torii(TORII)” my project, “We areanimismAnd for everythingSpiritFind a targetculture,” says Miyake and Tetsuishi Tadahiro.[144].. Animistic artificial intelligence theoryContemporary ArtOr,Zen OfEnlightenmentHow to get AI to do it?"[144].

Former Google engineer Anthony Levandowski said AI in 2017ToReligious groupFounding "Way of the Future"[145].. The mission of the organization is expressed in an abstract manner, "to promote and develop the realization of Godhead based on artificial intelligence (AI), and to contribute to the improvement of society through understanding and worship of Godhead." Many foreign mediaSFmovies,HistoryReported in association with[145].UberAnd Google's Waymo said Levandowskiself-drivingAboutConfidential informationThePlagiarismAppealing fortrialMeanwhile, Levandowski is the source of UberCEO(Travis Karanik)BotOne by one, weConquer the worldDemonstrating ambitious behavior, such as saying "I will do it."[145].

Soai UniversityProfessor of Faculty of HumanitiesShatetsu sect"The line between philosophy, thought and literature, and religion and spirituality is becoming obscure."[146].. According to Juichi Uchida, a philosopher and ethicist, "every real philosopher is talking about the dead, ghosts, and the otherworld."[147].

InventorRay KurzweilSays the philosopherJohn SarlePosed byStrong AI and weak AIControversy is a hot topic in AI philosophical debate[148].. philosopherJohn SarleandDaniel DennettAccording to Sar'sChinese room"Ned BlockRan'Chinese brain"such asFunctionalismCritical thinking experiments show that true consciousnessFormal logicClaims that the system cannot achieve[149][150].

Criticism

"What does it mean to talk about science?"Yasushi SudoIs a philosophical consideration of science (Philosophy of science) Point out that it is actually "disconnected" from science[151].. Also,"Heart"Or"ConsciousnessHas been solvedBrain science-Computer science(Computer science) · Artificial intelligenceResearch and DevelopmentIn relation to etc.Francis clickCriticizes that "philosophers have had little success in the year 2000"[152]。こうした観点において、哲学は「二流どころか三流」の学問・科学に過ぎない、と評価されている[152].. Brain scientistToshiyuki SawaguchiAgrees with Click and says, "This is a sigh of sighing for me, but philosophers and thinkers continueSpare time"I think."[152].. In fact, philosophy isScoray) Startedア リ ス ト テ レ スThe philosopher of science says that the negative remarks mentioned above are not irrelevant.Keiichi NoieSays[152].

Philosophers are different from science日常Have tried to talk about "existence" and "universe" in a dynamic language[153].. HoweverTheoretical physicsA personDiracDid not trust the philosopher very much[154].. Dirac saw,WittgensteinPhilosophers includingQuantum mechanicsOn the contraryPascalThe followingprobabilityDo not even understand the concept of[155].. Dirac's idea is that no matter how much non-scientific everyday language you use, you can't communicate accurately.[154].

Life informaticsPersonNeurosciencePerson ofKazuyuki AiharaAccording to the book “Artificial Intelligence is Created in this Way”Technical singularityThe ideology and philosophy of ", Singularity" are discussed in some parts, but even if it is called a singular point,MathIs not a story[156].. The above-mentioned article said, "In the first place, in the discussion related to singularity,brainOverStatementGood in itselfDefinitionIt's not done"[157].. Indeed, the brain is "digitalInformation processing systemFrom the point of view of ”, singularity may occur[158].. But the real brain is not such a simple system,デ ジ タ ルanalogWas fusedhybridTo be a "system"NeuroscienceIs shown in the observation results of[158].. According to the above article,NerveVarious types of membranesnoiseThere is, and there is an analog amount with this noise in the brainNeuronof"カ オ スIs being created, it is considered "extremely difficult" to describe this situation digitally.[159].

Mathematician-Logician OfKazuyuki Tanaka"Is a general philosopherlogic OfExpertNot"[160]、計算機科学者(コンピュータ科学者)・論理学者のトルケル゠フランセーンは、哲学者たちによる数学的な言及の多くが「ひどいMisunderstanding,Free associationIt is based on[161].. According to Tanaka,Godel's incompleteness theoremA book written by a philosopher was about to be sold in a bookstore around the same time as a book by Francaine, but the philosopher's book was badly criticized by a specialist[160].. The book was easy to read as a whole and was well received by general readers,GodelThe core of the proof of (Fixed point theorem) Was explained with a fundamental misunderstanding[160].. Similar mistakes can be found in other introductory books[160].. According to Francaine, misunderstandings and misuses about the incompleteness theorem occur in general, including philosophy.[161], Religion ortheologyBut being abused[162][163].. In 1931, Godel showed that "specificFormal systemThe existence of undecidable propositions in, and not the theorem of "imperfections" in the general sense[164].

