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👩‍🎓 | [Junior High School Examination 2021] No additional examination for corona-infected persons in Tokyo

Photo 2021 Regarding the response to the new coronavirus infection in the enrollment decision

[Junior High School Examination 2021] No additional examination for corona-infected persons in Tokyo

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On the day of the examination, do not use public transportation such as trains, buses, taxis, airplanes (domestic flights), passenger ships, and go to the inspection site avoiding crowded places.

The Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education will announce on December 2020, 12, 25 (2021rd year of Reiwa) Tokyo Metropolitan Secondary School and Tokyo Metropolitan Junior High School ... → Continue reading


The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Transportation(Kotsu) meansPeopleIs the physical movement of things[1],Human社会It is a social phenomenon that occurs with activities. "Transportation" is, in a broad sensecommunication) Is a concept that also includes[2].. However, in general, when it comes to "transportation," it is often used as a word that does not include communication.Traffic engineering,Transportation economics,Transportation geographyAcademic areas such as do not include communication.


TransportationIs a term that refers to the spatial movement of people and things, and is said to be an act of overcoming geographically separated geographical barriers.[1].. Transportation is a natural part of human life and an essential part of the development of human society.[1].. With the progress of technology, transportation has also evolved, and the range of movement has greatly expanded.[1].. The economic activity of transportation is the need to move thingsTransportation demandAnd move itTransportation laborIs said to be established on the supply of[2].

Traffic is divided into passenger traffic and freight traffic according to the movement target.[2].. The daily traffic demand for passenger transportation isCommuting-Commuting to school・From hospital visitsTourismThere are various things. Also, traffic is divided into land traffic, water traffic, and air traffic depending on the location of movement.[2].


A system developed as a means of transportationTransportationorTransportation systemCall. Transportation has evolved to provide more sophisticated means as human societies evolve. Conversely in transportationInnovationThere is also an aspect that has greatly changed the appearance of human society.

Transportation elements

It is said that transportation has three elements: passages, vehicles, and power.[3].

Railway line,道路,Route,AirwayEtc. There are railroad tracks, paved roads, canals that require significant construction, and routes and airways that are almost untouched.[3].. A transportation network (traffic network) is defined by a single or a plurality of transportation facilities, which are swept around like a mesh.
As a typical example of modern transportationvehicle,aircraft,Shipand so on.
The power of transportation includes natural power such as human power, livestock power, wind power and water power, and artificial power such as steam power, oil burning explosive power and electric power.[3].. Historically, the mechanization of transportation has progressed from horsepower to steam locomotives and trains, and from sailboats to steamboats and motorboats.

Once upon a timeHuman legs, Cow horse,camelHowever, the carrier and power were undifferentiated, but it is said that the separation of the carrier and the power source lessened the natural constraint and brought about a breakthrough in the development of traffic.[3].

Today's transportation isITS,TrainOperation plan of the roadsignalcontrol,Air traffic controlSuch as the operation control system,Fare, Revenue management,MarketingHas made remarkable progress in terms of sales system.

Transportation characteristics

Transportation has the following characteristics.

Public nature
In modern society with highly developed transportation networks, people and things have come to be premised on the smooth movement of transportation networks. Even if a part of transportation stops社会 問題This is because many people rely on transportation for their daily lives and tasks such as commuting to work and school. Transportation is an important issue related to the basis of human life, and the public nature of transportation is recognized here, and transportation policies and traffic administration such as protection, promotion, supervision, control of the transportation industry and maintenance of traffic order and safety are carried out.[2].
Investment scale
Generally, it takes a huge amount of money to develop transportation. Since the purpose of transportation is to move spatially, wide-area equipment is required. In addition, because of the intensive demand such as the rush hour for commuting, securing a large capacity is likely to lead to excessive investment. Furthermore, since these facilities and transportation equipment are difficult to divert to other uses,Sunk costWill grow.
service life
Generally, facilities used for transportation have a long service life.concrete,Embankment,steelFacilities made of such materials will be used for a long time to come. Future demand forecasting involves large uncertainties, making investment decisions difficult.


