Portal field news

Portal field news


🏥 | Ayu has very different nutritional components between "natural" and "cultured" [time nutrition and seasonal ingredients]

You can eat the whole photo

Ayu has very different nutritional components between "natural" and "cultured" [time nutrition and seasonal ingredients]

If you write the contents roughly
Vitamin B12 is a vitamin that prevents pernicious anemia and arteriosclerosis, and it also increases sensitivity to light, so it can be expected to have a good sleep effect.

[Time nutrition and seasonal ingredients] Ayu Ayu is a freshwater fish that is in season from June to September.Raw food is recommended due to the influence of parasites ... → Continue reading

 Daily Gendai Healthcare

We will deliver the medical and health articles of the evening paper "Daily Gendai". From everyday health laws to the latest medical information, all articles are based on interviews with doctors and specialists.

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Because of the good sleep effect


Cyanocobalamin(Cyanocobalamin)HydroxocobalaminAlong withVitamin B12Typical also calledCobalaminIs a type ofvitaminamongWater soluble vitaminsIt is a physiologically active substance classified into.cobaltIs red or pink because it contains[1].


Group B vitaminsHowever, 12 is not a number that indicates the order in which they were discovered.


Cyanocobalamin is an artificial product obtained when the compound is isolated, and in special cases such as smokers (hydrogen cyanide metabolite in smoke is active vitamin B).12Combines with to produce cyanocobalamin.However, active vitamin B12Harmful due to lack of[2].. ), Cyanocobalamin cannot be synthesized in the human body.Herbivore TheIntestinal bacteriaAsPropionic acidProducing bacteria (Propionibacterium[3]) Etc., and this is vitamin B12Produces B vitamins from these fungi12Ingesting[4].

amino acid,fatty acidMetabolism andFolic acidUsed for biosynthesis of.It has no coenzyme activity in itself and is in vivoCoenzymeIs a typeMethylcobalaminandAdenosyl cobalaminIs converted to.


PorphyrinSimilarコ リ ンWith a ringnucleotideHas the structure ofcobalt OfComplex.

Cyanocobalamin is currently extremely difficult to synthesizeActinomycete(Propionibacterium[3]) And other bacterial cultures[5].


Vitamin B12 ThemetabolismInvolved in, especiallyDNAIn addition to synthesis and adjustmentfatty acidIs involved in the synthesis and energy production of.However, vitamin B in the body12 Folic acid(Vitamin B9), So many, but not all, B vitamins12Function is replaced by a sufficient amount of folic acid.Thymine,PurineIf there is not enough folic acid in the body for the synthesis of DNA, it causes impaired DNA synthesis, and the symptoms of folic acid deficiency arePernicious anemiaSymptoms andMegaloblastic anemiaMost B vitamins because they cause12The deficiency symptom is actually a folic acid deficiency symptom[6]..If sufficient folic acid is available,Methylmalonic acidVitamin B that metabolizes (MMA)12Dependent enzymeMethylmalonyl CoA Mutase(MUT) andHomocysteineAs a substrateMethionineKnown as an enzyme that synthesizes5-Methionine Tetrahydrofolic Acid-Homocysteine ​​MethyltransferaseWill help (MTR), vitamin B12Most symptoms known as deficiency are normalized.

Vitamin B12The highly reactive C-Co bonds of coenzymes are associated with three major enzymatic reactions.

The first isIsomeraseIt is a reaction. The first substituenthydrogenWith atomsoxygenatom,alcoholGroup,Amino groupAnd so on, it is the second substituent adjacent to the first substituent.carbonIt is a rearrangement that directly moves an atom (X group).As an example,Methylmalonyl CoATheSuccinyl CoAIt is a reaction that converts to.

The first isMethyl groupRearrangement reactionIs.Two methyl groups分子Move between.As an example5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acidDemethylatedTetrahydrofolic acidAt the same time as changing toHomocysteineMethylMethionineConvert to.

The third ishalogenIt is a reaction.This is a reaction in which a halogen atom is removed from an organic compound.This kind of enzymeHuman capitalNot found in.

