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Wikipedia related words
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市町村(Shichoson) isJapan OfBasic local public bodiesIsCity() ""town(Machi / Cho) ""village(Mura / Son) "is a general term.Municipalities are wide-area local public bodiesPrefecturesWith (Todofuken)Local government lawInOrdinary local governmentHas been defined.
The municipalities areSpecial local governmentIsTokyo Ward(special area) Together with JapanBasic municipalityIs. In general, including municipalities and special wardsMunicipality(Municipalities) orMunicipal DistrictIt ’s called (Shichosonku),TokyoInspecial area(23 wards of Tokyo) Is the central part,Municipalities(Kushichoson).
2018(Heisei30 years)May 10Current(FukuokaNakagawa CityThe number of municipalities and special wards (enforcement of the city system) is as shown in the table below.Great Heisei mergerBefore1999(11)May 3Compared to the number at the time, it has decreased to more than half.
|Basic municipality||2018th of February 10||(December 1999, 3)|
Local government lawIn the following, only the article name is described.
1889(Meiji 22), alongside the prefectural systemMeiji constitutionAs the local system below,Hokkaido-OkinawaOn the mainland exceptMunicipal system and municipal system(Law No. 21, April 4, 25) came into effect. They areLocal governmentAs a law targeting municipalities andAdministrationOffice workPolicemenLocal government system (Meiji 19 YearRoyal Decree No. 54) has been established separately.
1947(Showa 22)Local government lawIt was abolished due to the enactment, but it is said that there is still a "disposal that the town (village) becomes a city""Municipal system enforcementIs the remnant of this.
Requirements to be a city
- Population over 5. However1965After (40),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(Heisei 16Under the new law of Law No. 59, if the provisions of Article 7) are applied, it will be over 3.
- There are more than 6% of all units in the central city area.
- 6% or more of the total population are those engaged in commerce and industry and other urban business categories and those who belong to the same household.
- ConcernedPrefectures OfOrdinanceIt has urban facilities and other urban requirements specified in.
Requirements to be a town
VillagetownIn order to become, the prefectures to which the village belongs must meet each requirement (population, number of consecutive units or consecutive rates, required public offices, etc., employment population ratio by industry, etc.) (Article 8) 2). The population requirement is most in 5000 prefectures, followed by 8000 prefectures.
There are no special rules regarding village requirements.If it does not meet the conditions for becoming a town, it is automatically a village.
Population requirements for becoming a town
|Lower limit||Prefectures(* The presence or absence of a village is as of 2010/22)|
|There is a village||No village|
|1 million 5,000 people||Tochigi|
|1 million 0,000 people||Iwate Gunma Tokyo Niigata||Fukui Kagawa|
|8,000|| Aomori Yamagata Fukushima Nagano Osaka|
Nara Shimane Kochi Oita Okinawa
|5,000|| Hokkaido Miyagi Akita Ibaraki Saitama|
Chiba Kanagawa Yamanashi Gifu Aichi
Kyoto Wakayama Tokushima Fukuoka Kumamoto
|Mie Shiga Yamaguchi Ehime|
In principle, this is the case of a single town system, and some prefectures have established special cases to promote mergers.
Transition to city/town
In order for a town/village to become a city or a village to become a town, based on the application of the relevant municipalityPrefectural governor Prefectural assemblyImmediately after the decisionMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsReport to Article 8 (3).
"Transition" due to abandonment
When a town or village is abandoned and at the same time a new city or town is created, the town or village appears to have "migrated" to it. However, in this case, the old towns/villages and the new cities/towns are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legality is not continuous.
actuallyAbandonmentAlthough such cases occur due to (merging/transferring, so-called municipal mergers), it is not obligatory to select a new municipality even if it meets the requirements of the city or town.Great Heisei mergerBecame the first new "village" inKumamotoMinamiaso villageHas a population more than double the population requirement (3 people) to become a town due to the merger of the three former villages,Mount AsoNango ValleyWe chose to be a village with an emphasis on the natural environment and the image of rural areas.
