Does your personality change?Those that do not change?
If you write the contents roughly
Personality, on the other hand, includes the Latin word "persona."
"I can't help it because I have this kind of personality" "I don't know myself" "People don't change" In various psychological situations like this ... → Continue reading
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Latinword(Latin,Latin: lingua latina Ring a Latina)Indo-European OfItalicLatin Faliscan languages Of言语one of.originallyItalian peninsulaAncientLatinIt was widely used in ancient European continents (western and southern) and northern African continents, and was used as a major language in academia until modern times.
Kanji notation is Latin / Luodian,Latvian-LatinIs abbreviated.
originallyLatinThe word isItalian peninsulaCentralLatiumRegion (RomeArea centered on, nowイタリア-Lazio) AtLatinWas the language used byAncient rome-Republic Rome-Roman EmpireUsed inOfficial terminologyAs a result, it spread to the vast prints of the Roman Empire (western and southern parts of the European continent, northern Africa, and parts of Asia).
Western Roman EmpireEven after its fall, Latin played an important role in handing down classical literature in the Roman culture.Through a growing Christian churchCatholic churchSpread throughout Europe as the official language ofRitual religious termsWhen it comes to be used as中 世Growing up as Medieval Latin.RenaissanceWhen you meetnatural Science-Humanities-哲学Became a language of the intellectual class for.In addition, reading and writing-oriented literature languagesAcademic termAsThe early modern periodDeveloped and survived to Europe.Latin is stillEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlthough it is the official language of, it can be said that it is rarely used in everyday life.However, in each specialized knowledge field such as various academic societies, medicine, natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, and industrial technology, it is common throughout the world.scientific nameThere is a tradition of publishing with a Latin name, and it continues to be used persistently, such as publishing new discoveries as Latin academic papers.[Annotation 1]..Also, as abbreviations, am (ante meridiem), pm (post meridiem) in the morning and afternoon,ウ イ ル ス(Virus)データSome of the words used in daily life, such as (data), have their etymology derived from Latin.
Latin usage, era, region, and closely related languages
However, the Latin-dominated region was limited to the western half of the Roman Empire, and the eastern half was predominantly Greek.Eventually the Roman Empire split into east and west,Germanic peopleBy a big move ofWestern Roman EmpireAs the society of Western Europe changed drastically, the Latin language changed in various places, and eventually the everyday languages of each place could no longer be called Latin, and the flow of Latin was followed.Romance languagesWas established in various places.Eastern Roman EmpireIn the 7th century, the official language wasGreekWas converted to.
Under these circumstances, even after the fall of the Roman Empire in the area corresponding to today's Western Europe.Roman Catholic ChurchBecame the official language ofLanguageMaintained the position of.Even nowVatican CityThe official language of is Latin.For exampleceremony TheSecond Vatican CouncilUntil then, it was done in Latin.To this day, many composers have added songs to the liturgical texts.Classical musicIt is one of the main singing languages.However, the actual use is official documents andMassIt is not limited to such things and is not spoken on a daily basis.Also, the Latin language used in the Vatican is an anomalous Latin language that is different from the classical formula.It is a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nation.スイスThen the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica(HelvetiaFederal)AcronymIs an abbreviation for the name of the home country (CH).AlsoEuropean company(Societas Europaea, SE), Latin is sometimes used as a term common to Europe.
中 世In, many official and scholarly books are in Latin (Medieval latinWritten in (Ecclesiastical Latin), this practice still exists today.For exampleBiology Ofscientific nameIs a rule that uses Latin, as well aselementMost of the names are in Latin.AlsoJurisprudenceEven in manyRoman lawMaximLegal termIs left.19st centuryUp to European countriesUniversityWas stipulated to write a dissertation in Latin.
