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🏥 | Eggs are the only animal food that vegetarian Ringo Starr eats [health learned from the Beatles diet]


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Eggs are the only animal food that vegetarian Ringo Starr eats [health learned from the Beatles diet]

 
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Still, dietary fiber is sufficient, low in calories, and a healthy menu with almost zero salt.
 

[Health learned from the Beatles diet] # 11 The Beatles drummer Ringo Starr was born in XNUMX ... → Continue reading

 Daily Gendai Healthcare

We will deliver the medical and health articles of the evening paper "Daily Gendai". From everyday health laws to the latest medical information, all articles are based on interviews with doctors and specialists.


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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiberIs a person'sdigestive enzymeBydigestionHard to befoodIs a general term for indigestible ingredients contained in. Many of themplantsex,Algaesex,FungiSex foodCell wallIt is a component that makes up theGlucomannan,InulinThere are not a few that behave nutritionally as dietary fiber. Chemically, it is often a polysaccharide of carbohydrates.

Overview

Traditionally, it has been considered useless without being digested. Later I found out that it was useful,JapaneseThe target amount to be ingested is set by the dietary intake standard of[1].. However, as is clear from the definitionNutrientsis not.

Human capital OfDigestive tractIs on my ownStarch,glycogenCan not digest many polysaccharides other thancolon内 のIntestinal bacteriaDislikefermentationBy,Short chain fatty acids,methane,carbon dioxide,hydrogenBe decomposed into. 83% of short chain fatty acidsAcetic acid,Propionic acid,Butyric acidThe production ratio is 60:20:20. Most of the short chain fatty acids produced are absorbed from the large intestine. Acetic acid serves as an energy source for the host, propionic acid is used as a source of gluconeogenesis in the liver, and butyric acid is preferentially used as an energy source for colon cells.[2].. Most of the dietary fiber is cellulose,celluloseThe utilization capacity is unexpectedly high, and it is said that powdered cellulose can be decomposed and utilized almost 100% via intestinal bacteria. Starch produces about 4 kcal/g of energy, while dietary fiber produces energy by fermentation degradation by intestinal bacteria, the value of which is not constant, but the effective energy is considered to be 0 to 2 kcal/g. .. The desirable intake of dietary fiber is 19 g/day or more for adult males and 17 g/day or more for adult females.[1].. Dietary fiber is converted into a degradable product that can be absorbed by humans by intestinal bacteria in the large intestine, so it has the characteristic of being absorbed as energy in the body after a long time after eating, contributing to the leveling of energy absorption. There is. The function of the large intestine is predicated on the presence of dietary fiber, and its deficiency leads to dysfunction of the large intestine. Dietary fiber NSP[3]Sometimes called (non-starch polysaccharide).

History

1918, A doctorJohn Harvey KelloggIs "home addiction"[4]Based on the theory of self-poisoning that the poison that bacteria make from undigested protein in the intestine damages health, the bacteria easily propagate in undigested meat, but dietary fiber stimulates the intestine. Because it makes it more activeVegetarianWas recommended[5].

However, on the other hand, nutrition has been recognized as a "food waste" and has been recognized as useless for many years. For example, the founder of nutritionSaiki RitsuIt is,brown riceHad a lot of nutrients, but there was a lot of undigested material, so the efficiency of digestion and absorption was poor, so I recommended the rice that had been polished to a certain degree[6].

George Oettle of South Africa in the 1960s was doing a study on the relationship between dietary fiber and colon cancer. In 1967, Malhotra, India, reported high dietary fiber intake reduced cancer risk[7].

Around 1970, Burkitt[8]Developed Ottle's researchLancetResearch report[9][10]And the theory that low dietary fiber would increase the risk of intestinal illness became widely known. Burkitt co-authored with Hugh Trowell in 1975, "Refined Carbohydrates and Diseases-Effects of Dietary Fiber"[11]Published and is ungrained grainWhole grainDietary fiber was beneficial and this was confirmed by scientific studies[12].

In Japan, the "2000th revised Japanese nutritional requirements in 6"[13]The target amount has been set for the intake amount.