In humans, the two major B vitamins corresponding to the first two reactions above12Dependent enzymes are known.They are the following two types of enzymes.

First enzyme

MUT (Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase) IsAdenosyl cobalaminReactive type 1 that catalyzes the rearrangement of type and carbon skeleton (X group is -COSCoA)IsomeraseIs. The reaction of MUT isMethylmalonyl CoATheSuccinyl CoAConvert toprotein,fatIt plays an important step in extracting energy from.This function is vitamin B12Lost due to deficiency, its function can be medically measured by blood levels of methylmalonic acid.Vitamin B1290-98% of patients with deficiency have increased levels of methylmalonic acid.Thus, the increase in the concentration of methylmalonic acid is vitamin B.12Sensitive to deficiency, but the cause of increased levels of methylmalonic acid is B vitamins12It should be noted that it is not limited to deficiency. 70-20% of subjects over 25 years have increased levels of methylmalonic acid, but 25-33% of them are B vitamins12Not a deficiency.Therefore, it is not recommended for elderly people to judge by methylmalonic acid concentration.Vitamin B12Vitamin B stockpiled in body tissues when deficiency occurs12Vitamin B to break down and maintain blood levels12There is no golden rule test for deficiency.[7]..Therefore vitamin B begins to show deficiency12Vitamin B with the minimum blood concentration required12It does not indicate the state of.MyelinFormation andCentral nervous systemVitamin B necessary for the work of12The function of the dependent enzyme MUT is unaffected by folic acid intake. MTR (5-Methionine Tetrahydrofolic Acid-Homocysteine ​​Methyltransferase) Related to dysfunctionDNAVitamin B involved in synthesis12Other functions of the can be normalized by folic acid intake, but by MTRMethionineUsually converted toHomocysteineThe increase in concentration cannot be normalized.

Methylmalonic acid ---> Succinic acid

First enzyme

MTR (5-Methionine Tetrahydrofolic Acid-Homocysteine ​​Methyltransferase) Is known as methionine synthase, vitamin B12It is a methyltransferase that catalyzes a second type of reaction that converts homocysteine ​​to methionine using methylcobalamin, which is a type of methylcobalamin.[7]..This metastatic function is vitamin B12It is lost in deficiency and can be medically determined by elevated levels of homocysteine.Vitamin B12Is the active form of folic acidTetrahydrofolic acidFolic acid deficiency can also lead to elevated homocysteine ​​levels because it aids in the reproduction of (THF).Vitamin B12Without tetrahydrofolic acid5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acidCannot change to tetrahydrofolic acid. MTR reacts with 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in the presence of homocysteine ​​to produce methionine and THF, thus reducing the need for new dietary intake of folic acid. THF will be produced with the conversion of homocysteine ​​to methionine or will be obtained from the diet.It's vitamin B12Involved in independent thymine synthesis5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolic acidConverted by the process of (5,10-methylene-THF). Decreased utilization of 5,10-methylene-THF impairs DNA synthesis and has a high turnover rate, such as blood cells and intestinal parietal cells that control absorption.Cell divisionCauses a failure.Impaired blood cell cell synthesis causes pernicious anemia, once feared as a deadly disease.The effects of all DNA synthesis, including megaloblastic anemia of pernicious anemia, are resolved by the presence of sufficient folic acid.This is because the necessary 5,10-methylene-THF remains if there is sufficient folic acid. Vitamin B associated with DNA synthesis, cell division and pernicious anemia12The most well-known function of is the active form of folic acid vitamin B required for efficient DNA production.12It is a maintenance function by[8]..Other methyltransferases that require cobalaminBacteriaM Methyltransferase in (Me-H4-MPT) is known.

MUT and MTR deficient disease in the presence of sufficient folic acid

Vitamin B in humans when sufficient folic acid is present12MUT-related reactions that are dependent enzymesNervous systemShows the most characteristic side effects of.This is because the methyl group-transferred MTR reaction associated with folic acid reproduction is less deficient in the presence of sufficient folic acid.