The most basic means of transportation is on foot, but 1 a dayKilometersLimit of travel distance[1].. Technology has evolved over time, and horse-drawn carriages, sailboats, railroads, automobiles, and aircraft continue to be invented. The evolution of transportation has led to a dramatic increase in the range of activities that can be performed at the same time, which has led to cultural exchanges between people and the widespread distribution of goods.[1].

Distances that can be traveled in 1 hour are 3 to 6 kilometers on foot, 15 to 25 kilometers on bicycles, 40 to 100 kilometers on cars, 300 kilometers on high-speed rail, and 800 kilometers on airplanes.[1].

Ground transportation

As the means of transportation for land transportation, the power of humans and animals has been widely used for a long time, but today railways and automobiles are the main means of transportation.[4].

Water transportation

Air transportation

Transportation history

Origin of traffic

文明Before was born, peoplehuntingTo get food by themselves消费There was almost no need to travel a long distance or carry a large amount of luggage, because it was only done. But,Agriculture,LivestockWhen starts, the situation changes completely. With the ability to systematically produce and store food and streamline production,communityNow you can produce more than you consume. For the first time, the exchange of necessary goods between the communities beganTransportationWas born. In addition, livestock had to move in search of food for livestock and could not settle in one place, so it was necessary to carry a large amount of luggage.

Since it is inconvenient to barter individually, it is recommended to trade in geographically separated locations in one place.MarketIs established, and supplies are brought to the marketlogisticsWas born. The market sooncityDeveloped into a city, and specialized in trading and logistics without producing itselfCommercialThe one that runs the business has appeared. In this way, changes in trafficEconomyIt is inseparable from the development of. And the transportation system was required to evolve according to the demands of economic activities and the situation of infrastructure.

Early traffic

The most basic means of transportation isA humanItselfwalkingIt is to be. However, the distance traveled by humans is limited. Humans have a speed of about 4km/h, and the maximum movement is 30-40km per day. It is called bureaucratic transportation that the human being carries the luggage by himself, but there is not so much luggage that one person can carry. On the other hand, transportation using animals has long been carried out. mainly(I.e.,camel,牛, Or their neighboring species were domesticated and used. Livestock used to carry luggageBeastThe transportation is called "jujutsu transportation", while the transportation of livestock isSledTo attractBeastCall it transportation. By using animals in this way, it has become possible to obtain the speed and freight transport volume that are several times faster than when a human acts alone. Especially camels that can act without drinking water for a long timeDesertIt is also called the "boat ofArabIt was an important means of transportation until the spread of automobiles in the world.

Also, as a primitive means of transportation,boatThe existence of. In a flood,DriftwoodPerhaps you learned to move by catching a driftwood when you saw such things flowing. However, if it is left as it is, it will capsize, so it is easier for humans to ride, and in addition, considering that it will move faster, all that accelerates with human power, andWindUse the power of to accelerate and stabilize the boatsailWas invented.

Invention of wheels

WheelIs around 3500 BC,SumerWas invented in and then rapidlyEurasiaSpread all over the country. Ancient timesMesopotamian civilizationHowever, the painting of the wheel remains and it is ancientChugokuBut the wheels were used. On the other hand,Maya civilizationHas no evidence of practical use of the wheels.

秦Emperor ShikiHe unified. What is a car gaugeCarriageIt is the width of the two wheels attached to. At that time, there was a rutrailIt is believed that the car was running in this rut. Since it is difficult for horse-drawn carriages with different track gauges to follow the same road, we unified them to facilitate distribution. Car gaugeTrain OfGaugeIt is a concept similar to, and it may be said that the rut created by the carriage is the origin of the railway.

Road maintenance

Roman EmpireIn the times,RomeGo from each placeStone pavement Of道路Has been maintained. They areRoman roadCalled. It had a military purpose of being able to dispatch troops to various places throughout the empire, but from this, the word "all roads lead to Rome" was born. One of Germany's tourist roadsRomantic roadIs the origin of the Roman road. Also, in ItalyAppia Road"Is also originated from the Roman road, and the stone pavement remains almost as it was at the time,21st centuryIs still used today. In addition to the Roman road, he held hegemony in each region at that time.CountryThere are several roads constructed by. in JapanEdo PeriodToGokaidoWas established and a transportation network centered around Edo was established. The highways that are maintained throughout the countryCentralizationIt was indispensable to the existence of the nation.