Science and philosophy

According to "What does it mean to talk about science?", the problems dealt with by academic fields were organized and differentiated, and science and philosophy began to study different problems.[165].. This is "the subdivision of the research field itself," andProgressSays astrophysicist Sudo[165].. On the other hand, scientific philosophers and ethicistsTetsuji IsetaIs a philosophical and unified approach to dealing with "big" problems that include various elements.astronomyMentioned about[165].. "It's true, but astronomy then stopped dealing with that [philosophical] problem, and today's physics doesn't deal with it either," Sudo said, "yes, but something in itself. Is there?"[165].. Sudo also stated that[151].

"Science philosophy and the disconnection of science"

私は、科学哲学が物理学者に対して何らかの助言をしたなどということは聞いたことがないし、おそらく科学哲学と一般の科学者はほとんど没交渉であると言って差し支えない状況なのであろう。… 科学哲学者と科学者の価値観の溝が深いことは確実だ。

20st centuryが生んだ最も偉大な物理学者の一人であるRichard Feynmanが述べたとされる有名な言葉に「科学哲学は鳥類学者が鳥の役に立つ程度にしか科学者の役に立たない」がある。… かつて私がこの言葉を引用した講演をした際に、「鳥類学は鳥のためにやっているわけでないし、科学哲学もまた科学のために存在するのではない」という反論をもらったことがある。確かに、科学哲学が科学のためのものである必要は無い[151].
This is the philosophy of sciencemethodologyが果たして正しいのであろうかと立ち止まって悩んでいる間に、科学は常に前に踏み出しています。それでいいではないですか。 科学哲学者が横からいろいろ言うけれども、科学者からは「耳を傾けるべき重要な指摘だろうか」と首を傾げることばかり(たぶん、科学哲学者の皆さんから袋叩きに遭うでしょうが)というのが、正直な印象です[166].

Sudo takes up the term "cause" that is philosophically discussed, and says, "No further discussion is possible unless the term "cause" is specifically defined."[167]"It is certain that the definition of causality that philosophers are interested in is different from that of physicists," he said.[168].. Iseta says, "The difference in the appearance of physicists and philosophers may be greater than I expected."[169].

In a dialogue, Sudo said, "I've been discussing for a long time so far. I think that the difference in opinion has been clarified, but will it really make a difference?" "I'm not going to settle," he said.[170].

Literature/Fiction/SF (Science)

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ IEICEで工学博士のMasakazu Sengokuが述べた定義では、「工学(Engineering)」とは「Math.natural Scienceの知識を用いて,健康と安全を守り,文化的,社会的及び環境的な考慮を行い,人類のために(for the benefit of humanity),design.development of.Innovationまたは解決を行う活動」だとされている[8].
  2. ^ British: scruffy AI
  3. ^ British: artificial intelligence
  4. ^ British: chatterbot
  5. ^ First successful knowledge-based program in mathematics
  6. ^ Noriko AraiIs the leader

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References

Academic books and dictionaries

  • "Artificial intelligence"The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)"Shogakukan-Asahi Shimbun-VOYAGE GROUP, 2018.2018/8/16Browse. “Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science that studies “intelligence” using the concept of “computation” and the tool of “computer”. To put it simply, without fear of misunderstanding, it is possible to say, "What kind of procedure (algorithm) and what kind of data (preliminary If we prepare information and knowledge, we can do it mechanically”. "
  • 仙石, 正和「基礎研究を続ける大切さ(創立100周年記念特集「基礎・境界」が支えた100 年, これからの100年 ―― 未来 100 年を担うあなたへ贈る言葉)」『電子情報通信学会誌(The journal of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers)』第100巻第6号、電子情報通信学会、2017年、 431-439頁。
  • All, Takuki "Exotic Quantum: A Strange but Unexpected Talk of Quantum", University of Tokyo Press, 2014.ISBN 978-4130636070.
  • Noe, Keiichi"Philosophy in the Age of Science: Is Philosophy" Second-class Science "? The Quest for Philosophy, Vol. 29, Forum of Young Philosophy Researchers, 2002, pp. 31-42.
  • Francaine, Torquel, "Gedel's Theorem: An Incomplete Guide to Use and Misuse," Translated by Kazuyuki Tanaka, Misuzu Shobo, 2011.ISBN 978-4622075691.
  • Momouchi, Yoshio"Artificial intelligence"The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)", Shogakukan, Asahi Shimbun, VOYAGE GROUP, 2017.2017/12/31Browse. "Research field on the design and implementation of intelligent information processing systems using computers"
  • ASCII.jp"Artificial intelligence"ASCII.jp Digital Term Dictionary" ASCII.jp, Asahi Shimbun, VOYAGE GROUP, 2018.2018/8/16Browse. "A technology that causes a computer to perform intellectual actions such as language understanding, reasoning, and problem solving on behalf of humans."


教育研究機関・研究開発機関

  • 東京大学 理学部 情報科学科、東京大学大学院 情報理工学系研究科 コンピュータ科学専攻『人工知能と機械学習』東京大学・東京大学大学院、2021年。2021/2/25Browse.


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