Strengthened in many countries since the late 1990sWheat flourFolic acid deficiency has become rare since folic acid began to be added.At the same time with anemiaRed blood cellRelated to the size ofDNAVitamin B because synthetic susceptibility testing is routinely performed in small medical laboratories12MTR affected by deficiency is not as obvious as classic symptoms such as anemia due to impaired DNA synthesis, but in blood and urineHomocysteineIt will be discriminated by less obvious symptoms such as increased concentration.This symptom isarteryWhen(stroke,heart attackAffects)Coagulation systemDamages over a long period of time, but this effectAtherosclerosis,AgeingDifficult to separate from other factors associated with.

Vitamin B12Depends on the consequences of deficiencyMyelinDamage to the proper amount of folic acidMethionineEven in the presence of, it becomes a more characteristic and clear problem of vitamin deficiency.this is,Methylmalonyl CoAからSuccinyl CoAIt is most directly linked to the MUT-related reactions that are absolutely necessary for metabolism to.The impediment to this second reaction isMethylmalonic acidCauses an increase in the concentration of myelin, resulting in instability of myelin.Excess methylmalonic acid is normalfatty acidImpairs synthesis and normalMalonic acidIt has a more negative effect on normal fatty acid synthesis than.If abnormal fatty acids affect myelin, the result is myelin becoming brittle and myelin decay.However, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated.Subacute as a resultCentral nervous systemSpinal cordCauses a complex collapse of[9]..Whatever the cause, vitamin B, even if folic acid is abundant and anemia does not occur12DeficiencyNeuropathycause.

Vitamin B12Dependent MTR responses cause nerve-damaging effects, albeit by indirect mechanisms.Myelin sheath OfPhospholipidRequired for methylation ofS-adenosylmethionineTo synthesize (if vitamin B12Proper methionine is needed (as it must be taken from the diet like folic acid if it is not reproduced from homocysteine). S-adenosylmethionine synthesis is vitamin B12Independent of, but vitamin B12Is the raw material for the substrateEssential amino acidsHelps to reuse methionine.In addition, S-adenosylmethionineNeurotransmitter,catecholamineSynthesis andbrainIt is involved in internal metabolism.These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood and are B vitamins12DeficiencyDepressionCan explain why it is related to.Unless a large amount of folic acid is ingested, methylation of phospholipids in the myelin sheath may depend on the appropriate amount of folic acid in relation to the reuse of MTR.


On cobaltCyano groupTheMethyl groupReplaced withMethylcobalamin Replaced with (methylcobalamin) or 5-deoxyadenosyl groupAdenosyl cobalamin (adenosylcobalamin) etc. exist.Hydroxy groupIf you replace it withHydroxocobalaminbecome.

By substituting the CN group for a nucleotideCoenzymeIt becomes the type Kobamide.


1964,Dorothy HodgkinAnd so onX-ray structural analysisPlayed the structure elucidation of cyanocobalaminNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded.

Absorption mechanism

HaptocorrinAnd intrinsic factor are vitamin B described below12Part of the absorption mechanism[10].

  • HaptocorrinSalivary glandsIt is secreted from and is also called R protein.
  • Vitamin B in the diet12It is,proteinIs associated withstomach OfpepsinBreaks down protein and vitamin B12Is released.
  • Vitamin B released in the stomach12Strongly binds to haptocorrin, stabilizes, and vitamin B under strong acidity in the stomach12Prevents disassembly.
  • Vitamin B12And haptocorrin conjugates from the stomachduodenumHaptocorrinPancreatic juiceDigested by B vitamins12Was released and secreted in the stomachIntrinsic factorConnect with.
  • This vitamin B12The combination of intrinsic factor and intrinsic factorileumAt the endSoft hairからIntestinesEpithelial cellsIs absorbed by.