Classification and type

It can be roughly divided into (SDF: soluble dietary fiber) and (IDF: insoluble dietary fiber).It may be classified by viscosity or fermentability.

Water soluble/insoluble

Soluble fiber

(Water-soluble dietary fiber contained in seaweed)

Insoluble dietary fiber

Having the characteristics of both insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber

Viscous/inviscid

When melted, it turns into a gel, which slows nutrient absorption.[17]

Viscous dietary fiber

Non-viscous dietary fiber

  • cellulose
  • Lignin

Fermentable/non-fermentable

Fermented by bacteria in the large intestineShort chain fatty acids(SCFA) and gas (fart) are produced.[17]

Fermentable dietary fiber

  • Pectin
  • β-glucan
  • Guar gum
  • Psyllium
  • Inulin
  • Fructooligosaccharide (FOS)

Non-fermentable dietary fiber

  • cellulose
  • Lignin

Effect

The water-soluble dietary fiber contained in ripe fruits, etc.Blood glucose levelOf rapid rise in[18][19]AndcholesterolHas been reported to suppress the absorption of

Insoluble dietary fiber contained in vegetables, grains, beans, etc. promotes peristaltic movement of the large intestine.

As the effect of dietary fiber,Dyslipidemiaprevention,constipationprevention,obesityprevention,Diabetes mellitusPrevent, regulate lipid metabolismArteriosclerosisPrevention ofColorectal cancerPrevention of othersIntestinal bacteriabyVitamin BIt was confirmed that the groups were synthesized and the elimination of toxic substances in food was promoted. By analyzing the dietary fiber intake of the elderly people of the longevity district and the intestinal microflora of the same person, when the intake of dietary fiber is high, useful bacteria in the prime of working age (BifidobacteriaEtc. are dominant and harmful bacteria (C. perfringensEtc.) was suppressed. In addition, this useful bacterium prevents intestinal rot,ImmunologyIt was found to have effects such as strengthening, protection against intestinal infection, and promotion of intestinal motility.

Is an essential nutrient in the digestive tractcalciumAlso binds to and inhibits absorption from the intestinal tract[20].

in Japan,Food for specified health useDisplay of (Tokuho) is authorized[21].

2003 years,who(WHO)United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) ``Eating, nutrition and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases[22] ''(Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases) Reported lowering the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease, such as vegetables and fruits and brown rice.Whole grainIs recommended to be taken from.

A paper by NW Read and JM Timms entitled "Does Light See Through the Tunnel?"[23]Then, "By dietary fiber,constipationIs less likely to alleviate."

2007 year 11 month 1 dayWorld Cancer Research FundとAmerican Cancer Research AssociationCancer Prevention Report Analyzed From Over 7000 Studies by[24]Suggests that it may have implications for the prevention of colon and rectal cancer.

Relationship with dietary fiber intake was examinedLifestyle-related diseasesAre various,Myocardial infarctionOnset and death ofDiabetes mellitusThere are many research reports that have a negative association with the onset of. It is also a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseaseblood pressureAndserum(Orplasma)LDL cholesterolA negative association has also been suggested. further,obesityThere are also many epidemiological studies that have been linked to. on the other hand,cancer, Especially the large intestine (colonAndRectum) Recent studies on epidemiologic studies do not always match the association with cancer[1].. "Ingestion of dietary fiber was touted as a healthy and healthy diet, reducing the risk of various illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, diverticulopathy, and constipation." Despite what he believed, dietary fiber had little effect on reducing the risk of colorectal cancer."[25].

