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🏥 | Hirosaki City New Corona Vaccination Countermeasures Office Increased staff


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Hirosaki City New Corona Vaccination Countermeasures Office Increased staff

 
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In Hirosaki City, vaccination for people aged 65 and over has already begun.
 

Hirosaki City has increased the number of staff in the Vaccination Countermeasures Office from the XNUMXst in order to promptly promote the vaccination of the new corona. → Continue reading

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vaccination

vaccination(Vaccination,British: vaccination) IssickAgainstImmunologyTo attachantigenmaterial(vaccine) Administered (Vaccination) What to do.VaccinationBy pathogeninfectionbyIllness,Obstacle,DeathCan be prevented or tempered[1].. furtherEpidemicThe simplest and most effective way to preventCost performanceHighPreventive medicine.

JapanInVaccination methodDefines as "injecting or inoculating a human body with a vaccine that has been confirmed to be effective in preventing the disease in order to obtain an immune effect against the disease" (the vaccination method) Article 2 paragraph 1).

The substance administered by inoculation is a pathogen (live, but less virulent)Bacteria-ウ イ ル ス), a dead or inactivated pathogen, or a purified substance such as a protein.

WHOAccording to the current world, vaccination avoids the death of 200 to 300 million people.[1].. However, if the vaccination rate is further improved, the death of 150 million people can be avoided.[1].

History

Human beings willing to get another kind of infectionsickThe first example trying to mitigatesmallpox.B.C.Around 1000,IndiaVaccination method(Variolation method) is practiced[2], Of smallpox patientspusTo a healthy person to cause mild onsetImmunologyWas being done. This smallpox method18st centuryIn the first halfThe United Kingdom, ThenAmericaWas also brought to.

1718 years,Mary Wortley MontagueWrote about the Turkish custom of vaccination with liquids from small-pox smallpox and gave similar vaccinations to their children.[3].The United KingdomThe doctorEdward JennerIt is,VacciniaAs to whether the vaccine can be used to generate immunity against human smallpox,1796Have tested at least 6 people in the last few years. The six are unidentified English (around 6), Mrs Zebel (German, around 1771), Mr. Jensen (German, around 1772), and Benjamin Jestie (English, 1770). Mrs. Rendall (English, c. 1774) and Peter Prett (German, 1782).[4][5].

The word vaccination was first used1796,Edward JennerBy. After thisLouis PasteurAdvanced the concept of vaccination with advanced research in microbiology. The vaccination (from the Latin vacca meaning Vaccination "cattle") derives its name from the first vaccine (vaccine) that infects cattle.Cowpox virusso,smallpoxIs less symptomatic, harder to cure and deadlysmallpoxBecause it gave a certain amount of immunity to[4][5].

For vaccination attempts, there are ethics, politics, safety, religion, etc.en: Vaccine controversy) Has been around since the early days. With early successMandatoryVaccination has been widely accepted by the government and a large-scale vaccination campaign has been carried out, which has significantly reduced the incidence of many diseases across many regions.

the purpose

To make antibodies against pathogens and boost immune function

Side effects

in Japan1948of"Vaccination methodSince then, compulsory vaccination and mass vaccination have expanded, but they have not been carried out in a safe manner.To give an example1964ToIbarakiInsufficient interviews, inoculation of multiple people without changing needles,MASKSInoculation, infusion of inaccurate amount, etc. were performed without[6]..In Japan, the act of inoculating multiple people without changing needles was widespread.Type B,Hepatitis CIs a frequent cause[7],It is believed that( Iatrogenic diseaseSee also).

Substances used

Inactivated vaccine

Lived with sufficiently reduced toxicityウ イ ル スInoculate.ウ イ ル スBreed, but their speed is slow. Boosting is not necessary so much because it propagates after inoculation and continues to exist as an antigen. This vaccine is produced by leaving a less virulent type of virus in tissue culture, inducing gene mutation, or removing a specific gene that exerts virulence. This major vaccine has a risk of recurrent toxicity, but removal of specific genes is relatively less risky.

Subunit vaccine

As an antigen shown to the immune systemウ イ ル スDo not inoculate sex substances.ウ イ ル スSpecific inproteinThere is a method such as separating and inoculating. The weakness of this method is that the separated proteins may be altered, in which case antibodies different from those corresponding to the virus will be produced.

Other subunit vaccines include recombinant vaccines. This is a method of injecting a protein gene of a target virus into another virus. This second virus expresses protein information but is not at risk of disease. This kind of vaccine is nowViral hepatitisIs used forEbola virus,HIVIt is being actively researched to make a vaccine against a virus that is difficult to vaccinate.[8].

Vaccination against humans

The vaccination situation in the world is as follows.

Type of vaccine

Live vaccine
A weakened virulence of a living pathogen. ,tuberculosis,Measles(Measles),Rubella,Mumps,Varieg(Mizubouso),yellow fever Such.Due to the inclusion of live pathogens, inoculated pathogens may cause mild symptoms (side reactions).
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 4 weeks (medium 27 days) or more.
Inactivated vaccine
Only the components of the pathogen that died and lost its toxicity.Hepatitis B,, pediatric,Pertussis,Polio,Japanese encephalitis,influenza,Hepatitis A,Rabiesetc.vaccineThe effect of is weak, so multiple doses are often required.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.
Toxoid
The toxin produced by the fungus is taken out and detoxified.diphtheria,tetanus(Hashoufu) etc. As with inactivated vaccines, the vaccines are less effective and often require multiple doses. There is also the idea that it is not strictly included in the vaccine because it does not make antibodies that attack the pathogen itself.
After vaccination, give another vaccine at intervals of 1 weeks (medium 6 days) or more.

History

The practice of vaccination is believed to have its origins in ancient India, around 1000 BC.[9]Ayurvedic textbook Sact'eya Grantham was described about vaccination, according to French scholar Henri Marie Husson in Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales. It has been reported.[10] Around 200 BC, vaccinations were carried out even in ancient China[5].. Scholar Ole Lund writes: "The oldest documented example of vaccination is from 17th-century India and China, where powdered scabs of people with smallpox were used to prevent the disease. In the olden days, smallpox was a universal disease that killed 20% to 30% of infected people, smallpox accounting for 18% to 8% of deaths in several 20th-century European countries. Professor of Pathology, (en: Almroth Wright) Conducted an experiment led by a professional at Netley Hospital and shaped the form of vaccination for posterity. The results of his experiment led to the development of further vaccinations in Europe[11].

Mandatory

In order to avoid the spread of illness, at different times, states and institutions have created laws that mandate vaccination for all. For example, the 1853 law mandated smallpox vaccinations throughout England and Wales, and fined those who did not comply. Currently, the US state-wide vaccination law requires public vaccination before school. Most other countries have similar vaccinations.

Since the earliest vaccinations beginning in the 19th century, the legalization of vaccination has caused backlash from various groups. These groups are collectively known as anti-vaccinationists, who oppose vaccination from an ethical, political, hygienic, religious, and other perspectives. Common opinions are that “compulsory vaccination is excessive interference with individual problems” and “recommended vaccination is not sufficiently safe”.[12].. Modern vaccination laws provide exceptions to people with immunodeficiencies, people who are allergic to the vaccine, and those who strongly oppose it.[13].. In addition,Yogyakarta PrinciplesIn the 18th principle of "Protection against medical abuse" ofHIV infectionUnethical or unintentional vaccines forAntibacterial agentGuaranteeing protection from the administration of "(18th principle, item (d))".