Today'sRomance languages(Eastern Romance:Italian-Romanian, Western Romance:French-Spanish-PortugueseEtc.)Profane latinIt is a language derived from.Also,English-German-DutchSuch asGermanic languagesAlsogrammarIt had a great influence on the vocabulary and vocabulary.
modernMedical scienceEven inAnatomyThe term is basically Latin.This is related to the historical process of unifying the anatomical vocabulary that everyone used to coin freely with BNA (Basel anatomical term), PNA (Paris anatomical term), etc.In other words, Latin was used to unify the terms.Therefore, the "Anatomical Term" published by the Japanese Association of Anatomists is also basically Latin (Latin monolingualism).However,ClinicalIn this situation, it is natural for doctors to explain the condition to patients in their own language, so there are anatomical jargon in their own language in addition to Latin in each country (Latin / native language bilingualism).In recent years, the highest peaks of medical academic societies and academic journals have been concentrated in the English-speaking world.EnglishThe importance of anatomical terms has increased.In Japan, Latin, English,JapaneseThe anatomical books written in three languages have become mainstream (Latin, English, and native language trilingualism).
"ウ イ ル ス (virus)"Such,JapaneseBut it is used in some vocabulary.Mori Ogai OfNovel"Eta Sex Alice』Is Latin vita sexualis(Sexual life).However, in Japanese, in most cases, the distinction between the length of the original vowel is not conscious.[Annotation 2].
Latin belongsItalicIt is,Indo-EuropeanWithinCentumClassified intoProto-Indo-European Of *k and *g Is also in Latin K, G Was kept as.Italic speakersItalian peninsulaAppeared in2th millennium BCSeen to be in the second half, with Latin speakersLatium region(Currentイタリア, Lazio)8th century BCwas.The oldest Latin currently discoveredInscription The7th century BCIt was made in.From this time2th century BCLatin up to that time was distinguished from Latin in later timesOld LatinIs called.The Latin of this era isvocabularyWas adjacent in terms ofEtruscanWas influenced by.
The following 21 letters in Old LatinThe alphabetWas used.The current glyph is shown at the bottom.this is,Archaic Greek letters・ EarlyEtruscan letters-Old italic scriptsAlmost followed the alphabet of
this house,C TheΓ In a variant of [ɡ] Represents the sound ofI The [I] と [j],V The [at] と [w] It had the note value of.The five vowel letters (A, E, I, O, V) represented both long and short, but there was no distinction between long and short on the letters.3th century BCTo become and C The [k] The sound ofK Is almost obsolete.afterwards [ɡ] To represent the sound of G Was newly created and was not used Z[Annotation 3] Was replaced with the position of the character.
Old Latin isClassical LatinRemain inNominative,呼格,Genitive(Ownership),Dative(Indirect object),Accusative(Direct object),AblativeIn addition toPlaceRepresentsLocativeThere was (also called locative, geological, hypostasis, locative, locative, etc.).For noun decals, the singular and plural nominatives of the second change noun -oī was.Second change noun singular ending in classical Latin -us, -um Each in this era -os, -om was.Also, the ending of multiple genitives is -ōsum(For the second song), which will be later -ōrum It became.Thus, at the end of the Old Latin era, the s between vowels becomes r "RhotacismThe change happened.
1th century BCSince then, the Latin language used for centuriesClassical Latin(Classical Latin).Later中 世,AlsomodernThe "Latin" that people learn in is usually the classical Latin.This classical Latin iswritten languageThere is a lot of literature left, but the words people used to speak on a daily basisProfane latin(Colloquial Latin).This vulgar Latin is modernRomance languagesIt changed to.
Like Old Latin,scriptio continua(Scriptio Continua, continued writing)SegmentationToCustomThere was no (InscriptionEtc., smallMedium blackWith something like単 語There is also an example of separating).The alphabetAlsoキ ケ ロ(pre-106 - 43) Until the era X Was 21 characters.Also,uppercase letterOnly used.
In classical Latin C and G Always each [k] and [ɡ] Was pronounced[Annotation 4].Y The six vowels, including, represented both long and short, but no notational distinction was made except for a very short period of time.
Classical LatinaccentAs found in modern Romance languagesStress accentnot,Modern japaneselikePitch accentIt is said that it was (high and low accent) (there is also a theory that it is a stress accent).In terms of grammarOld Latin OfLocative(Also called locative, place, rank, case, case, etc.) disappeared except for some place names, and sixCase(Nominative,呼格,Genitive,Dative,Accusative,Ablative) Was used.Also in the previous eraEnding -os, -om In the classical period -us, -um It became.