On the other hand, with the establishment of the highway, cities were born along the road. For example, at a point where a road crosses a river (Watatsu), traffic is likely to stay and a city is easily established. In addition, old highways are often selected as the routes for major transportation routes that will be newly established in later times.High speed train,highwayMany of them are often built along old highways. Therefore, most cities along the highways continue to be important points of transportation even now, and there are many cases where they are growing into big cities. On the other hand, since the distance between cities is determined by the speed at which they can move, the speeding up of transportation infrastructure may cause competition between cities and cause old cities to decline.

Invention of the railway

Transportation in modern timesmachineI cannot speak without the development of the means of transportation. The pioneer was thatTrainIs the invention of.

Railway historyThe idea of ​​a railway, as old as it is today, appeared at least 2000 years ago. When I made repeated round trips to and from the same place with wheels, ruts inevitably occurred, which hindered transportation and I could not expect efficient movement. Therefore, I made a tree to prevent ruts. However, with wood, problems such as easy chipping and decay occurred. Therefore, by replacing the wood with an iron plate,railI was able to. However, this also caused the problem of derailment. Therefore, measures such as making the rail L-shaped so as not to derail were settled down to the current D-shape. But the power isManpower,horsepowerMet.

Like todayPrime moverThe emergence of railways powered by1804å¹´ OfTrevithickbysteam locomotiveMust wait for his invention. However, at this point, it was not practical enough. Practical applicationStephenson parent and childMade by1830å¹´, The world's first passenger train by steam locomotiveLiverpool-ManchesterOpened to the public. Its usefulness was immediately recognized, and since then railroad construction has been promoted all over the world. In Europe and America in the middle of the 19th century, and in Japan from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, there was an unprecedented railway construction rush, and most of the major routes that are still operating today were completed in this period in an extremely short period of time. .. In the cityTram,subwayIs laid and is close to citizensTransportationIt became.

Popularization of travel

Until the arrival of the railwayTravelWas a dangerous act. It was necessary to travel on a bad road for a long time on foot or in a carriage, and the cost was enormous. With the exception of a very limited layer, it is now commonレ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンAs a trip I couldn't think of it. However, the development of the railway network has made it very easy and inexpensive to travel long distances.Industrial revolutionThe constantLeisure timehaveMiddle classWith the growth of, travel to enjoy leisureHobbiesCame to be recognized as the first time.

Invention of automobile

Carl BenzThe first automobile was invented by. Cars that were rare are becoming popular in the USFord Model TSince was released. It became popular as roads were developed in countries around the world and car prices became affordable for the middle class. Spread of cars (motorizationProgress), because of the strength of being able to move inSuburbanizationIt has also caused changes to society. Also around the worldGlobal warmingAs the problem surfaced,Fossil fuelIsgasolineUsingcarbon dioxideSuch asGreenhouse gasThe usage of automobiles that emit carbon dioxide is becoming more and more demanding.

Invention of the plane


Even though modern people make moving their living business,Kisho KurokawaCategorized modern people as "movers" (homo movens) to distinguish between livelihoods and farmers.

Modern transportation


Local transportation

Regarding traffic within a specific area, there are characteristic traffic conditions in large urban areas, small and medium urban areas, and transportation within other areas. Traffic demand in metropolitan areas is extremely high. In addition, there is an extreme increase in traffic demand when commuting to school or unilateral demand for business districts. Therefore, congestion during commuting to school,Traffic jamEtc. is a problem.

Inter-regional transportation

As described below, the main mode of transportation for interregional transportation is shifting from railroads to buses and aircraft.

Ground transportation


Currently, in most developed countries such as JapanTrainIt can be said that the net is almost complete. The railway network between major cities is complete, and currently the high-speed railway network (Shinkansen) Is emphasized.

Railroads have advantages over other modes of transportation when traveling between cities within relatively short distances. Especially for short and medium distances (200 km for conventional lines and about 500 km for Shinkansen), it may be advantageous in arrival time compared to aircraft, and it may be possible to secure profits because there are relatively many passengers. Because.Japan,Chugoku,India,EuropeRailways are often used when there is a certain amount of movement demand between medium and large cities.

