[Overeating ...] Mom's laughter negotiation technique that convinced her daughter who is obsessed with tomatoes
If you write the contents roughly
So that you can eat a lot of your favorite cherry tomatoes
You can devise a way to eat
You can see the strength of patience in the appearance of the daughter who persistently negotiates with mom ...!
Mr. Tanimo who sends a child-rearing manga on Instagram.The editorial department picks up recommended posts from Mr. Tanimo's post ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Tomato(Scientific name:Solanum lycopersicum,English: Tomato) IsSouth America OfAndesPlateau area (ペルー,エクアドル) NativeSolanaceaeSolanum Ofplant, Also thatfruitThat.Perennial plantAnd the fruits are used for food.A type of green-yellow vegetable.JapaneseThen.Tang persimmon(Investment),Red tomato(Akanasu),tomato(Banka),Spaghetti squash(Koganeuri),Coral tree tomato(Sangojunasu)There are also other names such as.
Tomato as a seed
Tomatoes have long been a unique genus (the genus Lycopersicon) Lycopersicon), But1990 eraAs a result of various phylogenetic analyzes from around, in recent classificationSolanum (Solanum) Is coming back.originallyLinnaeusIncludes tomatoes in Solanaceaelycopersicum(Greek languagelycos 'Wolf' + persicos I gave it a species name of'peach'),1768ToPhilip MillerEstablished and attached the genus LycopersiconLycopersicon esculentumHas been widely used as a scientific name.This scientific name isInternational Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and PlantsInappropriate (without changing species name)Lycopersicon lycopersicumHowever, it has been used as a conserved name because it was widely used.However, since phylogenetic analysis revealed that plants classified into the genus Lycopersicon are contained inside the genus Solanace, it is necessary to take measures to divide the genus Solanace or eliminate the genus Lycopersicon and return it to the genus Solanaceae. became.Therefore, returning to Linnaeus's method, the scientific nameSolanum lycopersicumIt is supposed to be.
植物学In recent years, tomato has been attracting attention as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Micro Tom is used as a dwarf strain that can be cultivated in the laboratory.Also internationalGenome projectIs also done,genome(Position and structure of about 3 genes, 5 millionbaseSequence) was deciphered.
Tomato as a cultivated species
JapanThen die in winterAnnual plantIn Although,熱 帯In rural areasPerennialIt has been growing for many years under the proper environment and endlessly.FloweringAnd can continue. When cultivated for a long period of one year with one tailoring, the growth amount reaches 1 to 1 meters.
通常 のCultivar(Type that attracts to the support)Germinationrear,True leafFirst from 8th to 9th leavesFlower room(First flower cluster) is attached, and after that, it has the property of attaching flower clusters every three leaves.Many varieties for crawling cultivation have inflorescences every two leaves.
In addition, is generated from each node.On the side branches, inflorescences are attached to the 5th and 6th leaves, and after that, inflorescences are attached every 3 leaves, but the side branches are often removed due to cultivation management.stockWhen stress is applied, the phenomenon that flowers do not attach to the normal position (flower skipping) occurs, which is a guideline for indicating whether the strain is growing properly.
The optimum temperature is 20-25 ° C during the day and 10-20 ° C at night.In an environment where the temperature exceeds 30 ° C, pollen fertility decreases and fruit set disorders and defective fruits increase, and when the minimum temperature falls below 5-10 ° C, it is damaged.The optimum humidity is 65-85%, below which growth is poor, and above this, disease is more likely to occur.
If the amount of irrigation is too large, the fruit will crack, and if the amount of irrigation is too small, damaged fruits will occur. Therefore, it is a crop that requires fine control of the amount of irrigation in order to produce high quality fruits.High by reducing the amount of irrigationsugar contentFruits can be produced, but the yield is reduced.HydroponicsThen of the nutrient solutionOsmotic pressureIt is possible to increase the sugar content by controlling.