Of this eraSpoken language(Profane latin) Then, at the end of the sentence -s BehindvowelIn some cases, it was not pronounced unless was followed.Also au Is in everyday life [ɔː] Was read.In this way, in the classical period, there was a gap between spoken language and written language that retained old-fashioned characteristics.What is now called Classical Latin is from this periodwritten language.
The golden age of Latin literature
1th century BCAround.
The silver era of Latin literature
Classic periodAt the end of the day, the Latin language that people spoke became increasingly prominent in its changes from the classical language.The Latin language used by the masses during this periodProfane latin(Colloquial Latin) Called.2st centuryOr3st centuryFrom around that time, vulgar Latin characteristics began to be seen, but as the times went by, the changes became greater, and the differentiation of each region became clear.
In classical Latin Y Except for, there were 5 vowels, and there were 10 vowels when distinguishing between long and short, but in vulgar Latin, these became the following 7 vowels.
- [A] [ɛ] [e] [I] [ɔ] [or] [at]
Classic periodLong vowel [eː] The [e] To[oː] The [or] Changed to.AlsoShort vowels [e] と [or] Are in vulgar Latin respectively [ɛ] と [ɔ] Became.Classic period V It is,consonantas [w] Was pronounced, but in the vulgar Latin era [v] It had changed to.furtheraccent ThePitch accentからContemporary Romance languagesSimilar toStress accentWas replaced by.Classic period [k] と [ɡ] Has also changed.these areFront vowel([I] , [e]) Is softened and palatalized (hard palatalized), respectively. [tʃ],[dʒ] It became the sound of.
In vulgar LatinverbThere was also a change in refraction such as.In the future tense of verbs, the conjugation of habere (has) has begun to be used at the end of the stem instead of the classical -bo.Demonstrative ille changes shape and graduallyarticleIt came to be used as.nounFor songsCase inflectionIs simplified,NominativeとAccusativeAre the same (especiallyFeminine noun)become,GenitiveとDativeWas also integrated.Simplified nounsCaseon behalfprepositionHas developed.For exampleGenitiveInstead of de,DativeInstead of a, a began to be used.
イタリア,Iberian PeninsulaThen soonnoun OfCase inflectionDisappears,FranceBut12st centuryBy that time it was no longer usedDaciaAfter being used inRomanianExcept for, there is no case inflection.Not only these grammatical features, but also the phonological aspect and vocabulary of the vulgar Latin, which made a big difference in each region, soon became.Romance languagesFormed a language called.
The Latin language used in the former Roman Empire prints was no longer used by the general public and changed from Latin in each region.Profane latinWas replaced by it.On the other handClassical LatinIs a modern language not only in the territory of the former Roman Empire but throughout Western EuropeLanguageUntil it was established as, it was used as a common academic language.Similarly, in the Catholic Church, Latin, which is under the classical Latin tradition, was used as Ecclesiastical Latin, but it continued to be used thereafter.
Modern and modern
Latin has long been the standard language in church and in the academic world in Europe,RenaissanceWithClassical antiquityCulture was reviewed, and there was a movement to use Latin, which was modeled after classical grammar and vocabulary.HumanistStrengthened between.This will teach and describe the "correct" Latin language rather than the Middle Ages.Latin, which has become more common, is widely used by European intellectuals even in modern times.Official terminologyWas used as.
As the main thinker who wrote in this modern LatinThomas More("ユ ー ト ピ ア]),ErasmusNot only humanists likeCartesian,SpinozaGiants of modern philosophy such as.The famous Descartes "I think, therefore I amThe first appearance of the word ""Discourse on Method』French version, but later translated into Latin Cogito, ergo sum.(Kogitou, Ergo Sum) is more widely known.In natural scienceNewton OfPurinkipiaThere is.However, the French Enlightenment thinker, GermanyCantAfter that, writing in the mother tongue became the mainstream.
In the academic world, Latin is still an authoritative language and a high-ranking language in the world.Latin is still used as an academic term for academic purposesvocabularyThere is no change in grammar etc. because it is a dead language (although there were some changes throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period), or it is not biased to the position of one modern language. The aspect of being neutral can not be overlooked.Of course, this is the same for other classical languages, but the choice of Latin reflects that modern scholarship, good or bad, was European-centric.As a scene that is still being used, for exampleBiology Ofscientific nameIs Latin orGreekIt is customary to spell words in Latin style.