However, it is a fact that the current railway has many problems.

First,Passenger car-bus-TrackThere is a car like this. With the advent of automobiles, railways were unable to compete with the tight transportation capacity of automobiles, and the rail network except between major cities gradually began to decline. Furthermore, in the cityTramEven in Japan, there were too many cars on the road, and they could not move. Finally, many cities were abolished. But,subwayRailway networks inside cities such asCommuting rushSince there is no other means of transportation that can secure the transportation capacity equivalent to that of a railway, the urban rail network is still expanding all over the world.

On the other hand, the traffic demand between cities has recently beenhighwayBy the maintenance ofExpress BusHowever, it is being used to connect cities between dozens to hundreds of kilometers, which was traditionally good at railways, and is threatening the area of ​​railways. Especially, it is often used on the railroad between cities where there is no detour or high speed train. In addition, it is also cheaper than the fare when using the railroad, especially for night buses that connect between cities,night TrainIn the current situation where the number of trains is decreasing, it is possible to fully utilize the local effective time, and the railway fare +HotelThere is great demand because the bus fare is cheaper than the accommodation cost. Aiming at this, it is even cheaperSponsored tripTook the form ofCharter BusBetween cities byTour busHas also entered the market, threatening the railway.

For travel over medium distances (300-500km),airplaneAnd is in full competition.空港Since it takes boarding time and access time to the airport etc. in all prefecturesShinkansenNet can be usedTohoku region, The railway network is highly developedKanto region, And adjacent to the Kanto regionKoshinetsu district-ShizuokaFor medium-distance transportation, railroads are dominant, but other than that,HokkaidoとWest JapanSo long-distance travel is in conflict with airplanes and medium-distance travel is in conflict with high-speed buses.1997年After deregulation, domestic airline tickets can often be purchased with various discount plans that are significantly cheaper than the regular price (ordinary fare), which is often considerably disadvantageous in terms of price. At long distances (approximately 500 km or more), there are many places where there are minutes on the plane.

In addition, even in the case of transportation in the suburbs of cities, where demand is high, the amount of transportation increases too much, and strengthening the equipment (addition, double-tracking, high-density operation, etc.) costs a lot of money, which hinders management. Sometimes. Since railroads are urban infrastructure, public assistance is more accessible than before before when self-procurement was used as a principle for raising transportation capacity.YoungerIt is also a concern that the demand for commuting/commuting to school will decrease in the future. Therefore, each company will make efficient investments, improve convenience by rearranging schedules, and strengthen related businesses in station equipment (so-calledStation Naka,HotelBusiness, etc.) to stabilize the management status. For example,Choshi Electric RailwayThen, a side job started with one hand (Rice crackers(Manufacturing and sales of) has made income enough to make up for the deficit of its main business,Major private railwayHas been focusing on real estate and retailing since ancient times, especiallyHankyu Corporation,Tokyu Electric RailwaySince the prewar days, its core business has been urban development such as bedtowns and commercial areas, and the railway business has been positioned as part of it. After privatizationJROther than transportation businessReal estate(Real estate saleOr rental)金融,retailIt has started to strengthen related businesses.

In rural areas other than the three major metropolitan areas, in the urban areas, etc., we used the latest vehicles to prevent environmental problems as well as countermeasures for weak people such as elderly people and people with disabilities.LRTThe introduction of such as is being reconsidered. On the other hand, in recent yearsDeregulationFrom the flow ofRailway Business LawHas been amended to allow operators to enter the market (licenseFrom controlAuthorizationRegulations) and exit restrictions (such as shortening the consultation period with local governments along the line when abolished). Therefore, it is difficult to make a profit on local private railways andThird sector railwayThen, there was a renewed debate on the existence and abolition, and there were places where it was actually abolished.New townThe railways in Japan are also in the red, because they could not get the expected number of transport personnel for their initial investment.