Japanese vaccination

Routine vaccination

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. For the vaccination costs for the target age, public funds are provided by the local government, and regarding A-type diseases,Local governmentMost of them are free of charge (administrative measures vaccinations, and there are also local governments that pay a fee). In case of health damage due to vaccination approved in Japan, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

[] Name of vaccine

Type A disease --For the purpose of preventing the outbreak of the disease and the spread of the disease in the population, the vaccination target or its guardian is obliged to make efforts for vaccination.
diphtheria-Social Services Lizard-tetanus-Polio(Acute poliomyelitis)[Four kinds of mixed vaccine, DPT-IPV],measles(Measles)rubella(Three days measles)MR vaccine],Japanese encephalitis,tuberculosis(BCG),Varieg,Hib, PediatricPneumococcusInfection【Pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13】,Cervical cancerHPV vaccine],Hepatitis B, Rotavirus[15]
Type B disease -Mainly focused on individual prevention. No effort required.
People over the age of 65, or between the ages of 60 and under 65, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory problems,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeIf you are suffering frominfluenza.. In the case of people aged 65 or over, under 60 years of age and under 65 years of age, with severe heart, kidney, or respiratory disorders, or those with AIDS and weakened immunity, pneumococcal infection [23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV23】.

Temporary inoculation

Vaccination methodWill be inoculated based on. When the prefectural governor finds that there is an urgent need to prevent the spread, the prefectural governor may instruct the mayor to do so. Municipalities will subsidize the vaccination costs for the target ages, and in principle, the A-type diseases will be free. If health damage occurs due to vaccination, there is a relief system under Article 11 of the Vaccination Law.[14].

Type A disease -The vaccination target person or their guardian is required to make vaccination efforts.
smallpoxIn addition, type A diseases are targeted.
Inoculation was started in 2021.New coronavirus OfvaccineIs carried out in the form of imposing an obligation to make efforts for inoculation[16].
Type B disease -No vaccination effort is imposed.
HXNUMXNXNUMX influenza(As a single vaccineNew influenza measures special measures law2011 years from 23 (5)[17].. A(H2011N12)pdm1 has been included in seasonal influenza vaccine since FY1/09[18]. )

Optional vaccination

Vaccination is voluntary by the vaccinated person (or their parental authority, etc.), which is not stipulated in the Vaccination Law.

All vaccination costs will be borne by the owner. If health damage occurs due to vaccination,Relief system for adverse drug reactionsIs applied.

Mumps(Mumps),Hepatitis A, For adultsPneumococcus,Rabies,Weil's disease Autumn darknessIn addition to the above, other vaccinations other than the age groups subject to regular vaccination are also optional vaccinations.

Precautions for vaccination

According to the Vaccination Regulations, those who have a clear fever, those who have a serious acute illness, and allergies or anaphylaxis due to the components of the vaccination solution for vaccination related to the disease are revealed by the test. Those who have become ineligible are considered unsuitable and cannot be vaccinated. Pregnant persons will not be vaccinated for acute poliomyelitis, measles and rubella.

In addition, those who are known to have basic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, blood diseases and developmental disorders, those who have fever within 2 days after the previous vaccination, or systemic rashes, etc. Of allergic allergies, having a history of convulsions in the past, having been previously diagnosed with immunodeficiency, or being allergic to the components of the inoculum to be vaccinated Some people are obliged to take vaccinations carefully based on the judgment of the doctor.

Vaccination health damage relief system

Occurrence of health damage due to side effects of vaccination is seen, although it is extremely rare. A system for prompt relief when a causal relationship between vaccination and health damage is recognized, regardless of whether or not there is negligence in the vaccination.[19].

  • Vaccination based on the Vaccination Law (=RegularInoculation,ExtraordinaryIf the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare finds that the health damage has been caused by the
    • Benefits are provided by the municipality.
    • Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareIn the certification of, the causal relationship is examined by a disease/disability certification examination committee composed of a third party.
    • If you receive medical treatment at a medical institution, you will be required to pay the medical expenses and your expenses.
    • When disability remains, child disability pension or disability pension is paid.
    • In case of death, funeral fees and lump-sum death allowance of approximately 4,300 million yen (in case of influenza vaccine, lump-sum payment of surviving family of approximately 700 million yen, survivor pension of approximately 240 million yen (up to 10 years)) will be provided.
    • The cost of relief payment is 1/2 for the country, 1/4 for the prefecture, and 1/4 for the municipality.

Incidentally,anyAs for other health hazards due to vaccination, the drug side effect damage relief system is applied. It is based on the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, an incorporated administrative agency, rather than the Vaccinations Act.

  • Established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and decided after discussions at the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council, which is composed of external experts.
    • Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) Is provided.
    • If you receive medical treatment in hospital, you will be provided with medical expenses and medical allowance. Payment will be provided in case of disability and death.
    • Benefits are set for each type, and there is also a deadline for billing.
    • Contribution from the licensed drug manufacturing and marketing companies, etc. shall be paid for the relief payment. Half of PMDA's administrative expenses are subsidies from the national government.

Vaccinations and laws (valley problems)

There is a legal structure to remedy victims whose lives and bodies have been seriously damaged by vaccination.ConstitutionIt is a problem above.17 articleTheory,29 articleParagraph 3 Interpretation theory, Article 29 Paragraph 3 Of course, interpretation theory,25 articleTheory,13 articleTheories are claimed.

Recommended vaccination sequence

National Institute of Infectious DiseasesKnow VPD,NPOVaccination schedules have been announced by the Society for the Protection of Children, the Japan Association for Primary Care, and the Japan Society for Pediatrics.

Also, at the NPO Corporation Children's Association,iPhone-AndroidSmartphoneThe vaccination scheduler app for Android is provided free of charge.

Simultaneous inoculation

``Simultaneous vaccination'' in which two or more types of vaccinations are given to one and the same person at the same time in one visit is once recognized as ``not good'' in Japan, and MHLW is "What doctors can do if they find it necessary"[20][21]However, in 2011, the Japanese Academy of Pediatrics proposed that "simultaneous vaccination is considered a necessary medical practice to protect Japanese children from diseases that can be prevented by vaccines".[21], In recent years, the number of doctors giving simultaneous vaccination has increased[22].

There is no limit to the number of combinations and

  1. Regular vaccination and voluntary vaccination
  2. Inactivated and live vaccines
  3. Live vaccines and live vaccines
  4. Injection and drink type vaccine

Can be safely inoculated simultaneously with all combinations of[23].. Some local governments and doctors have different vaccination methodsBCGOnly in the case of single vaccination without simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines[24][25].

Since a mixed vaccine contains several types of vaccine in one injection solution from the beginning, it can be said that it is a simultaneous vaccination in a broad sense.[23].

Italy vaccination

In Italy2017Than,Compulsory educationBefore receiving (up to 6 years old)Polio,diphtheria,tetanus,Hepatitis B,influenza,,,measles,rubella,Mumps,XNUMX days,chicken poxVaccinations have become mandatory[26].

Vaccination of animals

AnimalからPeopleTo be contagiousInfectious disease of animal origin(Zoonosis:Zoonosis(Also included in) and transmitted from humans to animalsZoonosisThere is vaccination for the purpose of preventing. Useful for wildlife conservation and industry家畜,Pet OfEpidemicThere are also vaccinations to prevent the spread of the disease.