For tomatoesalkaloidGlycoside(Tomatine) Is included.Its content varies depending on the variety and cultivation method,Kazusa DNA Research InstituteIn the measurement example by, flowers (1100 mg / kg), leaves (975 mg / kg), stems (896 mg / kg), immature fruits (465 mg / kg), ripe blue fruits and green tomatoes (48 mg / kg) ), Ripe fruit (0.4 mg / kg) has been reported.
Tomatine has antibacterial properties against some bacteria と昆虫Repellent toHowever, there are pests that feed on tomatoes.In wild species, a considerable amount of tomatine remains even in ripe fruits.The amount of tomatine in ripe fruits of varieties that are normally eaten is very small.Human capitalHealth hazards to
In Japan, pink tomatoes (peaches) have become widely popular for raw consumption, and red tomatoes have been used exclusively for processing.However, in recent years, red tomatoes have becomeantioxidant effectIngredients that are said to haveLycopeneSince it contains a large amount of, its use is being reviewed.Besides, white, yellow, green,brown, In multiple colorsStriped patternThere is one.fruitIs filled with jelly-like substances, but in some varietiesgreen pepperIt is hollow like.Besides, Italian tomatoes with elongated fruits and extremely small fruitsBumpThere are few cherry tomatoes.The shape of the leaves is often unnoticed as tomatoes in varieties with carrot leaves (with particularly deep cuts) and potato leaves (with few cuts and shallow cuts).
Many varieties in the world are red tomatoes, but most of the domestic varieties are pink varieties that are cultivated for raw consumption.RootstockRed varieties and cherry tomatoes can be seen.
It is said that there are more than 8,000 varieties in the world, and more than 120 varieties of tomatoes are registered in Japan (Ministry of Agriculture, As of May 2008)..This is conspicuously large among the registered varieties of vegetables.On the other handFXNUMX hybridF1 varieties are often not registered,MomotaroThere is no registration of famous varieties such as.
There are a large number of tomatoes other than pink and round tomatoes represented by Momotaro, a pink tomato distributed in Japan, and rather, there are overwhelmingly many varieties other than pink tomatoes.It seems that more and more enthusiasts are growing these varieties.
Originally, the color of the skin is yellowpulpRed tomatoes look red when combined with, and pink tomatoes when the skin is transparent.There are other color variations such as black, green, white, orange, yellow, and a mixture of two colors.
In addition, there are many pleats, which are not seen in Japan, and have large folds.Tomato sauceThere are also various varieties with elongated shapes to make it.If you make tomato sauce or juice with these varieties, you can make tomato sauce in many colors.
The taste of tomatoes in the world is not limited to the sweetness of Japanese Otama varieties.There are many varieties that delight the taste, aroma, sourness, texture, and appearance.In addition, these varieties are fixed varieties, can be sown in-house, and can be bred by inheriting the varieties from generation to generation.
According to the classification by fruit sizeLarge tomato(200 g or more),Mini Tomato(20-30 g),Midi tomato(Between the former two), is classified into.However, since the fruit weight changes depending on the cultivation method, it is a classification unrelated to the variety.However, there are varieties suitable for each fruit size, for example, as varieties suitable for cherry tomatoes.PachinoLocally native Pachino tomatoes (cherry tomatoes) are also produced.What is distributed as micro tomatoesSolanum pimpinellifoliumAndSolanum lycopersicum(Lycopersicon esculentum) Is a different species.If the sugar content is increased without giving water as much as possible, the fruits will become smaller even if the varieties are suitable for large balls.
Small and sweetFruit tomatoIs a tomato with a high sugar content and does not indicate a variety name.For example, Kochi Prefecture is a typical fruit tomato.KochiIchinomiya districtTokudani tomatoThere is.This refers to the salty soil in the Ikkutokudani area, especially in the Tokutani area, which is cultivated so that it grows slowly and the fruits are small, and the sugar content is increased.In other words, the name is derived from the region and cultivation method, not a specific tomato variety.All tomatoes cultivated in this area with high sugar content are Tokutani tomatoes regardless of variety.Also,Salted tomatoIt is,KumamotoYatsushiroregionalReclaimed landAmong tomatoes grown in salty soil, those with a particularly high sugar content.The variety is mainly "Momotaro", but the variety is not specified.