Also, even today, knowledge of Latin represents a certain culture and formality, and the country (eg,)The United States of America,スペイン,スイス,カナダAnd Canadian states, etc.) and organizations (US Marine Corps,British MarinesEtc.) using Latin as a motto, or in 1985University of SalamancaInscription commemorating the visit of the Japanese Crown Prince and his wifeSpanishNot carved in Latin,The United Kingdom OfElizabeth II 1992To comment Annus Horribilis(Annus horribilis, Terrible year) and Latin (but pronounced in English) are also manifestations.Even in Japan, the first championship flag of high school baseball VICTORIBUS PALMAE(Wicktolibus Palmae, "Crown to the Victor") was embroidered.However, it cannot be said that Latin is emphasized in Europe today.In European countriesSecond World WarUntil beforeSecondary educationIn many cases, Latin was compulsory in the course, but now it exists as a subject equivalent to "classical", "old writing" or "Chinese writing" in Japan.
From the point of view of daily conversation, there is almost no conversation in Latin in modern times, soDead languageLatin is still a perennial favorite among some Western intellectuals, although it can be said to be one of the languages close to.In recent yearsインターネットWith the expansion of the use of Latin, individuals who are interested in Latin are strengthening their cooperation.Latin WikipediaAlso exists (Latin: Vicipaedia) In addition, there are newspapers, SNS, mailing lists, and blogs in Latin.further,フィンランドState broadcasts regularly broadcast news programs in Latin.
Which countries currently use Latin as their official languageVatican CityOnly.This is still LatinCatholic churchThis is because it is adopted as the official official language of the Vatican City, but Latin is also used in official documents such as the Encyclical.ConclaveOath, "Urbi et OrbiLimited to liturgical texts such as, 2013 PopeAbdication of Benedict XVIAt that time, the intention and reason for abdication were made by reading aloud the Latin text prepared by the Pope himself.In everyday lifeItalianIs used (VaticanRomeIn the city).
Since it has been used for a long time in various parts of Europe, its pronunciation differs depending on the country, region, and era, but it is roughly divided into modern times.Classic,Italian style,German styleThere are three.The Italian style is pronounced according to the principles of modern Italian and based on it.Church ceremonyThere are two (Roman style).The latter is a pronunciation method advocated at the Solesmes monastery in France.Pius VIISpread as recommended by.
The pronunciation learned at Japanese universities is, in principle, classical.On the other hand, Italian and German styles are the mainstream for singing Latin songs.Here are some examples of how they differ (actually, there are variations in pronunciation depending on the region and person).
|pronunciation||Classic||Italian style||German style|
|oe (œ)||[oe]||[e]||[ø], [œ]|
|c||[k]||In front of a, o, u [k]In front of, ae, e, i [tʃ]||In front of a, o, u [k]In front of, e, i [ts]|
|s||[s]||[s], Between vowels [z][Annotation 5]||[s][Annotation 6]|
|sc||[sk]||In front of a, o, u [sk]In front of, e, i [ʃ]||In front of a, o, u [sk]In front of, e, i [sts]|
|Created based on Tadashi Mikajiri "Misa Song / Latin / Church Music Handbook-What is Misa / History / Pronunciation / Masterpiece Selection" (Chopin, 2001).. Added c and gn later based on Wikipedia German version.|
In addition to the above three methodsarticleNot even level Latin単 語andフ レ ー ズAt the levelEnglish styleIs widespread.Originally in englishetc.(Others) Is Etosetra ()Et cetera, In English, c before e, i, y is pronounced s),Et tu Brute(Brute, you too) Is pronounced as Eto Thu Bruta, etc. ,English isInternational languageEspecially now科学There are many English pronunciations in terms.For exampleastronomyIn a relationship星座name isEnglishUse Latin in the textstar名もGreek lettersLatin constellation name in the nameGenitive(Possessive) Is added, so Latin is pronounced in English.