Ministry of AgricultureVeterinary drug laboratory・Veterinary drug database[27]If you search for “vaccine” in, 2014 cases were registered as of December 12. But,Domestic animal infectious disease prevention methodIs a "law that stipulates the prevention of outbreaks of infectious diseases (infectious diseases) in livestock and the prevention of spread of livestock."And killDisposaldisinfectionHowever, there is no regulation regarding vaccination. "The prefectural governor, when necessary to prevent the spread of livestock infectious diseases, can have livestock quarantine officers inspect, inject, bathe or administer livestock by the methods specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ( Based on the Livestock Infectious Diseases Prevention Law Article 31)", the measures such as vaccination are different for each prefecture.[28].

on the other hand,Rabies Prevention LawSince it is regulated byDogThe owner of the dogRabies vaccineMust be vaccinated once a year (Article 1 of the Rabies Prevention Law).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Immunization coverage (Report). WHO. (2007-03). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs378/en/. 
  2. ^ Smallpox prevention[1]
  3. ^ Behbehani AM (1983). “The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease”. Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 455-509. PMID 6319980. http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6319980. 
  4. ^ a b Plett PC (2006). “[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner”] (German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219-32. PMID 17338405. http://lib.bioinfo.pl/meid:4459 2008/3/12Browse.. 
  5. ^ a b c Lombard M, Pastoret PP, Moulin AM (2007). “A brief history of vaccines and vaccination”. Rev Sci Tech. 26 (1): 29-48. PMID 17633292. 
  6. ^ Kenji Yoshihara "From Private Rage to Public Rage-Vaccine Evil as a Social Problem" p.112-114
  7. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun February 2000, 2 Article "Expanding hepatitis C, in areas where 9% are "positive""
  8. ^ Department of Veterinary Science & Microbiology at The University of Arizona Archived August 2003, 6, at the Wayback Machine. Vaccines by Janet M. Decker, PhD
  9. ^ Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten Strunge and Lundegaard, Claus (2005). Immunological Bioinformatics.MIT Press. ISBN 0262122804
  10. ^ Chaumeton, FP; FV Me`rat de Vaumartoise. Dictionaire des sciences me`dicales.Paris: CLF Panckoucke, 1812-1822, lvi (1821).
  11. ^ Curtin, Phillip (1998). "Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521598354
  12. ^ Wolfe R, Sharp L (2002). “Anti-vaccinationists past and present”. BMJ 325 (7361): 430-2. two:10.1136 / bmj.325.7361.430. PMID 12193361. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/430. 
  13. ^ Salmon, Daniel A et al.(2006) Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 367(9508):436-442.
  14. ^ a b Medical expenses public expenditure system for vaccination accidents(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Health and Welfare Bureau)
  15. ^ "From Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare to Rota vaccine regular vaccination from October, 20”. Mix online (October 2019, 10). 2020/8/14Browse.
  16. ^ "What is the vaccination method? Corona vaccine "special case of temporary vaccination"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2021, 4). 2021/6/8Browse.
  17. ^ Tuberculosis Infectious Disease Division, Health Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareOutline of Vaccination Law revision (establishment of new temporary vaccination, etc.)IASR, Vol. 32, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Disease Information Center, November 2011, pp. 11-331.
  18. ^ Influenza vaccine strain -National Institute of Infectious Diseases
  19. ^ Vaccination health damage relief systemMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  20. ^ Periodic vaccination procedure -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  21. ^ a b Japanese Pediatrics Association's approach to simultaneous vaccination
  22. ^ Vaccination> Simultaneous vaccination -Ariake Children's Clinic
  23. ^ a b Necessity and safety of simultaneous vaccination -Know VPD!
  24. ^ Vaccination of children -Koto Ward
  25. ^ vaccination -Hara Pediatric Clinic
  26. ^ Italy vaccinated to attend school AFP (December 2017, 5) Read December 20, 2017
  27. ^ Veterinary drug database -Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Veterinary Drug Laboratory
  28. ^ About livestock vaccines -Miyagi Prefectural Livestock Association

Related literature

  • Mikio Watanabe, "A Historical Consideration on Japan's Vaccination System," National Hygiene, Vol. 73, No. 6, Japan Society for National Hygiene, June 2010, pp. 6-243, two:10.3861 / jshhe.73.243.

Related item

外部 リンク

Hirosaki

Hirosaki(Hirosaki) isAomoriIn the westCityIs.First in japanMunicipal systemOne of the cities that enforced.Hirosaki Domain Ofcastle townDeveloped as, and still todayTsugaru districtAs the central city ofMunicipalitiesWith a population of about 30 (2010)Hirosaki metropolitan areaIs forming.Only in Aomori prefectureNational universityIsHirosaki UniversityIs installed.

Overview

In the populationAomori,Hachinohe CityThe third largest city in the prefecture after.Edo PeriodProspered as a castle town.In the Meiji eraarmyXNUMXth DivisionIs stationedMilitary capitalandOld system Hirosaki High SchoolIs locatedGakutoIt came to take on the character as.Second World WarLater, the XNUMXth Division was disbanded.Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceHirosaki GarrisonAlthough it is located, its function as a military city has been greatly reduced.on the other hand,New universityHowever, Hirosaki University was opened andprivate universityThere are also multiple locations (Hirosaki Gakuin UniversityEtc.), even nowAcademic cityContinues to maintain his personality.Also,Metrology specific cityIs specified in.

Hirosaki CityApplesProduction accounts for about 25% of the total in Japan[1], Aiming to create a city that is particular about apples. "Apple-colored town HIROSAKI"TaglineIn addition toApple PieWe are working on holding contests and creating maps of famous stores with the aim of making it a specialty.[1]. Also,Hirosaki ParkWill be held inHirosaki Sakura Festival,Hirosaki CastleIs known nationwide, "Town of castles, cherry blossoms and applesThe phrase "" has been used for a long time ("apple" is selected as the city tree and "sakura" is selected as the city flower).

In august, the countryImportant intangible folk cultural propertiesSpecified in "Hirosaki Neputa FestivalWill be held.With more than 100 million people every year, it is a summer festival that represents Hirosaki City.

Geography

climate

Hirosaki (1981-2010) climate
Month123456789101112Years
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F1.5
(34.7)
2.2
(36)
6.3
(43.3)
14.5
(58.1)
19.8
(67.6)
23.5
(74.3)
26.9
(80.4)
28.9
(84)
24.5
(76.1)
18.2
(64.8)
11.0
(51.8)
4.5
(40.1)
15.2
(59.4)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F−1.8
(28.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
1.9
(35.4)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
17.9
(64.2)
21.7
(71.1)
23.5
(74.3)
18.9
(66)
12.5
(54.5)
6.1
(43)
0.9
(33.6)
10.2
(50.4)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F−5.0
(23)
−4.8
(23.4)
−2.2
(28)
3.1
(37.6)
8.3
(46.9)
13.3
(55.9)
17.6
(63.7)
19.1
(66.4)
14.3
(57.7)
7.6
(45.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
5.9
(42.6)
Snowfall cm (inch)248
(97.6)
208
(81.9)
131
(51.6)
11
(4.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
20
(7.9)
142
(55.9)
748
(294.5)
Average monthlyDaylight hours57.078.5126.1183.3201.4175.0160.8181.8146.2141.489.158.01,597.5
Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency[2]

The highest summer temperature in Aomori prefecture is high, and sometimesExtremely hot dayIt may be recorded, but it is cooler in the morning and evening than in coastal areas such as Aomori City.Tropical nightHas not been recorded since 1999.

Maximum temperature extremum: 37.0(1978 8 年 月 日 3)

Minimum temperature extreme value: -16.2 ℃ (1978/2/17)

Deepest snowfall record: 153 cm (February 2013, 2)

Daily precipitation: 277 mm (August 1977, 8)

Most hot days: 4 days (1989)

Maximum number of midsummer days: 41 days (1994)

Winter dayMaximum number of days: 138 days (1984)

Adjacent municipalities

History

Until the Edo period

Mr. TsugaruGoverned byHirosaki Domain Ofcastle townFlourished as.