Production / demand
Vegetables of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesProduction and shipmentAccording to statistics, the acreage of tomatoes is1985It has been on a downward trend since around that time, and has dropped to about 75% of the peak.This showed a dramatic increase1960 eraIt is the level before the latter half (15,000 hectares or less).Even on a yield basis, at peak times1980 eraAbout 80% of the total, 700,000 tons-800,000 tons.In recent years, processing tomatoes and cherry tomatoes occupy about 10% each on a planted area and yield basis.Also, the top production volume isKumamotoThe share is 13.0% (FY21).continue,Hokkaido,IbarakiAre both 7.0%.
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Of2000Household surveyAccording to the report, tomatoes are ranked 1th among fresh vegetables in terms of annual purchase amount (weight basis) per household.This is a consumer homeJapanese radish,potato,cabbage,onionThis suggests that tomatoes are consumed second most.Tomatoes occupy the 5th place after these vegetables in terms of shipment volume and yield (13 vegetable production and shipment statistics).
In addition, according to a household survey, the number of major vegetable items has been decreasing or leveling off compared to 10 years ago.LeekIt is one of the few vegetables that is showing a remarkable increase along with.
Top 10 prefectures in yield(2012)
|Harvest ranking||Prefectures||Yield (t)||Planted area (ha)|
Top 10 municipalities in winter and spring tomato yield(2012)
|Harvest ranking||市町村||Affiliation prefecture||Yield (t)||Planted area (ha)|
Top 10 municipalities in summer and autumn tomato yields(2012)
|Harvest ranking||市町村||Affiliation prefecture||Yield (t)||Planted area (ha)|
Top 10 countries in the world tomato yield(2012)
|Harvest ranking||Country||Yield (t)||Planted area (ha)|
|1||People's Republic of China||50,000,000||1,000,000|
|3||The United States of America||13,206,950||150,140|
Japan's yield is 26 tons in 722,300th place, and the planted area is 43 ha in 12,000rd place..
Before the 16th centuryメキシコ OfAztecsStarted growing tomatoes from seeds from the Andes.New worldAmong them, tomatoes were grown as cultivated plants only in this area. Entered the Aztecs in the 16th centurySahagunFrom the records of the monks, it seems that multiple cultivated species have been developed since that time..
EuropeTo1519Landed in MexicoHernan CortezIs said to have begun to bring back the seeds.At that time, tomatoes were "poison apple" (poisonApple) Was also called.Because wealthy貴族Were usingPewter(tinAlloy) For tablewareleadLeaked out due to the sourness of tomatoesLead poisoningBecause it was..Even after the misunderstanding of lead poisoning has been resolvedPoisonous plantIsBelladonnaBecause it was similar topoisonMany people believed that it was, and it was initially considered ornamental..
But,イタリア OfpovertySome people thought that it would be edible in layers, and after 200 years of development, it became the current form.It spread to Europe and became generally edible in the 18th century.
on the other hand,North AmericaAfter that, it was not recognized as edible for a while.フ ロ リ ダEstablished in the directionスペインSettlers andCaribbeanBrought in viaBlackslaveSlowly spread the habit of eating tomatoes.Vigorous experimental spiritThomas JeffersonCultivated tomatoes on his own farm and served them for dinner.1820,New JerseyNoSalemIt is said that eating tomatoes on the stairs in front of the court proved that people were not poisonous, but no detailed data remains..