Had normal stomach function (Atrophic gastritisVitamin B in the diet in healthy adults (without impaired secretion of intrinsic factors)12Absorption rate is said to be about 50%[11][12].. Vitamin B12Is not effectively absorbed from the intestine unless it is linked to the intrinsic factor, so the amount of intrinsic factor secreted becomes a limiting factor, and vitamin B is about 2 μg per meal.12Absorption is saturated[13][14]..Because of this, excess B vitamins12Is not absorbed physiologically even if it is ingested.Combined with intrinsic factor secreted by the stomachileumVitamin B absorbed from12Is a transport proteinTranscobalaminCombined with and transported in the blood, mainlyliverWill be stored in.Average excretion 2 μg / day of vitamin B12The compound isbileExcreted inside[15], Vitamin B excreted in bile12Half of them are associated with intrinsic factorEnterohepatic circulationReabsorbed by, the restfecesExcreted to[16].


Cyanocobalamin is marketed as a treatment for eye strainEye dropsIn addition to being formulated in, for medical useSanten PharmaceuticalIt is sold as "Sankoba Ophthalmic Solution 0.02%".Other coenzyme-type vitamin B12 OfMethylcobalaminIs also sold as a prescription drug,Peripheral nerveObstaclesPernicious anemiaUsed for the treatment of.

Source of ingestion

Marine foodSeaweed,Shellfish,AnimalOf sex foodliverIt is contained in a very large amount of 30-0 µg.[17][18].FishesContains about 0.5-30 µg[17]..In addition to the liver and tongue, livestock foods contain 0.3-2.5 µg of meat, 0.9 µg of raw eggs, and 0.3 µg of normal milk.[17].

Vitamin B from plants12Ingestion

Vitamin B12Is rarely found in grains, potatoes, sugars, legumes, vegetables and fruits[17]..Exceptionally, vitamin B in vegetables12"Multivitamin B" which was absorbed by the radish sprouts12Kaiware ”was developed and contains 6.8 µg[19][20].

Also, vitamin B12For vegetarians who tend to run outSeaweedIs controversial as to whether it is an effective source of intake.

According to the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, which is published by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, seaweed is vitamin B.12Is said to contain[21]..Vitamin B of seaweed listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan12The content is a value measured by a microbial method that requires low measurement accuracy and skill, not an automatic analysis method based on the chemiluminescent immunoassay that has become the mainstream in recent years.[22]..Vitamin B of multiple algae on the market12As a result of measuring the content by the microbial method and the chemiluminescent method, vitamin B containing a large amount of Sujiaonori, Susabinori, and Chlorella.12Most of the physiologically effective B vitamins12Although it is reference data because it is not for humans, vitamin B12In experiments with deficient rats, these seaweeds were vitamin B12Reported to be a valid source[23][24].

On the other hand, according to a report from an overseas vegetarian site that examined multiple documents in 2002, dried seaweed is vitamin B.12For a treatise that concludes that it will be a source ofTempeh, Raw seaweed, only coccolithophores are vitamin B12There are also reports that it should be further studied to see if it is a reliable source of intake.[25][26]..Japanese researchers say that there is no culture of eating algae abroad, so algae vitamin B using improper drying methods.12Has been reported to be physiologically inactive.[24].

In a 1995 study by Hidetaka Suzuki, a study of six children aged 4 to 10 years with a strict brown rice vegetarian diet of 7 to 14 years consumed 6 to 1 g of seaweed per day. If so, control group and B vitamins12Since there is no significant difference in values ​​etc., even children who eat strict brown rice vegetarian diet can eat seaweed to get vitamin B12Report that it can prevent deficiency of[27]..This study is serum vitamin B12It is the measurement result of only the value and MCV (mean corpuscular volume).According to reports from overseas vegetarian sites, serum vitamin B12The value is vitamin B12Harmful B vitamins that can exacerbate deficiency12Analogs are also B vitamins12Urine methylmalonic acid should be investigated, as eating seaweed is vitamin B12He argued that he disagreed with the paper's conclusion that it was a source of stakes, because there was no statistically significant difference but no improvement.[25][26].

In a 2003 study of 6 elementary, junior high and high school vegetarians (4 males and 2 females) who had a stricter brown rice diet than after birth, Hidetaka Suzuki found 1 to 0 grams of seaweed per day. Two people who were taking vitamin B in the body12Although urinary methylmalonic acid increased, which indicates a decrease in urinary methylmalonic acid, 1 people who consumed 4 g or more of seaweed per day did not show an increase in urinary methylmalonic acid, so 4 g of seaweed daily. By taking the above, vitamin B12It was suggested that it would be a source of[28].


