Photo People walking with an umbrella in Shibuya, Tokyo = 14th morning
Suspected Indian stock, the first dead in Tokyo 209 newly infected
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The route of infection was unknown in 130 people.
On the 14th, the deaths of three men and women who had been infected with the new coronavirus were confirmed in Tokyo, and a man in his 3s was inspected ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Transmission route(Kansen Keiro,British: route of infection) IsinfectionPresent in the individual or environment that caused thePathogen, Is a route to reach an uninfected individual and cause a new infection. Depending on the pathogen, infection may occur via multiple routes of infection.EpidemicOutbreaks such asNosocomial infection Ofpreventionな どInfection controlAbove isPathogenFind outSource of infectionIt is important to find out, but above all, it cannot be completed unless the infection route is cut off.
- Airborne infection-Microparticles (0.5 μm or less) stay in the air for extended periods of time and continue to contaminate even after the patient leaves.
- Droplet infection-Small moist particles (0.5 μm or larger) remain in the air for a short period of time. Usually infected with the patient.
- Direct infection-by touching the infected patient directly. Including sexual contact.
- Indirect infection-by touching contaminated soil.
- Fecal Mouth Path-Unwashed hands, contaminated plants and water sources.
Main infection routes
- Infected belowRouteOf infectious diseases inAn exampleIs mentioned, but the infection route isMultipleIt should be noted that there may be cases and there is no one-to-one relationship.
Splash nuclear infection,Dust infection,Aerosol infectionand so on.English is airborne transmission(Air-mediated propagation), abbreviatedAirborneAlso called.Airborne infections are simply infectiousaerosolFrom the standpoint of being transmitted through, There is a position to limit the propagation by droplet nuclei among aerosols.
The epidemiological dictionary published by the International Epidemiological Society adopts the former definition, which defines that microbial aerosols are transmitted by entering the respiratory tract.Examples include droplet nuclear infection and dust infection.In chemistry, aerosol (also translated as aerosol) is a general term for a state in which solid or liquid fine particles are dispersed and suspended in a gas, such as smoke or fog. Such a state is called a gas. Solid or liquid in the mediumColloidal particlesDispersedSolIt was named aerosol because it was regarded as a kind of aerosol. ".
Droplet nuclear infection is infectiousPathogenDroplet nuclei includingdroplet nuclei: Refers to those that diffuse through the evaporated droplet residue)..These pathogens maintain infectivity in vitro for long periods of time.Moisture evaporates in the air 5MicrometerThose that remain infected even with the following light particles (droplet nuclei) remain suspended in the air for a long period of time, 3フ ィ ー ト(91Centimeter) Travel longer distances and infect others via the upper and lower respiratory tract..Particles in the air are less than 5 micrometers..This generally requires a high level of isolation.Therefore, a negative pressure environment is required to avoid pollution.
tuberculosis,Varieg,measles,smallpox,Herpes zoster[Annotation 1]Etc. are infected by air.These are often in the wardNosocomial infectionTo causeInfection controlIs an important disease.Whether influenza or coronavirus causes airborne infections or is the main transmission route is always controversial..
English is droplet transmission(Small drop infection).This is due to respiratory droplets that occur during coughing, sneezing, conversation, etc., and is a common route of infection.Due to the large droplets, they cannot float in the air for long periods of time and are usually scattered at close range...Splash particles are 5 micrometers or more..Infection by droplets can occur when it adheres to the surface of sensitive mucous membranes such as the eyes, nose, and mouth, or when it touches the face with a hand that touches the contaminated surface.
Respiratory infectious disease pathogens transmitted by dropletsInfluenza virus,Parainfluenza virus,Adenovirus,Rhinovirus,RS virus,Human metapneumovirus,Pertussis,Pneumococcus,Streptococcus pyogenes,diphtheria,rubella,CoronavirusCan be mentioned..Splash diffusion can be reduced by wearing a surgical mask.
Contact infectionAlso called.English is direct contact(Direct contact).Infection is caused by direct contact between living organisms carrying pathogens.
It typically refers to skin-to-skin contact, kissing, and sexual intercourse.It also refers to contact with soil and plants containing pathogens..Faeces routeIs mainly regarded as an indirect contact route, but in some cases, it is transmitted by direct contact with feces.
Infection occurs when the infected person's blood or body fluid adheres to the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.Transmission routes can be direct or indirect through vectors.It may be included in the next transdermal infection.
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitisOphthalmic diseases such as.
Normally, the skin has the ability to prevent the invasion of pathogens, but the pathogens invade the body by being bitten or bitten by mosquitoes, insects, or dogs.Parasites may invade the body directly through the skin.In addition, pathogens invade from areas where the protective function of the skin has been lost due to wounds and burns.Especially theseTranscutaneous infectionMay be called.Needlestick accidents are also included in percutaneous infections.
Blood infection(Cross infection) Tomo.Injection ortransfusion,such asMedicalIn addition to actions, bleeding due to trauma touches mucous membranes such as the eyes of others, causing infection of pathogens in the blood.Again, the route of infection can be direct or indirect through a vector.
- MRSA,HIV,Hepatitis B,Hepatitis C,Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseIs typical.
- If there is a large amount of exposuresyphilisIs also considered.
It is a sexual contact infection.There are aspects of mucosal and oral infections.
Especially when pathogens in saliva are transmitted by mouth transfer or deep kiss through saliva.Saliva infectionIt may be said.According to the clinical transmission route classification theory, plaque infection and breath infection are included in oral infection, but saliva infection is not included.Caries fungus,EB virusSaliva infection occurs due to such factors.
Both mother-to-child transmission and vertical transmission.It is further classified as follows.