"Relegation" to a town/village
"Demotion" due to migration
If a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a city becomes a town or village, or if a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a town becomes a village, follow the same procedure as above for moving to a city or town. Take (Article 8 paragraph 3). When a city becomes a town or village, or a town becomes a village, some tasks can be transferred to the prefectural jurisdiction. This can be expected to reduce the burden, but on the other handLocal allocation taxThere is a demerit that the amount of delivery will be reduced, and the amount of office work such as changing the notation of staff business cards and printed materials will occur.
According to the Local Autonomy Law, there is no difference in the “case” or hierarchical relationships between municipalities. Therefore, there is no concept of "demotion" or "promotion", but the consciousness that the city feels higher than the town/village and the town feels higher than the village exists among the residents... For these reasons, in order to avoid negative impacts on motivation of residents and staff, attachment to the local area, image, etc., it is unlikely that migration to towns and villages will be considered in the first place, 2019 (Reiwa 4) There is no example that has been done so far. For example, at the peak, it had a population of about 6000.HokkaidoUtashinai CityIs less than the population requirement (5000 people) to become a town due to depopulation, but it is not a village yet... Fall into serious financial difficulties2006Hokkaido where the transition to the town was examined in earnest (18)YubariBut I was not selected.
"Demotion" due to decommissioning
When a city or town is abandoned and a new town or village is created at the same time, it appears that the city or town has been “relegated” to a town or village. However, in this case, the old city/town and the new town/village are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legal personality is not continuous. In fact otherAbandonmentThere is such a case when the or boundary change is involved. For example, the following examples are given.
- Shibuya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture →Shibuya Village(CurrentYamato）
- Part of the town area was transferred to another city, the remaining town area was abolished, and at the same time a new village was established.
- Miyata Town, Nagano Prefecture →Komagane→Miyata
- After becoming a city by merging with other local governments, it was separated and reestablished as a new village.
As a case where "demotion" is avoided,Kami TownThere is.Great Heisei mergerAt the time of MiyagiKami-gunThen.Nakashinta Town,Onoda Town,Miyazaki Town,Sima TownThere was a plan to create Kami city by merging four towns. However, because Sekima-cho left the merger talks on the way, the total population fell below 4 and the conditions of the municipal system were not met, and the density of buildings in the center did not meet the requirements of the town prescribed by the prefectural ordinance. However, it was said that the merger would "regrade" to the village. There is no difference in “rank” between cities, towns, or villages, but the terms “demotion” and “promotion” are used in the news of Nishinihon Shimbun, for example, and the voices of the citizens who say “sorry” or “poor story” are covered. It was being done. As a result of amending the prefectural ordinance, it was finally decided to merge as Kami-cho..
Differences between cities, towns and villages
Regarding the handling under the Local Autonomy Law, there is no big difference between the names of cities, towns and villages. Rather, there are large differences in population size and administrative capacity between cities that share the same name,Government-designated city,Core cityas well as the Special city(The system was abolished in 2015 and integrated into the core city system. However, there are transitional measures) and the special provisions regarding the distribution of office work and the administrative district system (only for ordinance-designated cities) are established (252-19,Article 252-20), is very different from other cities and towns.
Municipalities do not have parliamentary ordinances, but instead are general meetings of voters.Municipal general meetingCan be provided (Articles 94 and 95 of the same law), but there are only a few examples. A case of Ashinoyu Village (now part of Hakone Town) in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture under the enforcement of the town and village system, and Utsuki Village (current part of Hachijo Town. (See section)) has been reported.2006(Heisei18 years) with multiple debtFiscal rebuilding organizationKiso County, Nagano PrefectureOtaki VillageHave been considered as a bill (rejection in the parliamentary resolution).
6 villages in the Northern Territories
ロシア Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesHas 6 villages in Japan.. However, it has lost its function as a basic municipality in Japan, and can only perform business related to family register.NemuroIs acting on your behalf.
As a voting body for municipalitiesMunicipal assemblyBut as an executive agencyMayor, VariousAdministrative committeeAnd so on. Municipalities have no councilsVoting rightIt is also possible to set up a general meeting of all persons.Chief(Mayor,Mayor, The village chief,special areaWard mayor)WhenLocal assemblyDepends on the residentselectionElected by.