Vitamin B12Is specificEubacteriaas well as the ArchaeabyProkaryotesProduced naturally only by multicellular or unicellularEukaryoteClaimed not to have been produced by[29][30].PropionibacteriumThe bacterial species of is vitamin B12Is deeply involved in the production of vitamins and metabolism by the same vitaminsPropionic acidCan be produced[3].Human capitalAnd some of the other animalsIntestinal bacteriaSynthesized byIntrinsic factorVitamin B associated with12Is absorbedileumFarther from the sitecolonWith vitamin B12Is produced, so humans can get vitamin B made in the large intestine.12Can not absorb enough[31]. But,,sheeplikeRuminantVitamin B produced by culturing bacteria in the rumen and reticulum12Can be absorbed in the small intestine[31]..Ruminant intestinal bacteria are vitamin B12The animal has a sufficient amount to producecobaltMust be provided to the bacteria[32].

Has no ruminant stomach other than ruminantsHerbivorousGrazing animals are B vitamins12And the bacteria that produce it will be ingested from the soil attached to the roots of the plants they eat.[33].

Excess disease

Vitamin B12Is water-soluble, so it is believed that there is no concern about hyperplasia.However, vitamin B in plasma12The higher the concentration, the more hematologicalcancer,smokingRelated cancer,DrinkingThere was a high risk of developing certain cancers, such as related cancers, within a yearCohort studyThe results of the survey have been reported.[34].


Vitamin B12Deficiency is involved in the supply and absorption of vitaminsprotein, Abnormality of the enzyme that utilizes this vitamin, etc. are involved in very complicated factors.Vitamin B12Daily requirements are extremely low (2.6)µg).Vitamin B12The required amount for a normal adult is 1.0 µg / day, and the required intake is 50 µg / day with an absorption rate of 2.0%.The recommended intake is 1.2 µg / day multiplied by 2.4.[35].

Since it is stored in large quantities in the liver and muscles, even if absorption is impaired due to total gastrectomy, it will be appropriated by cyanocobalamin stored in the body, so it will take 3-5 years for deficiency to appear.[36]..Vitamin B after total gastrectomy12Is an essential protein for absorption ofIntrinsic factorVitamin B because of the permanent loss of secretory capacity12Prone to develop deficiency.Also,Vegetables-fruitExtremely rare as it is rarely included in the classVegetarianBut it can lead to deficiency.

Pernicious anemia due to impaired DNA synthesis, etc.

Vitamin B12Or, if folic acid is deficient and folic acid is not catalytically reproduced, DNA synthesis will be abnormal and cell maturation will not be performed normally.MegaloblastPresentErythroblastNot only,GranulocytesSystemMegakaryocyteSystem, and other cells, especially proliferatingEpithelial,spermHas the same effect on cells[37][38].. Vitamin B12Causes insufficient absorption ofAtrophic gastritisThen macrocytic hyperpigmented anemia (Mean corpuscular volume(MCH) high value) may be observed[39]..Total gastrectomy and advancedAtrophic gastritisThen, because of the lack of intrinsic factor, vitamin B12Absorption disorder occurs.Erythrocyte DNA synthesis is inhibited and macrocytic anemia (MegaloblastSexual anemia) may occur,Pernicious anemiaIt is called[40].

Subacute associative spinal degeneration

Subacute associative spinal degeneration(ICD-10: E53.8) isSpinal cordIt is a disease in which the lateral and posterior cords of the body are damaged at the same time.Lateral and posterior cordsMyelin sheathFormation is inhibited.It is called associativity because it is hindered at the same time.


Vitamin B12Deficiency is a potentially serious and irreversible disorderbrainNerveCan be brought to.Vitamin B12Deficiency ismania,Mental illness,fatigue,Memory disorder, Nervousness,Depression,AtaxiaAnd may cause symptoms of personality change[41][42][43].

Vitamin B, according to a study conducted by Oxford University on 61 people aged 87 to 10712The lowest concentration group has been reported to be 6 times more likely to cause brain contraction[44].