Obesity prevention
Water-soluble dietary fiber swells in the stomach to enlarge the food bolus, increase viscosity, prolong the residence time in the stomach and give a feeling of fullness, and insoluble dietary fiber increases the number of times of chewing food and secretes saliva and gastric juice. The effect is shown by encouraging and enlarging the bolus.
We conducted a dietary survey of female students aged 18 to 20 and found thatGI valueThe higher the group (relatively representing the speed at which carbohydrates are digested and converted to sugar)Body mass index(BMI) (value indicating the degree of obesity) was high, and the BMI value was lower in the group with a higher dietary fiber intake.[26].
Cholesterol elevation suppression
Water-soluble dietary fiber is effective, water-soluble dietary fiber suppresses absorption of dietary cholesterol, promotes catabolism, metabolism and excretion of cholesterol,bile acidIt promotes metabolism and excretion by inhibiting reabsorption from the ileum.
Suppression of blood sugar rise
Water-soluble dietary fiber creates a viscous solution that slows food transfer from the stomach to the small intestine. In addition, it has a diffusion inhibitory action, water absorption/swelling action, adsorption action, etc., and the ingested food is digested in the stomach, slowly transferred and adsorbed, and the absorption rate becomes slow, resulting in slow absorption of glucose and blood glucose. Suppress rise in value[27].
Water-soluble dietary fiber contained in ripe fruits (indigestibledextrin) Is suppression of rapid rise in blood glucose level after meal[28][29]Effects have been reported.
PectinWas taken with food, blood glucose elevation was suppressed and insulin secretion was also suppressed[30][31].. PectinSugar beet,ヒ マ ワ リ, Red sea bream (Orange),grapefruit,lime,LemonOrAppleIt is often contained in fruits such as.
Glucomannan TheKonjacIt is a water-soluble dietary fiber that is abundant inglucoseWhen taken simultaneously, glucomannan had an inhibitory effect on blood glucose elevation. This may be due to inhibition of glucose diffusion due to the viscosity of glucomannan.cellulose,PullulanNo effect was observed in. Although pullulan is highly viscous, it is digested by digestive enzymes in the human body.[31].
Sodium alginateIs mainlyBrown algaeincludePolysaccharideIt is a kind ofblood sugarHas the effect of suppressing the rise,DisaccharideStudies have shown that the inhibitory effect of degrading enzymes was also effective in suppressing blood sugar elevation[32].. Also, for ricecold dayWhen added and ingested, the maximum after eating compared to cooked rice onlyBlood glucose levelDecreases,GI valueHas been found to decrease[33].
Of soluble fiberInulinAbout Jumbo Riki (odorlessgarlic,Jumbo garlic) Dry powder (Inulin(60% content) was given to diabetic model rats with food, and the elevation of postprandial blood glucose was suppressed.[34].. When inulin was administered to 2 women with type 49 diabetes, fasting blood glucose levelsGlycated hemoglobin(HbA1c),MalondialdehydeIs observed,Superoxide dismutaseThe activity ofAntioxidantIncreased ability was recognized[35].
Next plant (Jerusalem artichoke,Dahlia,Burdock,ア ザ ミ,Dandelion,Yam,ア ー テ ィ チ ョ ー ク(Korea)Chicory,onion,garlic,AgaveContains a high concentration of inulin, which is a water-soluble dietary fiber.
OatMost of the soluble fiber inβ-glucanIs. About β-glucan derived from oats in bloodcholesterolPrice increase suppression effect,Blood glucose levelRise suppression effect, blood pressure lowering effect, defecation promoting effect,ImmunologyA large number of reports have been reported, mainly in Europe and the United States, of function regulating effects[36].. OatsoatmealIs used for.
barleyContains abundant water-soluble dietary fiber, most of which isβ-glucanIs. Blood from ingesting barleycholesterolPrice increase suppression effect,Blood glucose levelRise suppression effect,BMIValue reduction effect is reported[36](Barley riceSee also). β-glucan is a plant,mushroomIt is included in many kinds.
It is a water-soluble fiberGuar gumWhen taken with food, blood sugar rise is suppressed,InsulinSecretion was also suppressed[37][31].
Production of hydrogen gas and antioxidant effect
Fiber that is indigestiblelactoseIntake ofIntestinal bacteriaBy exhalationfartIncreases gas production and emissions to. The gas produced is hydrogenmethaneHowever, methane is not produced unless there is a methane-producing bacterium due to individual differences. The correlation between the amount of hydrogen in fart and exhaled breath is as high as 0.44[38].α-glucosidase inhibitorIs a diabetes drugAcarboseThe absorption of carbohydrates is suppressed and the intestinal bacteria in the large intestinehydrogenHowever, taking acarbose may suppress cardiovascular accidents.High blood sugarIn addition to suppressing the increase of hydrogen gas, an increase in hydrogen gas was observed during exhalation.antioxidant effectIs supposed to be a mechanism to suppress cardiovascular accidents[39].. Various studies have reported the antioxidant effect of hydrogen, and intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen from indigestible dietary fiber and the like. In a mouse experiment in which hepatitis was induced using concanavalin A, hydrogen produced by normal enterobacteria was compared to that in mice in which antibiotics were used to suppress hydrogen production by the enterobacteria. It was found to suppress liver inflammation[40].
Promotion of defecation
Insoluble dietary fiber increases stool volume in the colon and rectum and promotes defecation.
Emission of dioxins
DioxinsSince it also has the effect of adsorbing and excreting dioxin, it is suggested that increasing the rate of excretion from the body by 2 to 4 times can prevent the effects of dioxins on health.[41].