  • 1603(Keicho08 years) --Horikoshi Castle LordTsugaru TamanobuPlans to build a castle in Takaoka (Takaoka, now Hirosaki).
  • 1609(Keicho 14th year) --The second feudal lord due to the death of TamenobuShingaru TsugaruTakes over the castle construction plan.TamenobuBodhi TempleKakushuji TempleErected.
  • 1610(Keicho 15th year) --The construction of Takaoka Castle begins.
  • 1611(Keicho 16th year) --Takaoka Castle completed.Temples, vassals, and merchants migrate.
  • 1627(Kanei04 years)- LightningBy Takaoka CastleCastle towerIs on fire and insideGunpowderIgnite to big爆 発, 5th floor, 6th floor castle tower,Honmaru Palace,variousscaffoldBurn down.
  • 1628(Kanei05 years) --Takaoka is devoted to NobuhiraAmamiRenamed Hirosaki, named by the great priest.
  • 1650(Keian03 years) --Move the temple in Teramachi to the south side of Minami Tameike (due to the great fire in Teramachi in May of the previous year).
  • 1661(Kanbun4st year) ―― XNUMXth feudal lordNobumasa Tsugaru YamagaIntroductory to. On June 6, he entered Japan for the first time and started recording the clan's diary.
  • 1682(Tenwa02 years) --The Hinoguchi River (currently Hirosaki Castle Ruins Nishimoat) is fully accumulated, and the Komagoshi River (currently the Komagoshi River)Iwaki River) Make a straight line.
  • 1710(Hoei07 years) --Nobumasa died.By deathMt. IwakisanBuried at the foot of the mountain and built a shrine building Koshoreisha (MeijiFrom the first year TakateruTakaokaRenamed as).
  • 1808(culture05 years) -10stoneBe promoted to.
  • 1809(culture06 years)- Supporter OfKuroishi DomainIs established.
  • 1811(culture08 years) --The third floor turret (substitute for the castle tower) is completed.

From Meiji to World War II

After World War II

Administration

Mayor

Successive mayors[8]
NameInauguration dateRetirement dateRemarks
Former Mayor of Hirosaki
1Kikuchi KuroDecember 1889 (Meiji 22)December 1890 (Meiji 23)
2Yoshiren NagaoDecember 1890 (Meiji 23)December 1891 (Meiji 24)
3December 1891 (Meiji 24)December 1896 (Meiji 29)
4 - 5Yoshiren NagaoMay 1896, 29December 1905 (Meiji 38)
6Osanai TetsuyaMay 1905, 38December 1911 (Meiji 44)
7Kikuchi KuroMay 1911, 44August 1913 (Taisho 2)
8Ito ShigeruAugust 1913 (Taisho 2)August 1914 (Taisho 3)
9Yoshiren NagaoMay 1914, 3 (Taisho 3)August 1918 (Taisho 7)
10 - 11Ishigooka BunkichiMay 1918, 7 (Taisho 6)August 1926 (Taisho 15)
12May 1926, 15 (Taisho 6)December, 1930 (Showa 5)
13Sadaichi MiyadateMarch 1930, 5 (Showa 7)December, 1933 (Showa 8)
14March 1933, 8 (Showa 9)March 1934, 9 (Showa 6)
15Ishigooka BunkichiMarch 1934, 9 (Showa 6)March 1938, 13 (Showa 3)
16Hideo NyuuiMarch 1938, 13 (Showa 3)December, 1942 (Showa 17)
17Unjiro KuzuharaMarch 1942, 17 (Showa 7)March 1945, 20 (Showa 12)Die
18December, 1946 (Showa 21) December, 1947 (Showa 22)
Former Mayor of Hirosaki
19Tsutomu IwabuchiDecember, 1947 (Showa 22) December, 1951 (Showa 26)
20Sayome SakuradaMarch 1951, 26 (Showa 4)December, 1955 (Showa 30)
21Tsutomu IwabuchiMarch 1955, 30 (Showa 4)March 1956, 31 (Showa 1)Die
22 - 26March 1956, 31 (Showa 2)December, 1976 (Showa 51)
27 - 30Fukushi BunchiDecember, 1976 (Showa 51) 1992(Heisei 4)/ 2
31 - 34Takashi Kanazawa1992(Heisei 4)/ 22006(Heisei 18)/ 4
Mayor Hirosaki
12006 (Heisei 18)/4/162010 (Heisei 22)/4/15
2 - 3Noriyuki Kasai2010 (Heisei 22)/4/162018 (Heisei 30)/4/15
4Hiroshi Sakurada2018 (Heisei 30)/4/16Incumbent

Mayoral election

In this section,JIS X 0213: Contains the characters specified in 2004 (3rd character of Soma Soichi) (Details).

2018(Heisei30 years)May 4 Final turnout:53.40%

Candidate nameThisPolitical partyRecommendVotes
Hiroshi SakuradaWinningIndependent44,603
Noriyuki KasaiIndependent28,739
Satoshi HatayamaIndependent4,537

2014(26)May 4 Final turnout:38.35%

Candidate nameThisPolitical partyRecommendVotes
Noriyuki KasaiWinningIndependent45,315
Hironori ChibaJapan Communist Party10,165

2010(22)May 4 Final turnout:58.06%

Candidate nameThisPolitical partyRecommendVotes
Noriyuki KasaiWinningIndependent51,699
Soma KouichiIndependent34,314

Government building

  • Hirosaki City Hall
    • Iwaki Government Building (formerly Iwaki Town Hall)
    • Soma Government Building (formerly Soma Village Office)

Branch office / branch office

  • Higashimeya branch office
  • Funazawa branch office
  • Takasugi branch office
  • Susono branch office
  • Shinwa branch office
  • Ishikawa branch office
  • Citizen's Division Station Branch
  • Citizen's Division Joto Branch

public relations

  • PR magazine
    • Public relations Hirosaki[9]
    • Agriculture Hirosaki[10]
    • News from the city council[11]
  • PR program

legislation

City council

In this section,JIS X 0213: Contains the characters specified in 2004 (the second character of Juichi Ozaki) (Details).
This section includes some computers andBrowsing softwareCharacters that cannot be displayed with (○ The first character of Tomomi Tani is a high variant (Hashigodaka)) is included.(Details.
  • Constant number: 28 people[13]
  • Term: 2019 (ReiwaFirst Year) May 5th-1 (2023th year of Reiwa) May 5th
  • Chair: Kazue Kiyono (Kimiaki Kiyo, 7th term)
  • Vice-chairman: Keiji Odagiri (Kimiaki Kiyo, 4th term)
Parliamentary nameNumber of seatsMember name (◎ is representative)
Sowakai7◎ Juichi Ozaki, Hirohide Makinae, Taro Nomura, Takahiro Kimura, Kei Ishiyama, Masaki Ebina, Sota Fukushi
Kiba Kimiaki6◎ Tsurugaya Keiichi, Shimoyama Fumio, Kiyono Kazue, Kudo Mitsushi, Odagiri Keiji, Tonosaki Katsuyasu
Koshinkai4◎ Kenichi Ichido, Takashi Miyamoto, Gen Tanaka, Akio Mikami
Japan Communist Party3◎ Akio Koshi, Hisashi Ishida, Yuichi Konishi
Kokai3◎ Takeshi Matsuhashi, Tetsu Sato, Go Saito
Sakura future2◎ Shoichi Imaizumi, Hiroyuki Takeuchi
Independent3Chizuru Ishioka, Takashi Sakamoto, Daisuke Narita

On September 2012, 9, on the last day of the September regular meeting of the city council, the fixed number was changed from 21.28The draft ordinance was passed.The constant change has been applied since the 2015 city council election[13].

Aomori Prefectural Assembly (Hirosaki City constituency)

In this section,JIS X 0213: Contains the characters specified in 2004 (3rd character of Soma Soichi) (Details).
NameParliamentary nameNumber of wins
Yukito OkamotoLDP5
Satoru KawamuraSeiwakai4
Harumi AndoJapan Communist Party4
SaitoLDP3
Masato TanikawaLDP2
Takashi TsurugayaDemocratic Union1

As of 2019 year 5 month 1 day.

House of Representatives

Representative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
Kimura JiroLDP1Constituency

Economy

Commercial

Maruesu Housewife's ShopAfter closing, some stores in Hirosaki City were taken over by Universe (U Mart).

Media

Financial institution

bank

Policy financial institution

Cooperative financial institution

Securities company

Consumer cooperative

Agriculture:

  • Apples --"Tree" in Hirosaki City.The city hall has a department with the name of an apple, such as the Apple Agriculture Division.
  • Rice

Agricultural cooperative

free paper

  • VIVA Hirosaki (discontinued in 2014)

Post

Japan Post operates a postal service in the city.The following is a list of bases in the city of Japan Post.