Folic acid,BetaineAlong withautismCyanocobalamin is an appropriate B vitamin, although it has been reported that supplementation to children is effective.12is not.CoenzymeIs a typeMethylcobalaminIs better to use[45].

Injections and patches are used when gastrointestinal absorption is inadequate, but there is evidence that injections and patches are not necessary for high-dose oral intakes of 0.5 to 1 mg and above.It is said that even pernicious anemia can be sufficiently treated by oral administration.[46][47][48]..Despite these claims, vitamin B12Is not effectively absorbed from the intestine unless it is linked to the intrinsic factor, so the amount of intrinsic factor secreted becomes a limiting factor, and vitamin B is about 2 μg per meal.12Absorption is saturated[13][14]..Therefore, vitamin B12If the absorption mechanism mediated by intrinsic factor secreted from the stomach is saturated, it will not be absorbed even if it is ingested excessively from the diet.Even when a large amount (500 μg or more) of cyanocobalamin is orally administered, only about 1% of the dose is absorbed independently of the intrinsic factor.[35].Helicobacter pyloriIntrinsic factor secretion disorder due to atrophic gastritis due to infection, etc. and associated vitamin B12If you suspect that you have poor absorption, vitamin B12Sublingual administration and absorption of these tablets is also conceivable.

Genetic disorders associated with vitamin B12

Methylmalonic acidemia

MammalSo, the metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids and someamino acidIn metabolismPropionic acidIs generated.With this propionic acidCoAWas tied togetherPropionyl CoAIt is,BiotinDependent enzymePropionyl CoA carboxylaseBy (S)-Methylmalonyl CoAConverted to (R)-Methylmalonyl CoAIs converted to. (R)-Methylmalonyl CoAMethylmalonyl CoA MutaseByCitric acid circuitMetabolized inSuccinyl CoAThis enzyme is used to catalyze the transfer of carbon-carbon bonds.Cobalamin(Vitamin B12) Is required.Lack of methylmalonyl CoA mutase results in the accumulation of methylmalonic acidblood OfpHCauses reduced methylmalonic acidemia[49].Newborn mass screeningIt is one of.


Essential amino acidsone ofMethionineHomocystine is produced by a congenital deficiency of cystathionine-β synthase (cystathionine-β-synthase), which is a metabolic enzyme of the intermediate product homocystin.CystineIs not converted to, but is accumulated in a large amount in the body and excreted in the urine.Congenital amino acid metabolic disorderIt is one of.In the methionine metabolic pathway, a part of the intermediate product homocystin is reduced to methionine by methionine synthase (methionine synthase) in accordance with the accumulation of methionine due to poor metabolism, so that the blood methionine concentration increases.It is one of the newborn mass screenings.

安全 性

Vitamin B12High dose intake may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.[50][51]