Fiber of typical food

Seaweed,Whole grain,beansContains a lot of dietary fiber. The actual content is a representative value because it differs depending on the place of origin, harvest time, variety, etc.

Dietary fiber in 100 g of main foods[42]
ItemStatusDietary fiber
Total amount
Water soluble
Dietary fiber
Insoluble
Dietary fiber
Wakame[15]ä¹¾68.9 g9.0 g59.9 g
Hijiki[15]ä¹¾60.7 g22.5 g38.2 g
Kombu[15]ä¹¾36.5 g7.4 g29.1 g
Kanpyoä¹¾30.1 g6.8 g23.3 g
Seaweed(Susabinori[15])乾26.4 g10.8 g15.6 g
RakkyoLiving21.0 g18.6 g2.4 g
Kiriboshi-Daikon (Dried Daikon Radish Strips)ä¹¾20.7 g3.6 g17.1 g
Azukiä¹¾17.8 g1.2 g16.6 g
Soybeanä¹¾17.1 g1.8 g15.3 g
shallotLiving11.4 g9.1 g2.3 g
Wheatä¹¾10.8 g0.7 g10.1 g
OkaraLiving9.7 g0.3 g9.4 g
barleyä¹¾9.6 g6.0 g3.6 g
Oat(Oats,oatmeal)乾9.4 g3.2 g6.2 g
CobwebbingNattoLiving6.7 g2.3 g4.4 g
MoroheiyaLiving5.9 g1.3 g4.6 g
BurdockLiving5.7 g2.3 g3.4 g
OkraLiving5.0 g1.4 g3.6 g
Japanese buckwheat noodlesDried noodles4.3 g0.8 g3.5 g
Shiitake mushroomLiving3.5 g0.5 g3.0 g
brown riceä¹¾3 g0.7 g2.3 g
PumpkinLiving2.8 g0.7 g2.1 g
Bamboo shootLiving2.8 g0.3 g2.5 g
carrotRaw, peeled2.5 g0.7 g1.8 g
sweet potatoLiving2.3 g0.5 g1.8 g
cabbageLiving1.8 g0.4 g1.4 g
onionLiving1.6 g0.6 g1.0 g
AppleLiving1.5 g0.3 g1.2 g
potatoLiving1.3 g0.6 g0.7 g
Japanese radishLiving1.3 g0.5 g0.8 g
White riceä¹¾0.5 g0 g0.5 g