- Chief (Mayor）
- EmirateAuxiliary organization
- Local public enterprise
- Water supply business, sewer business, hospital business, etc.
- Administrative committee
- Board of education -Secretariat- Kindergarten,primary school-Junior high school(,high school,Special school),library,Public hallWait
- Election Management Committee -Secretariat
- Audit Committee -Secretariat
- Human Resources CommitteeOrFairness committee -Secretariat
- Agricultural committee -Secretariat
- Fixed Asset Evaluation Review Committee -Secretariat
- Parliament -Secretariat
- Local autonomous district
"City" "Village" in the municipalities
Most of the "-towns" and "-muras" in the municipality area, even if they are official, do not have a legal personality and are only geographical areas, like the characters (bruise). HistoricallyEdo PeriodIt originates from the towns and villages, but it is not in a simple correspondence relationship at present because of a series of decommissioning for a long time. Most of the towns and villages of the Edo periodLarge printLeave a trace on the parcel.
However, the names of "-town" and "-village"Local autonomous district,Special merger wardThere is also. Local autonomous regions are subordinate organizations of municipalities. The merger special ward has a legal personality,special areaSame asSpecial local governmentAnd in most cases it was an independent municipality until very recently.
Prefectures where no village exists
1962(Showa 37)Hyogo,1970(Showa 45)KagawaAt the end of the year, the village disappeared due to the town system being enforced. For a long time, these two prefectures had no villages, but due to the great merger of Heisei2004(16)HiroshimaStarting with the disappearance of the village in, 11 prefectures have lost the village due to the great merger of the Heisei era.
Note that “city” and “town” exist in all prefectures.
List of prefectures without villages
|Region||Prefecture name||Extinction date||Remarks|
|Kanto region||Tochigi||2006(18)May 3||Kuriyama VillageDue to the new merger NikkoBe part of.|
|Chubu region||Ishikawa||2005(17)May 3||Yanagita VillageDue to the new merger Noto TownBe part of.|
|Fukui||2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3||Nadasho VillageDue to the new merger Oi TownBe part of.|
|Shizuoka||2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 7||Yongsan VillageBut, Hamamatsu cityMerged into.|
|Kinki||Mie||2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 1||UdonomuraDue to the new merger New systemKihochoBe part of.|
Miyagawa VillageIs a new system due to a new merger OdaimachiBe part of.
|Shiga||2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 1||Kuchiki VillageDue to the new merger TakashimaBe part of.|
|Hyogo||1962(37)May 4||Due to the enforcement of the town system in Ayamura Harima TownBecomes|
|Chugoku||Hiroshima||2004(16)May 11||Toyomatsu VillageDue to the new merger Kamiishi Kogen TownBe part of.|
|Yamaguchi||2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3||Hongo VillageDue to the new merger IwakuniBe part of.|
|Shikoku region||Kagawa||1970(45)May 2||(Old) due to the enforcement of the town system in Saita VillageZaita TownBecomes|
→2006(18)May 1, New system MitoyoBecomes
|Ehime||2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 1||Asakura VillageとSekizen VillageIs a new system due to a new merger ImabariBe part of.|
|Kyushu region||Saga||2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3||Sifuri VillageDue to the new merger KanzakiBe part of.|
|Nagasaki||2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 10||Oshima villageDue to the new merger Hirado CityBe part of.|
How to read "town" and "village"
"town"Is"Butterfly"Or"Town","village"Is"So"Or"MuraHowever, the reading is clearly defined for each town and village.
Basically, the reading of “town” and “village” tends to be fixed in each prefecture, but there may be a small number of exceptions due to phonological relations and customs.
There are variations in how to read "town", but all the towns in the Kanto region are "towns", and the towns in the Kinki and Shikoku regions are "cho".Excluding HokkaidoEast JapanThere are many "towns", but especiallyIwateとMiyagiThen, both are mixed in a ratio that cannot be said to be large. vice versa,West JapanTends to have a lot of "butterflies",KyusyuHowever, there is no clear law because there are variations in each prefecture.