1893In the United States at that time, there were no tariffs on fruits when importing, and tariffs were levied on vegetables.For this reason, tomato importers claim to be "fruits" so that they are not taxed.On the contraryMinistry of AgricultureThe official insisted that it was a "vegetable".Both sides did not give up a step, and a botanist joined the fruit school, and the controversy escalated.At last, I have been asked for a decision by the US Supreme Court.The judgment is "vegetables".The presiding judge seems to have been very worried, and the sentence said, "Tomatoes are vegetables grown in vegetable fields like cucumbers and pumpkins. They are served during meals, but they are not desserts." It was written (English version articles）..As a record at the time of the trialLaura Ingalls WilderThe novel "Small house on the prairie], There is a description of eating tomatoes with cream and sugar.The tomato in the Pocket Oxford English Dictionary (2005 edition) can be taken as either'a glossy red fruit, eaten as a vegetable or in salads.'.
JapanToEdo Period OfKanbunAround the yearNagasakiIt is said that it was first transmitted to.Kaihara Ekikenof"Yamato herb』Has a description of tomatoes, and it is believed that they had spread by that time...However, the bluish and bright red color was avoided, and at that time it was for ornamental use.Tang persimmonWas called.ChugokuThen, even now, "West Red Persimmon" (xī hóng shì)Stir-fried tomato chicken(Chicken eggsIt is cooked as stir-fried food with.
It became edible in Japan from around 1887.
Tomatoes米 国First licensed inGenetically modified crops.19945, FDA (Federal Food and Drug Administration) ApprovedFlavr SavrThis tomato was a variety suitable for long-term storage.However, it was not so successful commercially because it was set at a higher price than ordinary tomatoes in order to recover development costs.
Tomato as an ingredient
Tomatoes are eaten raw andsaladTaste as it is, such as grilled tomatoesCuisineThere are also many.To be well-known in modified dishesMexican food Ofsalsa,Italian foodVariouspizza,pastauseソ ー ス,India OfcurryPart of EuropestewThere is a part of.Chinese cuisineBut with tomatoeseggStir-fried foodSoupTo beCentral AsiaThen.RagmanIt is used for such purposes.Also tomatoes in JapanRamenThe number of stores that sell is increasing.
ketchup,Tomato sauce, The annual consumption of tomatoes is more than 1 million tons because it is used for pizza sauce, etc., which is the largest among vegetables in the world..Glutamic acidBecause the concentration ofUmamiThat there isacidity-moistureThe reason is that there is.
In the ranking of favorite vegetables, both children and adults are often ranked first, and while they are popular, they are often ranked high as vegetables that they are not good at, and there is one aspect that their tastes are divided..
The degree of sourness and sweetness varies considerably depending on the variety, and the hardness of the skin also differs, so the trick is to select and use the one that is suitable for the application.For example, Italian tomatoes with strong acidity and thick skin are suitable for cooked dishes.If varieties sold for raw consumption are used for cooking, the point is to use the jelly around the seeds without discarding them.
As a way to distinguish delicious tomatoes, those with beautiful tomatoes and good color are recommended, but they are not very reliable.This is because the taste of tomatoes varies considerably depending on the variety, production area, cultivation method, and farmer.Therefore, it is certain to purchase it experimentally at a supermarket, remember the tomato bag or label that you feel is delicious, and then purchase it next time.Also, even greenish immature tomatoes can be made a little tastier by ripening them at room temperature for several days.
- Peeling method-Peel for dishes such as soups and sauces that are unpalatable.
- Peeling an open flame-Put a fork into the open flame, expose it to an open flame, and the skin will peel off from the stabbed part, so you can just soak it in cold water.
- Hot water-Peel the skin thinly and cleanly by dipping it in hot water and taking it in cold water.
- Freezing method
Like other vegetables, tomatoesVitamin CIncluding a lot.Also,LycopeneIs also famous for being able to include,1995TocancerSince the effect of prevention was pointed out, it has been attracting attention, but with regard to effectiveness, there are both data that are "effective" and data that are "not effective", and scientific data accumulation is required.
this isHarvard UniversityFrom the results of a six-year cohort survey of more than 4 healthcare professionals by the research team of Giovannukki and others, various formsVitamin AAmong the foods that containStrawberryAlong with 3 kinds of tomato related foodsProstate cancerCorrelates with low prevalence of.It also triggered various related studies that followed.