- In utero infection (transplacental infection/transamniotic fluid infection): placentaPass throughbloodInfection through.rubellaVirus,Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV),Cytomegalovirusetc.
- Birth infection (transvaginal infection): Infection via bleeding at birth and abrasions on the skin. B typehepatitis,HIVetc.
- Breast milk infection: HIV,Adult T-cell leukemia virusetc.
Indirect contact infection(Indirect contact transmission, vehicle-borne transmission) is a route transmitted by contact with non-living organisms.Examples include food, water, biological products (blood, etc.), mediators (handkerchiefs, bedding, surgical scalpels), etc.For example, improperly manufactured canned foodsClostridium botulinumbyBotulinum toxinIt provides an environment suitable for production.
Especially for infections through food and drink contaminated with pathogensOral infectionMay be called.If the cause of pollution is fecesInfection(Faeces route, See below).In addition, food and drink itself becomes a source of infection and is transmitted orally.BSEThere is.
Vector infection (horizontal transmission)
Other animals (especiallyArthropod) Becomes a vector (vector), and the infection is established by transmission. (1) As part of the life cycle of the pathogen, when the vector grows and propagates in the body and is infected from it (biological transmission), (2) the pathogen simply attached to the body surface of the vector is mechanically It may be transmitted (mechanical transmission, mechanical vector infection).
- The example of (1) isMosquitoesbyDengue fever,Japanese encephalitis,West Nile fever,yellow fever,malariaInsect-borne infections, such asTickbyCrimean Congo hemorrhagic fever,Severe febrile thrombocytopenia syndrome(SFTS) mediation,LousebyTyphusMedium ofA mousebyLassa fever,South American hemorrhagic fever,Hantavirus,Plague,typhoid,Paratyphoid,SalmonellaIntermediary such as.
- The example of (2) isFliesEnterohemorrhagic E. coli andShigellaMedium ofbird-fluInter-house vector.
InfectionAlso called.It may also be regarded as a type of oral infection (water-borne infection, water-borne epidemic).
Infection is established by ingestion of food and drink contaminated with feces.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli(Such as O157),Staphylococcus,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Clostridium botulinum,Salmonella,typhoid,Paratyphoid,Bacillary dysentery,cholera,Campylobacter,Listeria,Helicobacter pylori,Amoeba dysentery,Norovirus,Rotavirus,Polio,Hepatitis A,Hepatitis E,Weyl's disease,Keratoconjunctivitisetc.
Identification of infection route
When the pathogen can be identified
Wipe the surfaces of handrails and medical equipment shared by patientscultureHowever, if a pathogen is detected, it is presumed that the object is one of the infection routes. In addition, in the case of bacterial infections,Pulse field gel electrophoresisWhen the closeness of the genotype is examined byHorizontal infectionSince the temporal order of can be estimated, it is not uncommon to find out how the pathogen was first introduced into the population.
When the pathogen cannot be identified
EarlySARSIf the pathogen cannot be identified, as described above, the sick and healthy individuals are first isolated, and detailed information is collected on their behavior patterns, life backgrounds, and contact history with others. Among them, factors that correlate with the presence or absence of infectionEpidemiologyInfected routes are estimated by identifying them.
Example: If multiple people in the same room away from the sick person are affected, it is suspected that a droplet nuclear infection (air infection) occurs.
- ^ Shingles usually develops in the oral cavity and is limited to the spread as droplets.
- ^ a b "Do you misunderstand "airborne infection"?"Nikkei Medical" August 2020, 8.
- ^ "Medical dictionary air propagation". 2021/1/9Browse.
- ^ "WHO airborne tansmission definition”. WHO. 2021/1/9Browse.
- ^ The Chemical Society of Japan, "Japanese Standard Chemistry Dictionary, 2nd Edition" (2nd Edition) Maruzen, 2005.ISBN 4-621-07531-4.
- ^ "Clinical Educators Guide for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare”. As of May 2015, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/9/12Browse.
- ^ a b "Prevention of hospital-acquired infections". World Health Organization (WHO). August, 2020Browse.
- ^ "Summary of Evidence on Countermeasures for New Influenza Influenza Transmission Routes". www.virology.med.tohoku.ac.jp. 2020/12/15Browse.
- ^ "Clinical Educators Guide for the prevention and control of infection in healthcare”. NHMRC, Commonwealth of Australia (2010). As of April 2015, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/9/12Browse.
- ^ "What is Diseases contagious from droplets?”. As of May 2015, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.August, 2015Browse.
- ^ "Pass the message: Five steps to kicking out coronavirus" (English). www.who.int. 2020/3/24Browse.
- ^ "Respiratory Protection Against Airborne Infectious Agents for Health Care Workers: Do surgical masks protect workers?”. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (February 2017, 2). 2017/2/28Browse.
- ^ "Principles of Epidemiology: Chain of Infection" (English). US Centers for Disease Control and Infection (September 2019, 2). 2020/7/21Browse. In this description,The United States of AmericaAt the innerPublic domainIs included.
- ^ LaMorte, Wayne W. (January 2016, 1). “Common Vehicle Spread". Boston University School of Public Health. 2020/7/21Browse.
- ^ Whittier, Christopher A. (2017-04-16), Bezanson, Michele; MacKinnon, Katherine C; Riley, Erin et al., Eds., “Fecal-Oral Transmission” (English), The International Encyclopedia of Primatology (Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.): pp. 1–1, two:10.1002 / 9781119179313.wbprim0193, ISBN 978-1-119-17931-3 2020/7/21Browse.
- "Method of infection"-The University of Tokyo Insurance Health Promotion Headquarters Health Center
- "Pathogen transmission route" --Fukui Medical Association