The reading of “village” is fixed for each prefecture except Kagoshima prefecture. Everything from eastern Japan to the Kinki region is "mura", but in some parts of western Japan it is "son", and Okinawa Prefecture, which has 19 villages, is all "son".
Reading of "town"
* Of the mixed examples, when the same reading accounts for about 8% or more of the total number of towns in each prefecture, the reading on the majority side is shown, and the rest is noted as an exception. In addition, when listing individually, the multiple side is on the upper side.
|Region||Name of prefectures||reading||Remarks|
|Hokkaido region||Hokkaido||Butterfly*||*129 towns out of all 128 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Tohoku region||Aomori||Town※||*22 towns out of all 19 towns.Oirase Town-Nanbu Town-Hashikami3 towns are "chou"|
|Iwate||Mixed||Butterfly||Shizukuishi Town-Shiwa Town-Yahaba Town-Kanegasaki Town-Hiraizumi Town-Sumita Town-Otsuchi Town-Iwaizumi Town-Hirono Town(9 towns)|
|Town||Kuzumaki-Iwate-Nishiwaga Town-Yamada Town-Karumai Town-Ichinohe(6 towns)|
|Miyagi||Town||Misato Town-Kami Town-Matsushima Town-Shichigahama Town-Kawasaki Town-Murata-Okawara Town-Shibata Town-Marumori Town-Zao Town-Shichikashuku Town(11 towns)|
|Butterfly||Rifu Town-Yamato Town-Osato Town-Watari Town-Yamamoto Town-Onagawa-Sima Town-Wakuya Town-Minamisanriku Town(9 towns)|
|Akita||Town||Gojome Town-Hachirogata Town-Igawa Town-Fujisato-Ugo Town-Kosaka Town(6 towns)|
|Butterfly||Misato Town-Santan Town-Happo Town(3 towns)|
|Yamagata||Town※||*19 towns out of all 18 towns.KawakitaOnly one town is "chou"|
|Fukushima||Town||(All 31 towns)|
|Kanto region||Ibaraki||(All 10 towns)|
|Tochigi||(All 11 towns)|
|Gunma||(All 15 towns)|
|Saitama||(All 22 towns)|
|Chiba||(All 16 towns)|
|Tokyo||(All 3 towns)|
|Kanagawa||(All 13 towns)|
|Chubu region||Niigata||(All 6 towns)|
|Toyama||(All 4 towns)|
|Ishikawa||Mixed||Town||Kawakita Town-Tsubata Town-Uchinada Town-Shiga Town-Nakanoto Town-Anamizu Town(6 towns)|
|Butterfly||Hodatsu Shimizu Town-Noto Town(2 towns)|
|Fukui||Butterfly||(All 8 towns)|
|Yamanashi||Butterfly*||*8 towns out of all 7 towns.Fujikawaguchiko TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Nagano||Town※||*23 towns out of all 22 towns.AnanOnly one town is "chou"|
|Gifu||Butterfly||(All 19 towns)|
|Shizuoka||Butterfly*||*12 towns out of all 11 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Aichi||Butterfly||(All 14 towns)|
|Kinki||Mie||(All 15 towns)|
|Shiga||(All 6 towns)|
|Kyoto||(All 10 towns)|
|Osaka||(All 9 towns)|
|Hyogo||(All 12 towns)|
|Nara||(All 15 towns)|
|Wakayama||(All 20 towns)|
|Chugoku||Tottori||(All 14 towns)|
|Shimane||Butterfly*||*10 towns out of all 9 towns.KawamotoOnly one town is "town"|
|Okayama||Butterfly||(All 10 towns)|
|Hiroshima||(All 9 towns)|
|Yamaguchi||(All 6 towns)|
|Shikoku region||Tokushima||(All 15 towns)|
|Kagawa||(All 9 towns)|
|Ehime||(All 9 towns)|
|Kochi||(All 17 towns)|
|Kyushu region||Fukuoka||Town※||*30 towns out of all 29 towns.Onga TownOnly one town is "chou"|
|Saga||Butterfly*||*10 towns out of all 9 towns.Kohoku TownOnly one town is "town"|
|Nagasaki||Butterfly||(All 8 towns)|
|Kumamoto||Town※||*23 towns out of all 20 towns.Asagiri Town-Yamato-cho-Hikawa Town3 towns are "chou"|
|Oita||Town||(All 3 towns)|
|Miyazaki||Butterfly||(All 14 towns)|
|Kagoshima||(All 20 towns)|
|Okinawa region||Okinawa||(All 11 towns)|
Reading of "village" (Son / Mura)
Prefectures that do not have any villages are omitted from the table.