Kyoto UniversityIncluded in tomatoes by a research group led by Professor Teruo Kawada of the graduate school13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acidTobloodInfatDiscovered to have the effect of suppressing the increase, Published in the US scientific journal dated February 2012, 2..In addition to being in the research stage, it is said that it is necessary to eat a large amount of tomatoes to obtain the effect, but due to the large news in Japan, a boom occurred that the supply of tomato juice became insufficient..
Tomatoes are summerSeason words..Due to the nature of tomatoes, which prefer cool and strong sunlight and dislike high temperature and humidity, summer is not the season, and tomatoes from spring to early summer and autumn to early winter are delicious.The reason why summer was in season was when tomato cultivation began in Japan.温室Due to inadequate facilities such as, it was common to sow seeds in the spring and harvest in the summer.Now that high-performance equipment has become widespread, it is possible to grow and harvest tomatoes in a way that suits the environment of spring when the temperature is still low and the daytime is long, and autumn when the temperature starts to drop and the air is clear. Will be.
Depending on the seasontasteAnd the texture changes.Taking general greenhouse cultivation as an example, in winter there is little light and it takes time to grow, so the skin is watery and hard, and in summer it grows too fast and turns red before it tastes, but the skin is soft.The taste becomes stronger in spring and autumn.In the case of a vegetable garden, if you cover it with heat-retaining vinyl and cultivate it until autumn, you can obtain tomatoes that have a hard skin but have the same sugar content and umami as melons.
Works on tomatoes
- Songs (only those with tomatoes in the song title or lyrics)
- Tomato-Children's song (lyrics :, composition:Megumi Oonaka）
- Kimagure Venus- Junko Sakurada
- Do you want to catch up with tomato juice? - Otsuka Hakudo-Michiyo Azusa
- Tomato - Misato Watanabe
- Tomato - Kouda Mariko
- Tomato selling song- Kubota Saki
- I want to get rid of it-- BLANKEY JET CITY
- Salad to you- DREAMS COME TRUE
- Delicious ☆ Tomato song- Axis powers Hetalia
- Tomato House- Hide and Rosanna
- Tomato - NICO Touches the Walls
- Tomato - Shinji Tanimura(Recorded in the album "Generation")
- Late night tomato juice- Tadahide Yoshikawa
- Tomato. --chami
- Tomato Ippatsu- spectrum
- Boku No Atama- Paul gilbert
- Gelidiaceae song- Hiroko Taniyama
- Tomato Forest- Hiroko Taniyama
- Rosie Rouge becomes a salad girl- Keiko Utsumi
- Tomato - Ayo Toyosaki
- ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン
- Computer games
- The etymology of "tomato"NahuatlでPhysalisIt is derived from "tomatl" which means the fruit of.
- トルコ OfFolk remediesThen.scaldSliced tomatoes are smeared on.
- A potato stalk grafted with tomatoes is sometimes called "".AlsoCell fusionMade bypotatoAnd tomato hybridsPomatoCalled.
- Because it is rich in nutrientspersimmon"When tomatoes turn red, doctors turn blue."こ と わ ざAnd there is also a saying that "the house that makes tomatoes has no stomach disease".
- Under American law, two tablespoons of tomato paste are considered vegetables, so pizzas made with tomato paste are classified as "vegetables.".
- "Petit tomato"JapanglishAnd it can only be understood in Japan. (Petit)FrenchSince tomato is a feminine noun in French, the adjective petit is also a feminine petite, and it is correct to call it petite tomato. ) The English name is "cherry tomato. "
- In Europe, it was originally called Pomo Dolo (golden apple) and Pom Damour (love apple).ItalianEven now, it is still called pomodoro because of its remnants..LithuanianThere are also derivations to peripheral languages such as pomidori.