Directly operated post office

  • Hirosaki Post Office[Collection and delivery station] (84002)
  • Susono Post Office [Collection and Delivery Office] (84062)
  • Soma Post Office[Collection/delivery station] (84080)
  • Iwaki Post Office [Collection and Delivery Office] (84083)
  • Hirosaki Honcho Post Office (84041)
  • Hirosaki Tomita Post Office (84058)
  • Kuniyoshi Post Office (84065)
  • Hirosaki Sasamoricho Post Office (84076)
  • Takasugi Post Office (84088)
  • Hirosaki Takajomachi Post Office (84089)
  • Hirosaki Oshimizu Post Office (84091)
  • Hyakuzawa Post Office (84092)
  • Hirosaki Hamanocho Post Office (84099)
  • Hirosaki Shigemorimachi Post Office (84104)
  • Ishikawa Post Office (84113)
  • Hirosaki Ekimae Post Office (84141)
  • Shinwa Post Office (84175)
  • Onizawa Post Office (84176)
  • Hirosaki Sakaizeki Post Office (84189)
  • Funazawa Post Office (84193)
  • Hirosaki Kamenokomachi Post Office (84208)
  • Hirosaki Ozawa Post Office (84214)
  • Hirosaki Shinakawamachi Post Office (84219)
  • Hirosaki Kamisukimachi Post Office (84223)
  • Hirosaki Sanzeji Post Office (84233)
  • Hirosaki Kikyono Town Post Office (84236)
  • Hirosaki Matsubara Post Office (84245)
  • Hirosaki Katada Post Office (84248)
  • Akudo Post Office (84252)
  • Hirosaki Matsugae Post Office (84256)
  • Hirosaki Josei Post Office (84258)
  • Hirosaki Jonan Post Office (84270)
  • Hirosaki Suehiro Post Office (84285)
  • Hirosaki Joto Post Office (84291)

Simple post office

  • ToriinoSimple post office(84702)
  • Japan Post (84718)
  • Mukomagoshi Post Office (84737)
  • Tokoshinai Post Office (84757)
  • Itchoki Post Office (84762)
  • Otomo Post Office (84775)
  • (84785)
  • Nyui Simple Post Office (84789)

Sister cities/partner cities

Domestic

Region

City center

The central city area of ​​Hirosaki City was developed based on the town division of the castle town built during the feudal era. 1894(27th year of Meiji),Ou Main LineAs a stopHirosaki StationWhen the city opened, the city area expanded from the castle town to Hirosaki Station,1898(31th year of Meiji)Army XNUMXth DivisionThe city area expanded to the south due to the installation and maintenance of military facilities in[14].

2015As of (27), Hirosaki city has a radius of 2.5km centered on Dotemachi.[14] A cohesive urban area is formed.

Above all, commerce has prospered since the feudal era,Meiji EraToShopping districtTurned intoEmbankmentSurroundings andPublic railwayDevelopment began with the opening of Hirosaki Station in Japan, and after the war it became a commercial area with repeated redevelopment.Hirosaki StationPrevious district(Omotemachi,Ekimae Town,Station square,OmachiEtc.), focusing on the two areasDepartment store,Station buildingCommercial facilities and restaurants such as are concentrated.

In addition,Hirosaki ParkSurroundings (especiallyKamishiroganechoShimoshiroganecho) IsHirosaki City Hall,Aomori District Public Prosecutor's OfficeHirosaki branch,Aomori District CourtIt forms a government office district where facilities such as the Hirosaki branch are located, and connects the station square with Dotemachi and the government office district.100 yen bus(Dotemachi circulation 100 yen bus) Is in operation[15].

Embankment

Dotemachi and its surroundings have been around since the feudal eraChange of attendanceof timeHashu KaidoAs a road leading toMachiyaWas formed and became a shopping district in the Meiji era.

During the feudal era,HonchoWas in the center of Hirosaki Castle,1897Around (Meiji 30), the central shopping district moved to Dotemachi due to the effects of population growth and changes in purchasing power due to the establishment of the 8th Division of the Army.

Taisho eraIsTohoku regionFirst department store[16]"MiyagawaOpened in Dotemachi, and modern urban culture flourished.

1950 eraToHirosaki Electric RailwayOwani LineIs open.The first train on this lineTerminal stationIsChuohirosaki StationBut close to DotemachiYoshino TownWhen it opens in, the area around Central StationRed light districtDeveloped as.

さ ら に,1960 eraLater"Money Chief Takeda Department Store"Goshogawara"NakazoDepartment stores such as "department stores" began to set up stores in Dotemachi, and as a result of Dotemachi and its surroundings becoming one of the leading commercial agglomeration areas in Hirosaki City, it has been positioned in the central city area of ​​Hirosaki City to this day. There is.

Hirosaki station square

The development of Hirosaki Station, centered on JR Hirosaki Station, began with the opening of Hirosaki Station, a public railway station, in the Meiji era.After that, the city area expanded to the south due to the development of military facilities by the establishment of the 8th Division Command of the Army.[14].

After the war, a shopping street centered on retail stores was formed in front of the station,1979(Showa 54),Black marketCitizens have increasingly criticized the area in front of the station, where the cityscape has remained since the times.[17] As a result, the land readjustment project for the station square area has begun.Retail stores disappeared as a result of business, and instead large hotels andIto-Yokado Hirosaki storeCommercial facilities such as are now lined up.

From the 1980s to the 1990s, in the station square areaStation building,Shoppers Hirosaki (currently Hiroro)The current station square area is functioning as a complex center for transportation, product sales, eating and drinking in Hirosaki City.

Former Iwaki Town

2006(18)May 2, Old merged with Hirosaki CityIwaki TownIt is,Aomori Prefectural Road 3 Hirosakidake Ajigasawa LineAn urban area is formed along theKadaAround the district andIwaki RiverIt has two urban areas, the eastern urban area along the road.[18].

population

Heisei 27CensusLooking at the population change from the previous survey, it was 3.30 people, a decrease of 177,411%, and the increase/decrease rate was 40nd among the 5 municipalities in the prefecture.

Population distribution of Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.svg
Population distribution by age in Hirosaki City and the whole country (2005)Hirosaki City's population distribution by age and gender (2005)
Purple-Hirosaki City
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Hirosaki City (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan


Health

Policemen

Fire

Education

University

Junior college

Vocational school

  • private
    • Tohoku Nutrition College
    • Hirosaki Hospitality Academy
    • Aomori Hair Artist Academy
    • Sunmode School of Design
    • SKK Information Business College

high school

Junior high school

Elementary and middle school

primary school

*The following are closed schools.

Special school

Kindergarten

Facilities other than school education

Nursery
  • City
    • Hirosaki nursery school
    • Tokoshinai nursery school (closed / closed)
    • Yayoi nursery school
    • Sasadate nursery school
    • Tokiwano nursery school
    • Hyakuzawa nursery school
    • Soma nursery school
  • Corporate / Private: 69 facilities
library
  • Hirosaki City Library
    • Hirosaki City Public Library [Otemon Square, Shimoshiroganecho][19]
    • Hirosaki City Iwaki Library [Kada]
    • Hirosaki City Soma Library [Gosho]
    • ChildrenPicture bookForest [Ekimae Town]
Vocational training facility
  • Hirosaki Cooking Joint Higher Vocational Training School
  • Hirosaki Vocational Ability Development School
  • Hirosaki Washi Higher Vocational Training School