However, it is not energy efficient,Exhaust gasEtc.Environment issuesHowever, there is a movement to reexamine the transportation network centered on automobiles.Modal shift(Transition of transportation means to railways and ships) is the concept. EarthEnvironmentLow load onMassAndPunctualityAs a means of transportation for securing land transportation, the railway, which has the maximum transportation capacity of land transportation, has been reviewed. Especially in JapanShinkansen·FrenchTGVIncludingHigh speed trainHas succeeded in attracting attention from many countries, and in recent years high-speed railways have opened one after another in countries such as China, South Korea and Taiwan.India,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHowever, in order to cope with the increase in traffic volume accompanying economic development, improvement and speeding up of conventional lines and construction of high-speed railway are planned. Furthermore, a transportation network centered on airplanes and automobiles has been established.アメリカ合衆国However, the construction of a dedicated high-speed rail line is under consideration.


In Japan, in a broad senseAutomobileIs emerging as a means of transportation (in a broad sensemotorization) Has been done since the 1960s (Showa 30s), when the road network was fully developed. After the 1970s (Showa 40s)Private carThe spread ofPublic transportWill start to decline. But,Environment issuesHave raised concerns about cars.


As a modern mode of transportationbusIs used in various forms.

The first is buses (generalTransit Bus). Mainly from residential areas and villagesRailway stationIt is widely used as an auxiliary transportation means for railways, mainly for transportation to. However, due to increased traffic congestion in large citiessubwayDemand for non-commuting and commuting is declining with the expansion of the network and the increasing use of privately-owned vehicles around large cities and local cities. Therefore, some of them are not profitable, and some have reduced the number of flights or abolished the routes themselves.

If the bus route is abolished, you will not be able to ride your own carTraffic vulnerableFor me, there is a problem that transportation means will be lost. Therefore, the local government assists theAbolished alternative bus) Is also operating in some places. One form isCommunity busThere is. The bus vehicle itself is also barrier-free (for example, non-step,wheelchairResponse) and actively reduce pollution.


in JapanTaxiFares were fixed in the region and the principle of competition did not work,1993å¹´First, due to the deregulation, the "same fare for the same area" system was abolished, and in 1997 the zone fare system where the fare can be set freely within a certain range and the initial fare that reduces the initial fare instead of shortening the initial fare The reduced fare system has come into effect. further,2002å¹´The Road Transport Law was amended to introduce the upper limit fare system (price cap) that allows free fare setting below a certain level. Therefore, there are cases where multiple fares are operated even in the same area, but it exists in large cities such as Tokyo, where there are many operators.

The use of taxis often depends on the economy. When the economy was good, company employees often used after midnight entertainment, but when the economy went into recession, the use of company employees decreased, and now the usage has decreased. For this reason, we are currently using a flat-rate system (such as XXXX yen to the airport),Shared taxi, Welfare taxis, etc. are being devised to increase demand.

On the other hand, the use of local taxis is decreasing due to the popularization and depopulation of private cars. Welfare taxis andDriving agency, There are many places that do business such as community bus outsourcing by shared taxi.


in JapanTrackUntil the 1960s, transportation was by rail (freight train) Was a supplementary existence, but the development of highways as well as high-speed buses enables long-distance high-speed transport, and has grown into a threat to freight trains.home deliveryWould not be feasible without highway trucking. As a result, freight trains suffer catastrophic damage, resulting in significant reductions.

The grown truck isTraffic accident,Air pollutionIt is also said to be the cause of environmental problems, and some are undergoing modal shifts using railways and ships.

Private car

In the suburbs and local cities around the big citiesPrivate carAre often used. In Japan, until the 1960s, there were few private passenger cars except for a few wealthy people, and most private trucks were used for carrying luggage at companies and shops, but since the 1970s , Private car ownership will increase, especially in rural areas. Along with thisTraffic accidentThe number of people has increased dramatically, causing many casualties every year and becoming a social problem. In conjunction with this, a reduction in public transportation such as railways and route buses in rural areas has occurred, and a suburban type with a large parking lot.Shopping centerA lot of facilities such as have come to be built.

Especially in areas where public transportation is inconvenient, multiple (Driver's licenseOften have one passenger car per family. Depending on the region, link private cars to route buses/railwaysPark and ridePolicy is also being promoted.