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,carbohydrate (PDF) "Japanese Dietary Intake Standards" (2010 edition)』, viewed on July 2016, 7
  2. ^ Keith A. GARLEB, Maureen K. SNOWDEN, Bryan W. WOLF, JoMay CHOW, translated by Yasuto Tashiro, ``Application of fructooligosaccharides as fermentable dietary fiber to medical foods"Intestinal Bacteriology Magazine, 2002 Volume 16 Issue 1, p.43-54, two:10.11209 / jim1997.16.43
  3. ^ All about food science 4th edition by Kenkakusha PMGAMAN/KBS HERRINGTON Nobuko Nakahama Supervised by Atsuko Murayama / Hiroko Shinagawa December 2006
  4. ^ John Harvey Kellogg Autointoxication ,1918
  5. ^ James C. Whorton "Vegetarianism", Encyclopedia of Food History in Cambridge <4> Nutrition and Health, Contemporary Issues, Asakura Shoten, March 2005.ISBN 978-4-254-43534-4.. Pages 229-244. The Cambridge world history of food, 2000
  6. ^ Noriki Saeki "Rationalization of Nutrition" Aichi Standard Rice Milling Promotion Committee, 1930.
  7. ^ Malhotra SL (1967-08). “Geographical distribution of gastrointestinal cancers in India with special reference to causation”. good 8 (4): 361-72. PMC: 1552547. PMID 6039725. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1552547/. 
  8. ^ DENIS BURKITT – A LIFE OF SERVICE by William Reville, University College, Cork
  9. ^ Burkitt DP. "Related disease--related cause?" Lancet.2(7632), 1969 Dec 6, pp1229-31. PMID 4187817, two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (69) 90757-0
  10. ^ Burkitt DP. "<3 :: AID-CNCR2820280104> 3.0.CO; 2-N Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum." Cancer 28 (1), 1971 Jul, pp3-13. PMID 5165022
  11. ^ BURKITT DP, TROWELL HC Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease: Some Implications of Dietary Fiber, 1975. ISBN 978-0-12-144750-2
  12. ^ Leonard Marquart et al. Whole Grains and Health: An Overview Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 19, No. 90003, 289S-290S (2000). PMID 10875599
  13. ^ About the nutritional requirements of the 6th revised Japanese (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
  14. ^ Kyoichi Kobayashi, "Flower lacquer and lactic acid bacteria”Journal of the Japanese Society of Lactic Acid Bacteria” 2002 Volume 13 Issue 1 p.53-56, two:10.4109 / jslab1997.13.53
  15. ^ a b c d e Yumiko Yoshie, "Food nutritional study on dietary fiber of seaweed"Journal of the Fisheries Society of Japan, 2001, Vol. 67, No. 4, p.619-622, two:10.2331 / suisan.67.619
  16. ^ Keisuke Tsuji, Bunpei Mori "Science of dietary fiber" p22, September 1997, 9, Asakura Shoten,ISBN-4 254-43512-6 C3361
  17. ^ a b "Textile/other classification system”. Linus Pauling Institute (Micronutrient Information Center). 2018/11/28Browse.
  18. ^ Kazuhiro Okuma, Isao Matsuda, Yasuo Katsuta, Yuka Kishimoto, Keisuke Tsuji "Development of Indigestible Dextrin" "Journal of applied glycoscience" Vol. 53, No. 1, Japan Society for Applied Glucose Science, January 2006, 1, Pages 20-65, NOT 10016738765.
  19. ^ Yukio Nakayama, "Structure and function of dietary fiber"Health and Hygiene" 1991 Volume 35 Issue 1 p.32-37, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.35.32
  20. ^ Of the daily requirement of 600 mg taken orally as an average of healthy people, the amount absorbed from the intestinal tract is about 350 mg/day, the amount that is shed along with epithelial cells from the intestine is about 200 mg/day, and about 150 mg/day as urine, About 450 mg/day is excreted as stool.Dietary fiberBesidesPolyphenolAlso inhibits calcium absorption from the intestinal tract; Makoto Shimizu, “Calcium absorption/metabolism and bone health”, “Food and health: Ingredients and functions of foods”, The University of the Air, p.157, 2006.
  21. ^ Product information for food for specified health uses -"Health food" safety and efficacy information (National Institute of Health and Nutrition)
  22. ^ Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases 2015.
  23. ^ Read NW, Timms JM, ."Constipation: is there light at the end of the tunnel?" Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl;129, 1987, pp88–96. PMID 2820050