Facility

Cultural facility

Museums and museum
  • Hirosaki City Museum[In Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho]Registered Museum
  • Hirosaki Castle Information Center [Hirosaki Park castle tower, Shimoshiroganecho][20]
  • Hirosaki Municipal Folklore Museum [Otemon Square, Shimoshiroganecho][21]
  • Hirosaki University Museum [Hirosaki University, Bunkyocho][22]
  • Hyakkokumachi Exhibition Hall[23]
  • Fujita Memorial Garden Archaeological Museum [Kamishiroganecho][24]
  • Former Fujita Family Residence (Dazai Osamu Manabi no Ie) [Miyukicho]
  • Aomori Bank Memorial Museum[Motonagamachi]
  • Takateru Shrine Treasure Hall [Takaoka character Jinbano]
  • Narumi KanameMemorial Pottery Hall [Oura, Yoshita][25]
  • Takaoka no Mori Hirosaki Clan History Museum [Takaoka character Shishizawa][26]
hole
  • Hirosaki Civic Center(1,343 seats)
  • Hirosaki Cultural Center (552 seats)[27]
  • Iwaki Cultural Center "Asoberu" (584 seats)[28]
  • Civic Cultural Exchange Hall (300 seats)[29]
Learning facilities, etc.
  • Hirosaki City Comprehensive Learning Center[30]
  • Hirosaki City Machinaka Information Center[31]
  • Hirosaki Citizens' Participation Center[32]
  • Ekimae Memorial Hall[33]

Physical education facility

  • Hirosaki Civic Gymnasium (Gojikkokumachi)
  • Hirosaki City Athletic Park(Toyota)
  • Kasai Sports Center (Ishiwatari)
  • Sasamori Memorial Gymnasium (Shimoshiroganecho)
  • HirosakiB&GMarine Center (Yawata Town)[34]
  • Hirosaki City Iwaki B & G Marine Center (Kanehira Sarusawa)[35]
  • Shinwa District Physical Education and Cultural Exchange Center
  • Susonochiku Taiiku Cultural Exchange Center
  • Shimizu Exchange Center
  • Miyagawa Exchange Center
  • Kinzokucho Sports Center (Kinzokucho
  • Minamitomitamachi Physical Education Center (Minamitomitamachi)
  • Iwaki Youth Sports Center
  • Iwakigawa Citizen's Golf Course
  • Sun Life Hirosaki
  • Spark Hirosaki (Ishiwatari)
  • Johoku Family Pool (Hachimancho)
  • Second Civic Pool (Nakano)
  • Dai 3 City Swimming Pool (Hachimancho)
  • Heated pool Ishikawa (Muramoto, Koganezaki)
  • Mt. Iwakisan General Park (Hyakuzawa character base)
  • Soma Fureaikan

Public hall

  • Central public hall
  • Central Community Center Iwakikan
  • Central Public Hall Somakan
  • Higashimeya Public Hall
  • Watoku Community Center
  • Eastern public hall
  • Shimizu Community Center
  • Ishikawa Public Hall
  • Horikoshi Public Hall
  • Millennium Public Hall
  • Funazawa Public Hall
  • Takasugi Community Center
  • Susono Public Hall
  • Shinwa Public Hall
  • Fujishiro Public Hall

Transportation

Railway line

Express Bus

Hirosaki Bus TerminalIs the center.From "Highway Bus Transportation Results under the Tohoku Transport Bureau Jurisdiction" of the Tohoku Transport Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism2005(17) Addition of the number of passengers

Transit Bus

All local buses in the city are operated by Konan Bus.

道路

Other

Tourism

  • Cycle Net HIROSAKI (paid bicycle rental for sightseeing)[36]

* "Important cultural property"Cultural property protection lawRefers to an important cultural property designated by the national government (Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan) based on the provisions of.

Historic sites / parks / leisure

Shrines and temples

  • Saishoin(Doyamachi) (Important Cultural Property:Five-storied pagoda[51]
  • (Yawata Town) (Important Cultural Property: Main shrine, Karamon[52]
  • Hirosaki Toshogu() (Important Cultural Property: Main shrine[53]
  • Hirosaki Tenmangu(Nishishigemori
  • Kumanookuteru Shrine ((I.e.) (Important Cultural Property: Main shrine[54]) (Prefectural handy: Warabitetou[55]
  • Koteru Shrine(Takaoka) (Important Cultural Property: Main shrine, etc.[56], Tachi Meiyu Seisaku[57], Tachi Mamoru[58]
  • Mt. Iwakisan Shrine(HyakuzawaAji Terazawa) (Important Cultural Property: Romon[59], Haiden[60], Main shrine, Okumon, Mizugaki, Nakamon[61]
  • Zenrin Street(Nishishigemori)
  • Seiganji Temple ((I.e.) (Important Cultural Property: Sanmon[62]
  • Choshoji Temple (Nishishigemori) (Important Cultural Property: Sanmon[63], Tsugaru family mausoleum[64], Mikagedo[65], Main hall,Backside[66], Copper bell[67]) (Prefectural Choho: Sanson Buddha and its kitchen[68],Doctor YakushiSanmon Honzon[69], Tsugaru Tamenobu statue[70]) (City designated tangible cultural property: Kuromon)
  • Kakushuji Temple (Fujishiro) (Important Cultural Property: Tsugaru Tamenobu[71] , Main hall[72]) (City-designated tangible cultural property: wooden statue of Taiko)
  • Sazaedo (Nishishigemori) (City-designated tangible cultural property. Around 1839 (Tenpo 10),Rich merchantDonated. )
  • Rinshoji Temple (Nishishigemori) (Prefectural treasure: Kushoin mortuary tablet)[73]
  • Kumanomiya (Akanecho) (Prefectural treasure: main shrine[74]
  • Gankisan Shrine (TokoshinaiSarusawa Pond) (Prefectural handy: Main shrine[75],alligator Inscription dedicated to the XNUMXth year of Keicho[76]
  • Taiguji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural handy: Main hall[77], Eleven-faced Kanzeon statue[78]
  • Enmei-ji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural treasure: Main hall[79]
  • Hoonji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural handy: Main hall[80]
  • Hongyoji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural handy: Gokokudo)[81]
  • Saikou-ji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural treasure: wood carvingAmida NyoraiStatue[82]
  • Saifukuji Temple (Shinteramachi) (Prefectural handy:Yen skyEleven-faced Kannon image[83], EnkuJizo Bosatsuimage[84]
  • Teishoji Temple ([Shinteramachi) (City-designated tangible cultural property: wooden Buddha Nirvana)
  • Great Buddha (石川Character Daibutsu) (City-designated tangible cultural property: wooden eleven-faced Kannon sitting statue)
  • Nyui Shrine (NyuiNozawa) (City-designated tangible cultural property: Shrine (former Bishamon-do) -Built in 1655, Olympic Tower- Kamakura Period

Traditional architecture

Western-style architecture

(In chronological order)

Modern architecture (Kunio Maekawadesign)

  • Kimura Industrial Research Institute (Zaifucho) Registered Tangible Cultural Property[101],1932(Showa 7).
  • Hirosaki Chuo High School Auditorium (Kuranushicho1954(Showa 29).
  • Hirosaki City Hall Mae (Kamishiroganecho)1958(Showa 33).
  • Hirosaki Civic Hall (Hirosaki ParkOf whichShimoshiroganecho1964(Showa 39).
  • Hirosaki Municipal Hospital (Omachi1971(Showa 46).
  • Hirosaki City Museum (in Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho)1976(Showa 51).
  • Hirosaki City Gardening Information Center (in Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho)1980(Showa 55).
  • Hirosaki City Saiba (Tokiwazaka1983(Showa 58).

Old trees and rows of trees

  • Osugi (TokoshinaiSarusawa, Gankisan Shrine) Prefectural Natural Monument[102], Estimated tree age 1,000 years.Mt. Iwakisan Shrine OfOmenAccording to the shrine,Kanji5 years(1091) Moved from here.
  • Tomei cedar ((I.e.Iwasaki Prefecture Natural Monument[103], Estimated tree age 700 years.This place is related to Shugendo, and it is said that its history goes back more than 800 years.
  • Mukaitonose Mokugenji (Sendanbanobodaiju) (Mukaitonose) Prefecture natural monument[104], Is considered to be evidence of the Hirosaki Domain's Oyakuen.
  • Weeping cherry tree in Tenmangu (Nishishigemori, Tenmangu) Prefectural natural monument[105]The tree is at least 500 years old and is the oldest weeping cherry tree in the prefecture.
  • Onizawa'sKashiwa(Onizawa character Sarusawa, Oni Shrine) Prefectural natural monument[106],Mt. Ooyama Gion Shrine OfGod body.
  • Kasumizakura in the 5th year of Shotoku (in Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho)
  • Japan's oldest Yoshino cherry tree (in Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho)
  • Somei Yoshino, Japan's largest trunk circumference (in Hirosaki Park, Shimoshiroganecho)
  • A row of pine trees on the Hyakuzawa Highway and Takaoka Highway (Hyakuzawa, Takaoka, etc.) Prefectural Natural Monument[107], Developed as a worship road to Hyakuzawa Temple (currently Mt. Iwakisan Shrine) and a worship road to Takaoka Reisha (currently Takateru Shrine).