MotorcycleThere are also countries and regions where is the leading actor in transportation.IndustrializationIn the early emerging countries where

  • We don't have enough purchasing power to buy an automobile
  • Fuel economy is better and maintenance is easier and cheaper than automobiles
  • Road conditions are bad and it is rather inconvenient for four wheels

For this reason, motorcycles have become the most popular mode of transportation.1950 era,1960 eraJapan was exactly like that and nowHo Chi Minh CityIs typical. The cityMotorcycle cityIt is called.


BicycleDue to the nature of its structure, is used mostly as a means of transportation or a means of transportation that connects short distances, not as a means of mass transportation.

Bicycles as a means of transportation are widely used for other means of transportation, especially for connecting to railroads, with a short distance to the nearest station (2-3 km or more) Is used as. Mostly do not have or cannot hold an ordinary license or motorcycle licenseMinorTherefore, it is the only transport method that can be driven for those under high school. The features are that the operation and maintenance costs are extremely low, the environmental load as a means of transportation is very low, and the restrictions on movement are low.

The bicycles used by users who have switched to the railway are often used for commuting to work and school, and they are left in front of the station for a long time, so securing a place for them is a problem. Many stations in urban residential areas do not have enough space in front of the station, and bicycles left in front of the station are a big problem.

Therefore, many local governments have taken measures such as creating a paid bicycle parking lot in front of the station and making effective use of the underpass, but due to the crowding of residential areas, the situation is not keeping up. There are also cases where abandoned bicycles are eliminated on a regular basis, but at best it will be back in a few days. Therefore, in order to make the railway company pay the countermeasure costTaxLocal governments that are planningRental BikeSome local governments are considering using Bicycles as a means of transportation,Bike serviceThere is a bicycle service as a business type similar to, and it is operated by grasping the goodness of its tight turn in urban areas.

Water transportation

For people who normally live inland, shipping routes are not a very visible means of transportation, but in island countries like Japan,Energy,foodMost of them are supplied by sea routes from abroad, and in the old days, domestic roads were not developed until recently,Edo PeriodIn the northern part of Japan,Sea of ​​JapanSide andThe Pacific OceanSide orSetouchiExchange of supplies on the side,Rice,Marine Products,wood OftransactionIt is,KitamaebuneIt was carried by a ship with a unique structure.OsakaSuch asAboveからEdoUsed to transport goods toHishigaki cruise ship,Barreling boatIs also famous. Leave that name in a well-known bookstore todayKinokuniya BunzaemonIs also a person who made a fortune through trading by sea.

In the Edo period,inlandIn the department,YodogawaWater systemTone RiverEverywhere in large rivers such as water systemsRiver bankInstalled inlandWater transportationSupplies were transported deep inland. Edo, Osaka, etc.waterwayBlessed with small riverscanalWas built, and small boats carried daily necessities to every corner of the city. Today, with the development of automobiles and railroads, inland water transportation has completely declined, but even today, although somewhat less important, sea transportation still plays a major role in maintaining the line of life.

Currently, there is little demand for vessels for the purpose of transporting long-distance passengers.Ogasawara IslandsDemand is mostly met by aircraft, railroads, or long-distance buses, except for those that have no choice other than ships. This is because the speed of ships is much slower than other means of transportation, so competition does not occur.

However, in freight transportation, the size of the transportation capacity overwhelms other modes of transportation. For the purpose of transporting passengers,ferryTransport to remote islands and opposite shores byHydrofoilEtc.) are mostly short-distance transportation. Niigata-SadoIs a typical example.

Ferries are mainly used for long-distance travel. For example,TokyoからHokkaido,NankiOrShikoku,KyusyuEtc., a route for sailing is established for about 2 days. It is used by people who want to transport freight that is not so urgent (only unmanned trucks are loaded on the ferry) or who want to move cheaply.

Regarding international routes, passenger ships1950 eraIt used to function as a transportation system connecting Japan and foreign countries,1964年LaterTravelingWith the liberalization of and the expansion and generalization of international air routes,Shimonoseki-Fukuoka - BusanExcept for short routes such asluxury linerCalled cruising byパ ッ ケ ー ジ ツ ア ーTherefore, it does not function as a means of transportation. However, in freight transportation, focusing on large-volume freight transportation that does not need to be hurriedContainer freighter,oil,Natural gasCarrytankerPlay an important role.