- I have the impression that it is often used in Italian cuisine, but Greece is the number one tomato consumption per capita.this isGreek foodWith tomatoesOlive oilIs used in large quantities.Although there are differences depending on the statistical year, the annual per capita consumption of Greece is more than double that of Italy and exceeds 2 kg.
- ^ "Tomato"(Takeda PharmaceuticalKyoto Medicinal Botanical Garden Co., Ltd.): Retrieved October 2014, 10)
- ^ "Red tomato"(Goo dictionary "Digital Daijisen"): Retrieved October 2014, 10)
- ^ "Tomato"(Goo dictionary "Digital Daijisen"): Retrieved October 2014, 10)
- ^ "Coral tree tomato"(Goo dictionary "Digital Daijisen"): Retrieved October 2014, 10)
- ^ Successful decoding of tomato genome, DNA Research Institute in Chiba, etc.(47NEWS viewed July 2012, 7)
- ^ Hiroyasu Furui, Takahiro Inakuma, Yukio Ishiguro, Makoto Kiso, "Quantification of tomatine by absorptiometry”Journal of the Japanese Society of Agricultural Chemistry, 1997, Volume 71, Issue 8, p.777-782, two:10.1271 / nogeikagaku1924.71.777, Japan Society for Bioscience and Biotechnology
- ^ Hiroyasu Furui "Bioorganic chemistry studies of bioactive alkaloids and their glycosidesDoctor of Agriculture, No. 56, Gifu University, September 2001, 9.2019/11/28Browse.hdl:20.500.12099/2301
- ^ Everyone's Square Retrieved August 2016, 2
- ^ Variety registration informationMinistry of Agriculture
- ^ Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries / Top Tomato Production --Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Children's Page Retrieved August 2014, 8
- ^ a b c "Crop Statistics Survey> Crop Survey (Vegetables)> Confirmation> 24 Vegetable Production and Shipment Statistics> Annual> 2012". e-StatMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau. 2014/11/8Browse.
- ^ a b "FAOSTAT> DOWNLOAD DATA"(English). FAOSTAT. FAO. 2014/11/8Browse.
- ^ Johnson 1999, pp. 92-93.
- ^ a b Why the Tomato Was Feared in Europe for More Than 200 Years(Smithsonian MuseumWeb magazine)
- ^ Johnson 1999, pp. 100-101.
- ^ "Nix v. Hedden --149 US 304 (1893)”. Justia US Supreme Court Center. 2012/9/4Browse.
- ^ Supervised by Toshi Ochiai "Food and Health Interesting Trivia" p.58 Aokiri Shoin 1991
- ^ "Aim for unification of the world!Japanese History Quiz Master History Quiz ② Azuchi-Momoyama Era-Modern ”p. 116.
- ^ Haruhiko Asakura, Toru Inamura, Year Dictionary of the Meiji Era
- ^ Calbee Food Communication-Calbee's Food Education-, Calbee, viewed September 2012, 9.
- ^ .. * Click Commodities by country and select World in the Selected area field and Quantity in Sort by.It can be seen that tomatoes come in 11th place after sugar cane, corn, rice, wheat, milk, potatoes, sugar beet, vegetables (uncategorized), soybeans, and cassava.With the exception of so-called cereals and potatoes, as well as milk and unclassified items, tomatoes dominate.The unit MT means metric ton, which means "ton" in Japanese.
- ^ Children and adults love tomatoes National vegetable questionnaireMainichi Newspaper March 2018, 9
- ^ Ranking of children's favorite and disliked vegetables--The classic "green pepper" is ranked downMynavi News April 2017, 8
- ^ 8/31 is Vegetable Day ... Children's favorite vegetables are "tomatoes", what kind of vegetables do you dislike?Risemum August 2018, 8
- ^ "Is "Vegetable 350g" really good for your body ...?Eating habits”. FRIDAY Digital (July 2020, 7). 2020/11/27Browse.