Roadside station / direct sales office

  • Roadside Station Hirosaki Sun Festa Ishikawa
  • JA Tsugaru Hirosaki Green House Mother's Shop
  • JA Tsugaru Hirosaki Hirosaki Fresh Group (Tsugaru Clan Neputa VillageInside)
  • JA Tsugaru Hirosaki Direct Sales Office Agrimarket Shikisaikan
  • JA Soma Village Special Product Direct Sales Center "Apple Forest"[108]
  • JA Tsugaru Mirai Apple Direct Sales Office Ringoya (Tsugaru Clan Neputa Village)
  • ANEKKO General Exchange Base Facility Direct Sales Store Noichigo
  • Hirosaki West District Direct Sales Office Waiwai Square

Festival

Hirosaki Four Great Festival

Other festivals and events

  • Visiting Hadaka in Onizawa (early February) --Oni Shrine City Intangible Folk Cultural Property
  • Joppare Hirosaki Spring Neputa(Late April, early May, operated for two days during the Sakura Festival until 4, but has been suspended in recent years) --Dotemachi Dori
  • Tsugaru ShamisenNational Convention (early May) --Hirosaki Civic Hall
  • Tsugaru Five GreatFolk songTournament (May 5) --Hirosaki Civic Hall
  • Iwaki nationwideFried food competition (early May) --Iwaki B & G Marine Center
  • Tsugaru Road Romantic International Two-day March (Early May-Mid)
  • All Japan Apple Oiwake Contest (Mid May)
  • Evening Palace (early June-September)
  • Hirosaki Citizens Fireworks Gathering (Mid June) --Iwaki RiverRiverbed・ Athletic park
  • Yosakoi Tsugaru(Late June) --Dotemachi Street
  • Star Festival in Soma (Mid July) --Romantopia Soma of Stars and Forests
  • (HyakuishichoSummer Night Store Festival (late July) --Hyakkacho Dori
  • Fashion koshien・ National High School Fashion Design Championship (during August)
  • Ekimae-sama-festa (mid-August-late)-Ekimae-dori
  • Visit to the mountains (early September, August 9st of the lunar calendar) --Important Intangible Folk Cultural Property
  • Culture Road (early September)-Dotemachi Street
  • Hirosaki Apple Harvest Festival (late September) --Apple Park
  • Tsugaru Food and Industry Festival (Mid October) --Kokusetsu Training Center
  • Hirosaki Apple Halloween (late October) --Ekimae
  • Hirosaki Electrical Fantasy (December 12st-End of February) --City Hall / Otemon Square --Dotemachi --Around Hirosaki Station (Illuminations and Western-style building)light up
  • Candle Festival (January 1th of the lunar calendar) --Sawada district

Specialty and confectionery

traditional Cousine

Traditional crafts

Name water

  • Gozensui (Yoshino Town) When Emperor Meiji visited Hirosaki, it was used for cooking and tea, and is called Gozensui.
  • Tomita no Shitsuko(Yoshino TownOne hundred famous waters
  • Ochanomizu (石川2-114 Nishinosawa) Located on the hillside of Mt. Obiraki on the border between Hirosaki and Owani.Emperor MeijiDrank tea.
  • Shimizu Kannonsui (SakurabaSotoyama 948) It was called Kiyomizukannon,Divine Buddha separationIt became Taga Shrine.
  • Dogahira Katsura Shimizu (Osawa Dogahira) The place of study.
  • Mikami water (Hyakuzawa) Mt. Iwakisan It is on the far left in front of the tower gate of the shrine.
  • Spring water of Kosugisawa (Hyakuzawa Higashi Mt. Iwakisan)
  • Haguro Shrine Reisen (MiyajiAza Miyamoto 350) It is said that the eye disease will be cured.

Sports

Works set in Hirosaki

Native celebrity

Cultural person

Entertainment/Media

athlete

Others

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At this point, in addition to Paper Town, Honmachi, Dotemachi, Sagara Town, Former Carpenter Town, Former Naga Town, Shiobun Town, Kamisayashimachi, Mori Town, Kakusen Town, Momori Town, Nishimomori Town, Momori Shin Town, Furuhori Town , Furuhori Shinwaricho, Shinteramachi, Shinteramachi Shinwaricho, Kitashinjicho, Dotemachi, Shinagawacho, Yamamichicho, Sumiyoshicho, Shinkawacho, Blacksmith Town, Shinwaricho, Kitagawabatacho, Okeyacho, Doyamachi , Minamikawabata Town, Matsumori Town, Doyamachi Town, Shintera Town, Tomita Town, Tomita Shin Town, Watoku Town, Kita Yoko Town, Tea Field Town, Tea Field Shinwari Town, Daikan Town, Ueda Town, Midori Town, Kayachi Town, Minami Taraga Town , Kamisayashimachi, Nakagawaracho, Kitagawaramachi, Minamiyanagicho, Sakamotocho, Nishikawagishicho, Tashirocho, Yamashitacho, Kitayagicho, Minamiyokocho, Tondacho, Doyamachi Town, Ichibancho, Hyakusekicho, Hyakusekichokoji, Tonagacho, Motojicho, Mototeramachikoji, Kamisayashimachi, Shimosayashimachi, Guncho, Shimoshirogincho, Sasamoricho, Nagasakacho, Doyamachi, Oura Town, Tondacho, Tamachi, Naragicho, Young Party Town, Dwarf Town, Kasuga Town, Kamiko Town, Bakuro Town, Takasho Town, Baya Town, Nishi Carpenter Town, Shin Town, Komagoshi Town, Hiraoka Town, Igarashi Town, Bagu Town, There are Konya-cho and Hamano-cho.