注 釈


  1. ^ Yoshinori Kitani, Katsuhiko Takeda, Hisashi Koike, "Examination of quantification conditions by atomic absorption spectrometry of cyanocobalamin preparations"Analytical Chemistry," Vol. 1973, No. 22, 6, p.719-723, two:10.2116 / bunsekikagaku.22.719, Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
  2. ^ "About the harm of tobacco". www.hokenkai.or.jp. 2021/1/29Browse.
  3. ^ a b c Kiatpapan P., Murooka Y. Genetic manipulation system in propionibacteria. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 93 (1) (pp 1-8), 2002
  4. ^ Introduction of research contents of Matsuoka Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Teikyo University of Science
  5. ^ Cyanocobalamin - Lady Shuttleboat・ Additive Dictionary
  6. ^ Argument for providing B12 with food fortification of folate, since otherwise folate will correct hematological symptoms while leaving neurological symptoms to progress
  7. ^ a b Banerjee RV, Matthews RG (1990). “Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase”. The FASEB Journal 4 (5): 1450-9. PMID 2407589. 
  8. ^ Wickramasinghe SN (1995). “Morphology, biology and biochemistry of cobalamin- and folate-deficient bone marrow cells”. Baillière's Clinical Haematology 8 (3): 441-59. two:10.1016 / S0950-3536 (05) 80215-X. PMID 8534956. 
  9. ^ Naidich MJ, Ho SU (2005). “Case 87: Subacute combined degeneration”. Radiology 237 (1): 101-5. two:10.1148 / radiol.2371031757. PMID 16183926. 
  10. ^ Fumio Watanabe "Basics of Vitamin B12" Modern physician 2007; 27: 1213-5
  11. ^ Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B12. In: Institute of Medicine, ed. Dietary reference intakes: for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. National Academy Press , Washington DC, 1998: 306–56.
  12. ^ Watanabe F. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavalilability. Exp Biol Med 2007; 232: 1266–74.
  13. ^ a b Scott JM (January 1997). “Bioavailability of vitamin B12”. Eur J Clin Nutr 51 Suppl 1: S49-53. PMID 902348. 
  14. ^ a b Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G (October 1968). “Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor”. Acta Med Scand 184 (4): 247-58. PMID 5751528. 
  15. ^ el Kholty S, Gueant JL, Bressler L, et al. (November 1991). “Portal and biliary phases of enterohepatic circulation of corrinoids in humans”. Gastroenterology 101 (5): 1399-408. PMID 1936810. 
  16. ^ Vitamin B12 commentary -"Health food" safety and efficacy information (National Institute of Health and Nutrition
  17. ^ a b c d XNUMXth revision supplement Japanese food standard composition table(Ministry of education)
  18. ^ Hidetaka Suzuki "Complete vegetarian diet and vitamin B_12 deficiency: Nori is an effective source of vitamin B_12 in a complete vegetarian diet"Osaka Social Service Research" Vol.4 (20031220), pp19-25
  19. ^ Japan's first vitamin B12Contains vegetables "Multivitamin B12Succeeded in mass production of "Kaiware" and started shipping (Kingdom of Sprout, June 2004, 6 Press)
  20. ^ "Hiroshima University and Murakami Farm Co., Ltd. jointly develop radish sprouts containing vitamin B12 (Hiroshima University January 2004, 1)
  21. ^ XNUMXth revision supplement Japanese food standard composition table (Ministry of education)
  22. ^ Katsumi Shibata Basic research on Japanese water-soluble vitamin requirements (13 Health Science Research Fund)
  23. ^ Masao Abe "Development of a New Quantitative Method for Vitamin B12 in Foods and Nutritional Evaluation of Vitamin B12" "Osaka Prefecture University Academic Bulletin", Extra Issue 1, March 2001, 3, pp27-30
  24. ^ a b Fumio Watanabe "Characteristics and nutritional evaluation of vitamin B12 contained in edible algae" "Vitamin" Vol.
  25. ^ a b Jack Norris (May 2002). “Vitamin B12: Are You Getting It?”. Vegan Outreach. As of April 2003, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2017/1/24Browse. The commentary personal site,Seaweed and vitamin B12
  26. ^ a b Jack Norris (Registered Dietitian Director, Vegan Outreach) (October 2015). “B12 in Tempeh, Seaweeds, Organic Produce, and Other Plant Foods”. VeganHealth.org. 2017/1/24Browse.
  27. ^ Hidetaka Suzuki, "Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Strict Brown Rice Vegetarians," Journal if Nutritional Science and Vitaminolgy, Vol. 41, No. 6, December 1995, pp12-587