|Region||Name of prefectures||reading||Remarks|
|Hokkaido region||Hokkaido||Mura||(15 villages in total)|
|Tohoku region||Aomori||(8 villages in total)|
|Iwate||(5 villages in total)|
|Miyagi||■Ohira VillageOnly one village|
|Akita||(3 villages in total)|
|Yamagata||(3 villages in total)|
|Fukushima||(15 villages in total)|
|Kanto region||Ibaraki||(2 villages in total)|
|Gunma||(8 villages in total)|
|Saitama||■HigashichichibuOnly one village|
|Chiba||■Chosei VillageOnly one village|
|Kanagawa||■Kiyokawa VillageOnly one village|
|Chubu region||Niigata||(4 villages in total)|
|Toyama||■Funabashi VillageOnly one village|
|Yamanashi||(6 villages in total)|
|Nagano||(35 villages in total)|
|Gifu||(2 villages in total)|
|Aichi||(2 villages in total)|
|Kinki||Kyoto||■Minamiyamashiro VillageOnly one village|
|Osaka||■Chihaya Akasaka VillageOnly one village|
|Nara||(12 villages in total)|
|Wakayama||■Kitayama VillageOnly one village|
|Chugoku||Tottori||So||■Hiyoshitsu VillageOnly one village|
|Shimane||Mura||■Tomio VillageOnly one village|
|Okayama||So||(2 villages in total)|
|Shikoku region||Tokushima||■Sanagawauchi VillageOnly one village|
|Kochi||Mura||(6 villages in total)|
|Kyushu region||Fukuoka||(2 villages in total)|
|Kumamoto||(8 villages in total)|
|Oita||■Himejima villageOnly one village|
|Miyazaki||So||(3 villages in total)|
|Kagoshima||Mixed||Mura||Mishima village-Toshima Village(2 villages)|
|So||Yamato Village-Uken Village(2 villages)|
|Okinawa region||Okinawa||So||(19 villages in total)|
Statistics and listings
Number of municipalities by prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe number of municipalities based on the summary of is shown below. The latest merger of municipalities was April 2014, 4, and the latest municipal organization came into effect on October 5, 2018..
|Prefectures||Basic municipality(BasicLocal government) Number|
|Number of municipalities||City||town||village||special area||Total number of basic municipalities|
History of merger of municipalities
1950Items after (25) are listed on each of the following pages in list format.
- ^ Tokyo Metropolitan RulebookPart 1 Chapter 7 Municipal Administration
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Local Autonomy System | Wide Area Administration / Municipal Merger, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 2021th of February 3Browse.
- ^ ロシア Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesBelongs toShikotan Village,Tomari village,Torubetsu Village,Tobetsu Village,Sanamura,Tottori Village6 villagesNot included.
- ^ a b “Whereabouts of decentralization  Puzzle/Frontiers of regional reform”. West Japan Newspaper (Fukuoka City). (January 2002, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 9. 2013th of February 10Browse.
- ^ a b “Hokkaido and 3 cities in Sorachi area have population less than 1. 9% reduction at peak time “Migration” to town has little merit”. Hokkaido Shimbun (Sapporo). (January 2013, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 10. 2013th of February 10Browse.
- ^ Shikotan Village,Tomari village,Torubetsu Village,Tobetsu Village,Sanamura,Tottori Village
- ^ a b c BothGreat Heisei mergerIs the town that was born by.
- ^ "Wide area administration/Municipalities merger, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, read November 2016, 11