EuropeSo in addition to thiscanalThe web is well developed,FranceAnd so onヨ ッ トThe canal has been developed so that it is said that it is possible to go around the country almost by using only the waterway.ドイツEven in the era when it was divided into east and west,BerlinIt was said that most of the supplies of goods were to waterways. NetherlandsAs for the canals in Amsterdam, it has a long history since the 16th century.

Air transportation

Air transportation(Airlines) About in Japan1965å¹´By the time, the side of the kindergarten industry was seen.

That is,Japan AirlinesAlthough they monopolize international flights, they are forced to operate for political and diplomatic reasons, and international flights have always been unprofitable. Nikko continued to maintain its business for a long time with profits from domestic trunk lines. Other airlines have repeatedly merged and consolidated, and although All Nippon Airways has finally established the position of the largest domestic flight, there is a problem in management stability, and it was even seen that Nikko temporarily invested in ANA. ..

1970å¹´At that time, the main purpose was to meet the aviation demand that was expected to stabilize and expand in the aviation industry.Ministry of TransportUnder the initiative, the mergers of Japan Airlines and Japan Domestic Airlines, All Nippon Airways and Toa Airlines were planned. However, at that timeTokyu Electric RailwayAiming to expand into the aviation industry against the backdrop of the expansion of the tourism market, the merger between Japan Airlines and Toa Airlines was promoted, and the airline was reorganized as a Tokyu airline.

As a result, so-called45/47 systemIn charge of international flights and domestic trunk lines, Japan Airlines, domestic trunk lines and domestic local routes, and international charter flightsAll Nippon Airways, Toa Domestic Airlines (now: Japan Airlines), which mainly consists of domestic local routes, was established as a major three-company system, and the structure of the Japanese aviation industry was stipulated. This framework1985å¹´Partial amendment has been made, and ANA and Toa Domestic Airlines are now allowed to enter international routes and Japan Airlines to enter domestic local routes.Japan Air SystemChange the company name). In addition, the degree of discretion of the airline companies increased, but basically it remained on the extension of the 45/47 system.

This situation1990 eraIt has changed drastically with the deregulation policy. Skymark Airlines (current: Sky mark) And Hokkaido International Airlines (current:AIRDO), etc., has brought about a different kind of competition from the long-established competition between Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways. Fares have become lower due to market competition, which has become severe. In fact, all new entrants are facing business difficulties. Even major airlines, Japan Airlines and Japan Air SystemHolding companyThe management was integrated by the method.

On the other hand, a small plane (10-20 passengers) between short distance cities has also been established as a commuter line. However, the current situation is that it is not profitable. In addition, there are airports that have newly opened due to the active attraction of the locals, and there are few airports where there are almost no planes departing or arriving, because demand cannot be expected. For example,Okhotsk Monbetsu AirportThere are only two flights a day (one round trip).Makurazaki AirportThere were no regular flights from the opening of the port to the abolition, and the company for charter flights was also closed.Sado AirportHowever, there were no regular flights for a period of time.

For international flights to and from Japan, fares have been liberalized for quite some time (often cheaper than domestic airfares at similar distances or less depending on the time of year and destination). cheapSoutheast AsiaHas a competitive relationship withAmerican terrorist attacksImpacted the overall performance of the aviation industry2002å¹´After that, the group (Aviation union) Is becoming more active, and we are promoting tie-ups with airlines in various countries and operating multiple flights with one flight number.Code share flightsIs increasing.





[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Kunio Minegishi's book "Tocoton Easy Road Book"Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun<Today's Things Knowing Series>, October 2018, 10, pp. 24-10.ISBN 978-4-526-07891-0.
  2. ^ a b c d e Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.212 1951 Kokin Shoin
  3. ^ a b c d Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.213 1951 Kokin Shoin
  4. ^ Juro Aono and Mutsumi Hoyanagi, "Encyclopedia of Humanities," p.266 1951 Kokin Shoin

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