  28. ^ Hidetaka Suzuki "Hidetaka Suzuki Complete vegetarian diet and vitamin B12 deficiency (Nori is an effective source of vitamin B12 in a complete vegetarian diet)"Osaka Social Services Research" December 2003, 12, pp.20-19
  29. ^ Moore, SJ; Warren, MJ (1 June 2012). “The anaerobic biosynthesis of vitamin B12.”. Biochemical Society transactions 40 (3): 581–6. two:10.1042 / BST20120066. PMID 22616870. 
  30. ^ Graham, Ross M .; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J. (2009). “18: Vitamin B12: Biosynthesis of the Corrin Ring”. In Warren, Martin J .; Smith, Alison G .. Tetrapyrroles Birth, Life and Death. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York. P. 286. two:10.1007 / 978-0-387-78518-9_18. ISBN 978-0-387-78518-9 
  31. ^ a b Gille, D; Schmid, A (February 2015). “Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.”. Nutrition reviews 73 (2): 106–15. two:10.1093 / nutrit / nuu011. PMID 26024497. 
  32. ^ McDowell, Lee Russell (2008). Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. (2nd ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 525, 539. ISBN 9780470376683. https://books.google.com/books?id=UR9MnQ806LsC&pg=PA525 
  33. ^ Rooke, Jennifer (October 2013, 10). “Do carnivores need Vitamin B12 supplements?”. Baltimore Post Examiner. http://baltimorepostexaminer.com/carnivores-need-vitamin-b12-supplements/2013/10/30 
  34. ^ Arendt JF, et al. "Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels as a marker for cancer: a population-based cohort study."Journal of the National Cancer Institute; 2013 Dec 4; 105 (23): p 1799-805. DOI: 10.1093 / jnci / djt315, PMID 24249744
  35. ^ a b "Vitamin B12"Japanese Dietary Intake Standards" (2010 edition)] Pp159-161
  36. ^ "Merck Manual Medical Encyclopedia" "Vitamin B12"
  37. ^ Shigetaka Asano, Yasuo Ikeda, Takashi Uchiyama, "Miwa Hematology" Bunkodo, 2006,ISBN-4 8306-1419-6, P.974
  38. ^ Satoshi Ogawa, "Internal Medicine Book" Vol.6 Revised 7th Edition, Nakayama Shoten, 2009,ISBN 978-4-521-73173-5, P.72
  39. ^ Akira Matsuda, "2. Megaloblastic anemia"Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, 2006, Vol. 95, No. 10, p.2010-2015, two:10.2169 / naika.95.2010
  40. ^ Takako Kuriyama, Takeshi Naito, Tetsuo Hashida and others,A case of juvenile pernicious anemia type II that developed at the age of 12 "Journal of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology" 1998 Vol. 12, No. 5, p.359-363, two:10.11412 / jjph1987.12.359
  41. ^ “Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency”. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness 2 (1). (2005). two:10.5580 / 5a9. https://ispub.com/IJNW/2/1/4476. 
  42. ^ “Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency”. The Israel Medical Association Journal 3 (9): 701–703. (Sep 2001). PMID 11574992. http://www.ima.org.il/IMAJ/ViewArticle.aspx?year=2001&month=09&page=701. 
  43. ^ "Pernicious anemia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". National Institutes of Health: National Library of Medicine. 2013/12/29Browse.
  44. ^ Going veggie shrinks the brain (The Courier-Mail, September 12 2008)
  45. ^ "From the scene of Asperger's syndrome treatment" supervised by Masutomo Miyao, Publishing Hall Book Club, 2009, p. 81.
  46. ^ Bolaman Z, Kadikoylu G, Yukselen V, Yavasoglu I, Barutca S, Senturk T (2003). “Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study”. Clin Ther 25 (12): 3124-34. two:10.1016 / S0149-2918 (03) 90096-8. PMID 14749150. 
  47. ^ Lane LA, Rojas-Fernandez C (2002). “Treatment of vitamin b (12)-deficiency anemia: oral versus parenteral therapy”. Ann Pharmacother 36 (7-8): 1268-72. two:10.1345 / aph.1A122. PMID 12086562. 
  48. ^ Butler CC et al. (2006). “Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials”. Fam Pract 23 (3): 279-85. two:10.1093 / fampla / cml008. PMID 16585128. 
  49. ^ "Methylmalonic acidemia". Report of the Research Group for Overcoming Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIntractable Disease Medical Research Foundation / Intractable Disease Information Center. 2010/10/31Browse.
  50. ^ “Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12”. Journal of the American Medical Association (19). (2009). two:10.1001 / jama.2009.1622. PMID 19920236. 
  51. ^ “Long-Term, Supplemental, One-Carbon Metabolism–Related Vitamin B Use in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 35 (30). (2017). two:10.1200 / JCO.2017.72.7735. PMID 28829668. 

Related item

外部 リンク


Back to Top