Source

  1. ^ a b [Local food trip] Apple pie (Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture)Nihon Keizai Shimbun] Morning edition Saturday reprint "Nikkei +1" 9 pages
  2. ^ "Hirosaki 1981-2010”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019/5/6Browse.
  3. ^ "Public Relations Hirosaki" April 4, 1 issue (No. 617), page 6, "Hundred Years of History"
  4. ^ "New Edition Hirosaki City History Material 4" (Hirosaki City, published on August 1997, 8) pp. 31-870 "Chapter 871 Hirosaki in the latter half of the Meiji era, Section 2 Development and enhancement of education, 7 Social education, XNUMX From "Opening Ceremony of Hirosaki Library".
  5. ^ "New Edition Hirosaki City History Material 4" (Hirosaki City, published on August 1997, 8) pp. 31-870 "Chapter 871 Hirosaki in the latter half of the Meiji era, Section 2 Development and enhancement of education, 7 Social education, XNUMX From "Establishment of Hirosaki Library".
  6. ^ Source: "History of Onoe Town" (Onoe Town, published on March 1992, 3) pp. 31-1169 "Chapter 1170 Communication / Transportation / Section XNUMX History of Konan Railway / XNUMX Long-awaited railway opening"
  7. ^ From "Public Relations Hirosaki" June 2, 6 issue (No. 15) "Opened on July 646st".
  8. ^ Hirosaki City Homepage Successive Chiefs(Viewed on February 2015, 2)."Successive Mayors of Japan" Volume 19 (Successive Governor's Compilation Society, 1)
  9. ^ Public relations Hirosaki --Hirosaki City
  10. ^ Agriculture Hirosaki --Hirosaki City
  11. ^ News from the city council --Hirosaki City Council
  12. ^ TV public relations --Hirosaki City
  13. ^ a b "Did you really exhaust the discussion / Hirosaki City Council constant" 6 reduction "". Web Touhou(November 2012, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 4.. http://archive.fo/PXQft 2020/4/25Browse. 
  14. ^ a b c Hirosaki City Central City Revitalization Basic Plan: Chapter 2 Current Situation of Central City 1 --Hirosaki City (March 27)
  15. ^ 100 yen bus --Konan Bus Co., Ltd.
  16. ^ "Installation of utility pole signboards that convey history in Hirosaki City-Information on" Tohoku's first department store "". Hirosaki Economic Newspaper(July 2014, 9). https://hirosaki.keizai.biz/headline/116/ 2020/4/25Browse. 
  17. ^ Hiroshi Nakazono (May 2015, 5). “Hirosaki Ekimae continues to change”. Mutsu Shimpo. http://www.mutusinpou.co.jp/%E6%B4%A5%E8%BB%BD%E3%81%AE%E8%A1%97%E3%81%A8%E9%A2%A8%E6%99%AF/2015/05/36229.html 2020/4/25Browse. 
  18. ^ Hirosaki Wide Area City Planning Area Development, Development and Conservation Policy (Hirosaki Wide Area City Planning Area Master Plan) --Aomori Prefecture (January 24)
  19. ^ Hirosaki City Library --Hirosaki City
  20. ^ Hirosaki Castle Information Center --General Incorporated Foundation Hirosaki City Green Association
  21. ^ Hirosaki Municipal Folklore Museum --Hirosaki City
  22. ^ Hirosaki University Museum --Hirosaki University
  23. ^ Hyakkokumachi Exhibition Hall --Hirosaki City
  24. ^ Fujita Memorial Garden > Takumikan (Archaeological Museum) --General Incorporated Foundation Hirosaki City Green Association
  25. ^ Narumi Kaname Memorial Pottery Hall --Hirosaki City
  26. ^ Takaoka no Mori Hirosaki Clan History Museum --Hirosaki City
  27. ^ Hirosaki Cultural Center --Hirosaki City
  28. ^ Iwaki Cultural Center Asoberu --Hirosaki City
  29. ^ Civic Cultural Exchange Hall --Hirosaki Ekimae Public Facility Hiroro Square
  30. ^ Hirosaki City Comprehensive Learning Center --Hirosaki City
  31. ^ Hirosaki City Machinaka Information Center
  32. ^ Hirosaki Citizens' Participation Center --Hirosaki City
  33. ^ Ekimae Memorial Hall --Hirosaki City
  34. ^ Hirosaki City B & G Marine Center --Blue Sea and Green Land Foundation
  35. ^ Hirosaki City Iwaki B & G Marine Center --Blue Sea and Green Land Foundation
  36. ^ Cycle net --Hirosaki Tourism and Convention Bureau
  37. ^ Itabi Pagoda --Hirosaki City
  38. ^ Hirosaki Castle castle tower --Hirosaki City
  39. ^ Miniature structure --Hirosaki Tourism and Convention Bureau
  40. ^ Zuirakuen Official Website
  41. ^ Yokien Garden Yokian --Hirosaki City
  42. ^ Former Kikuchi Garden (Hirosaki Akira no Hoshi Kindergarten Garden) --Hirosaki City
  43. ^ Narita family garden --Hirosaki City
  44. ^ Sadasho-ji Garden --Hirosaki City
  45. ^ [Official] Romantic star and forest pier
  46. ^ Hirosaki Castle Botanical Garden --General Incorporated Foundation Hirosaki City Green Association
  47. ^ Yayoi Ikoi Square --General Incorporated Foundation Hirosaki City Green Association
  48. ^ Apple park --Hirosaki City
  49. ^ Children's Forest --General Incorporated Foundation Hirosaki City Green Association
  50. ^ "Takane Recreation Forest”. Hirosaki City Green Association. As of July 2018, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/4/25Browse.
  51. ^ Saishoin Five-storied Pagoda --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  52. ^ Hirosaki Hachimangu Main Hall, Karamon --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  53. ^ Toshogu main shrine --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  54. ^ Kumanookuteru Shrine main shrine --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  55. ^ Warabitetou --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  56. ^ Takateru Shrine main shrine, middle gate, west eaves corridor, east eaves corridor, worship hall and our shrine --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  57. ^ Tachi Meiyu Seisaku --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  58. ^ Tachi Mei Shinmori --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  59. ^ Mt. Iwakisan Shrine Tower Gate --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  60. ^ Mt. Iwakisan Shrine Haiden --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  61. ^ Mt. Iwakisan Shrine Main Hall, Okumon, Mizugaki, Nakamon --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  62. ^ Oshoji Temple Sanmon --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  63. ^ Choshoji Sanmon --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  64. ^ Tsugaru family Mausoleum Kanzuki 臺, Blue Cliff Record, Meikyou 臺, Hakuun 臺, Ryoun 臺 --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  65. ^ Choshoji Mikagedo --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  66. ^ Choshoji main hall, Kuri --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  67. ^ Bronze bell --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  68. ^ Sanson Buddha and its kitchen --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  69. ^ Yakushi Nyorai Sanmon Honzon --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  70. ^ Tsugaru Tamenobu statue --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  71. ^ Tsugaru Tamenobu --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  72. ^ Kakushuji Main Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  73. ^ Kushoin mortuary tablet --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  74. ^ Kumanomiya main hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  75. ^ Gankisan Shrine main shrine --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  76. ^ Waniguchi Keicho XNUMXth year dedication inscription --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  77. ^ Taiguji main hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  78. ^ Eleven-faced Kanzeon statue --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  79. ^ Enmyoji Main Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  80. ^ Hoonji Main Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  81. ^ Hongyoji Temple Gokokudo --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  82. ^ Wood carving Amida Nyorai statue --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  83. ^ Eleven-faced Kannon image --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  84. ^ Jizo statue --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  85. ^ Hirosaki City Nakacho Traditional Buildings Preservation Area --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  86. ^ Ishiba Family Residence --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  87. ^ Former Ito Family Residence --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  88. ^ Former Iwata Family Residence --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  89. ^ Former Aomori Prefectural Ordinary Junior High School Main Building --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  90. ^ Former Tooku Gijuku Foreign Teachers' Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  91. ^ Former Fifty-nine Bank Main Store Main Building --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  92. ^ Japanese Christian Church Hirosaki Church Church --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  93. ^ Former Hirosaki City Library --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  94. ^ Hirosaki Gakuin Foreign Missionary Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  95. ^ Former Hirosaki Kairyosha --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  96. ^ Former XNUMXth Division Chief Office (Hirosaki Mayor's Office) --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  97. ^ Hirosaki Anglican Church of Japan --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  98. ^ Former Fujita family villa Western-style building --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  99. ^ Old system Hirosaki High School Foreign Teachers' Hall --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  100. ^ Former Hirosaki Inexhaustible Office Building (Mikami Building) --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  101. ^ Kimura Industrial Research Institute --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  102. ^ Osugi --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  103. ^ Tomei cedar --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  104. ^ Mukaitonose Mokugenji (Sendanbanobodaiju) --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  105. ^ Weeping cherry tree in Tenmangu --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  106. ^ Onizawa's Kashiwa (Onigami Kashiwa) --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  107. ^ A row of pine trees on the Hyakuzawa Highway and Takaoka Highway --Aomori Prefectural Office website
  108. ^ Special product direct sales office "Apple Forest" --JA Group
  109. ^ Aomori Prefecture Regional Industry Division/Aomori Prefecture Traditional Crafts

Related literature

  • "Tsugaru Hirosaki Examination Official Guidebook" edited by Tsugaru Hirosaki Examination Executive Committee,20081 month.

外部 リンク


 

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