- ^ "Improve metabolic syndrome with tomatoes!Discover new ingredients for fat burning". Isa! (September 2012, 2). 2012/9/4Browse.
- ^ Potent PPARα Activator Derived from Tomato Juice, 13-oxo-9,11-Octadecadienoic Acid, Decreases Plasma and Hepatic Triglyceride in Obese Diabetic Mice. PLOS one. (2012-2-10). two:10.1371 / journal.pone.0031317 2012/2/13Browse..
- ^ "Short-selling sales are suspended due to the effect of improving metabolic syndrome on tomatoes."Isa !. (June 2012, 2) 2012/9/4Browse.
- ^ Once again, two functionalitys have been demonstrated. "For those who are concerned about blood cholesterol" "For those with high blood pressure" Functional food "Kagome Tomato Juice"(Retrieved September 2018, 3)
- ^ "Information on sales of "Tomappy" goods”. Policy Division, General Affairs Policy Division, Kisosaki Town Hall (April 2014, 4). As of December 1, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/12/30Browse.
- ^ "Magical girl Tomato-chan". Local character catalog (February 2014, 4). As of February 1, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/12/30Browse.
- ^ Yumi Ishihara, "Food Encyclopedia of" No Doctor "" (2006, PHP Institute) ISBN: 978-4569666242
- ^ “Is pizza a vegetable?”Los Angeles Times November 2011, 11
- ^ The state recognizes "pizza is a vegetable" in the United States The reason is tomato sauce ...Mogumogu News June 2014, 6
- ^ Johnson 1999, pp. 96-97.
- Food and Agriculture in Graphs and Pictures-Statistical Digest-Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (September 14)
- Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Statistical Information Database (accessed June 2003, 6)
- Trivia Corner Tomato Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station
- Ichiame Misaki (2002) Tomato Expo
- Yoko Uchida, Silvio Pierre Santi "Tomatoes and Italians" Bungeishunju <Bunshu Shinsho>, 2003.ISBN 4166603108.
- Translated by Sylvia Johnson and Mizuhito Kanehara, "Vegetable Reader that Changed the World," Shobunsha, 1999.ISBN 4794964129.
- Barndt, Deborah (2002). Tangled Routes: Women, world and globalization on the tomato trail. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
- Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1995). Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Journal of National Cancer Institute. V. 87, n. 23 (December 6) ). P.1767-76.
- Martineau, Belinda (2001). First Fruit: The creation of the Flavr Savr tomato and the birth of genetically engineered foods. New York, McGraw-Hill.
- Willcox, Joye K., Catignani, George L. & Lazarus, Sheryl (2003). Tomatoes and cardiovascular health. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, v.43, n.1 (January), p.1-19.
- Tomato sauce
- Tomatina - スペイン-ValenciaThe world-famous "Tomato Festival".
- Tamarillo --A closely related species.An evergreen small tree, also known as a tree tomato or a standing tomato.
- Amera --High sugar content tomatoes.
- Tomato bank - OkayamaIt is inSecond regional bank.
- R --Movie criticism website.
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli --The author of the world's oldest literature on tomatoes, "Museum Magazine"Botanist
- Bombus terrestris --Used in greenhouse cultivation.
- Petit tomatoes, cherry tomatoes-cultivars of tomatoes.
- Pomiddle - PolishRepresents tomato.A type of children's play.
- Tomato Genetics Resource Center (University of California at Davis) --A facility that aims to store tomato seeds and supply them to researchers.University of California, Davis.
- About the International Tomato Sequencing Project (Cornell University) --Tomato Genome Project.Cornell University.
- Vegetable picture book "Tomato"
- "Basic cultivation method of tomatoes"Agricultural bean knowledge
- Lycopene -"Health food" safety and efficacy information (National Institute of Health and Nutrition）