  24. ^ World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Amer. Inst. For Cancer Research. ISBN 978-0972252225. http://wcrf.org/int/research-we-fund/continuous-update-project-cup/second-expert-report  Japanese abstract:Food, nutrition, exercise and cancer prevention,World Cancer Research FundとUS Cancer Research Organization
  25. ^ "Health Effects of Eating Fiber". 2010/6/8Browse.
  26. ^ Association between dietary fiber intake and glycemic index (GI) and obesity: a cross-sectional study of 18 female students aged 20 to 3931 years
  27. ^ Masako Fujita, Satomi Nagaya "Effects of Different Foods on Postprandial Blood Glucose," Bulletin of Gifu Women's University, 32, 2003-03-30, pp131-136NOT 80015987150
  28. ^ Kazuhiro Okuma, Isao Matsuda, Yasuo Katsuta, Yuka Kishimoto, Keisuke Tsuji "Development of Indigestible Dextrin" "Journal of applied glycoscience" Vol. 53, No. 1, Japan Society for Applied Glucose Science, January 2006, 1, Pages 20-65, NOT 10016738765.
  29. ^ Yukio Nakayama, "Structure and function of dietary fiber (1) Chemical structure and analytical method"Health and Hygiene" 1991 Volume 35 Issue 1 p.32-37, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.35.32
  30. ^ Jenkins, DJA, Lees, AR, Gassull, MA, Cochet, B. and Alberti, GMM: Ann. Intern. Med., 80, 20 (1977)
  31. ^ a b c Oku Tsuneyuki, Fujita Atsuko, Hosoya Norimasa,Comparison of glucomannan, pullulan, and cellulose inhibitory effects on blood glucose elevation Journal of Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 1983, Vol. 36, No. 4, p.301-303, two:10.4327 / jsnfs.36.301
  32. ^ Sadako Nakamura and othersInhibitory effect of alginate small molecule degradation products by alginolyticus SUN53 on rat small intestinal mucosa disaccharide hydrolase"Journal of the Dietary Fiber Society of Japan" Vol.12 (2008) No.1 P9-15, two:10.11217 / jjdf2004.12.9
  33. ^ Hatsue Moritaka, Yukiko Nakanishi, Masako Fuwa, etc.Effect of agar on thermal and sensory characteristics and glycemic index of cooked rice”Journal of Japanese Society of Cooking Science, 2012, Volume 45, Issue 2, p.115-122,NOT 110009437800, two:10.11402 / cookery science.45.115
  34. ^ Ayumi Uchida and othersEffects of Jumbo Riki on blood glucose level and liver function in pathological model rats"Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol.55 (2008) No.11 P.549-558, two:10.3136 / nskkk.55.549
  35. ^ Effects of high performance insulin supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Pourghassem Gargari B, et. Al., Diabetes Metab J. 2013 Apr; 37 (2): 140-8. two: 10.4093 / dmj.2013.37.2.140. Epub 2013 Apr 16.
  36. ^ a b Shigeki Araki, Kazutoshi Ito, Seiichiro Aoe and others,Current status of barley physiological effects and health claims"Research on Human Life and Culture, Vol. 2009, No. 67, 5, p.235-251, two:10.5264 / eiyogakuzashi.67.235
  37. ^ Jenkins, DJA, Lees, AR, Gassull, MA, Cochet, B. and Alberti, GMM: Ann. Intern. Med., 80, 20 (1977)
  38. ^ Keisuke Tsuji, "Health effects of dietary fiber"Bifidus" 1995 Volume 8 Issue 2 p.125-134, two:10.11209 / jim1987.8.125
  39. ^ Junichiro Irie, Yutaka Ito, "Intestinal environment and cardiovascular disease”Heart” 2012 Volume 44 Issue 12 p.1498-1503, two:10.11281 / shinzo.44.1498
  40. ^ Kajiya, Mikihito; Sato, Kimihiro; Silva, Marcelo JB; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Do, Phi M .; Shanmugam, KT; Kawai, Toshihisa (2009). “Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 386 (2): 316–321. two:10.1016 / j.bbrc.2009.06.024. ISSN 0006291X. 
  41. ^ Kunimasa Morita, Kazuhiro Asaishi,Study on promotion of excretion of dioxins "Fukuoka Health and Environmental Research Institute Annual Report" No. 28, 12 (2000) P.57,ISSN 0918-9173
  42. ^ XNUMXth revision supplement Japanese food standard composition table

References

  • Seiichiro Aoe et al., "Dietary Fiber: Basics and Applications," edited and supervised by the Editorial Committee of the Dietary Fiber Society of Japan, 2008, 3rd edition.ISBN 978-4-8041-1191-9.

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