In Japanese, it is customary to write classical or German sounds in katakana.However, even if it seems to be based on the classical formula, in most cases, the length of the vowel is not indicated.On the other hand, when writing the titles of religious music, there are many notations that are close to the Italian style.For exampleAgnus Dei Of Agnus Is pronounced "Anyusu" in classical and German styles, but "Anyus" in Italian styles (strictly speaking, gn is [ɲ] (Nosal sound).Magnificat Is not "Magnificato" but "MagnificatThere is a strong tendency to be written.
As mentioned above, accents have shifted from pitch accents to stress accents with the times, but there is a certain rule as to where the accent is placed in a word.
The law is as follows.
- The second syllable from the backClosed syllableAnd ifLong vowelOrDiphthongIf the syllable contains, the accent is placed in the second syllable from the back.
- Other than the above, it is placed in the third syllable from the back.However, a word that has only two syllables is placed in the second syllable from the back.
Example of 1.: puella girl (closed syllable). mercātor merchant (long vowel).
Example of 2.īnsula island.dominus master.
Latin, Latin, all other ancientIndo-EuropeanAs strong asrefractionAnd therefore the word order is flexible.Therefore, classical Latin isProto-Indo-EuropeanIt can be said that it is an old-fashioned language that preserves the form of.There are up to 7 types of case inflections for nouns and 4 types of conjugations for verbs.Latin isprepositionAnd usually qualifynounAfter theadjective・ Put a genitive.Latin is alsopro dropout languageas well as the Verb framing languageBut also.
Since Latin is a language with strong refraction, the word order can be changed flexibly.The syntax is generally SOV-type, but other word orders are also common in poetry.In ordinary prose, there was a tendency for the word order to be subject, indirect object, direct object, modifier / phrase, and verb.Other components, including subordinate verbs, such asInfinitiveEtc. were placed before the verb.
There are three nounssex(Male / Female / Neutral), 2Quantity(Singular / plural), 7CaseIt has (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, categorical, and geographic), and changes the word form according to these.ThatFor songsThe types of are roughly divided into the 1st-5th changes...Adjectives match gender and case according to modified nouns..Also, Latin has no articles or classifiers.
There are three verbsLaw(Direct method, subjunctive mood, imperative mood) and 6tense(Present, incomplete past, future, completed, past completed, future completed), twoState(Active voice / passive voice), twoQuantity(Singular / plural), 3PersonAccording to (first person, second person, third person)InflectionTo do.other,Nonfinite verbAsInfinitive,Participle,Gerund,GerundiveThere is.All of these are based on the four basic forms of the verb.
|vale (singular) / valete (plural)||さ よ う な ら|
|bonum vesperum||Good evening|
|bonam noctem||Good night|
|quomodo vales ?, ut vales?||How are you?|
|bene valeo||Yes, I'm fine.|
|optime valeo, gratias tibi / ago||very good.Thank you.|
|male valeo||No, I'm fine.|
|gratias tibi / ago, gratias tibi ago||Thank you|
|accipe sis, en tibi||Welcome|
|excusatum (male) / excusatam (female) me habe||Excuse me|
|ignosce mihi||I'm sorry|
|quod nomen tibi est?||What is your name?|
|mihi nomen est ...||my name is. .. ..|
|quaeso||here you go|
|aqua, aquae (f.)||Wed|
|botulus, botuli (m.)||sausage|
|butyrum, butyri (n.)||バ タ ー|
|caseus, casei (m.)||cheese|
|cervisia, cervisiae (f.)||beer|
|citreum, citrei (n.)||Lemon|
|lactuca, lactucae (f.)||lettuce|
|oryza, oryzae (f.)||Rice|
|panis, panis (m.)||Bread|
|perna, pernae (f.)||Ham|
|Pisces, piscis (m.)||Fish|
|placenta, placentae (f.)||cake|
|grape, uvae (f.)||grape|
|vinum, vini (n.)||Wine|
Expressions used today, their influence on Japanese
Formulaics / maxims
Classical Latin idioms are often used in modern Western languages, some of which are also in Japanese.Of course, there are many examples where words such as English of Latin origin are also used in Japanese.
- Ad Hoku: Temporary, extraordinary (ad hoc）
- ad lib. Ad lib (ad libitum Ad Libitum(Abbreviation): Improvisation (abbreviation)Ad lib）
- alius ibi (alibi) Arius Ibi: "Otherwhere" (alibi）
- a priori A priori: Congenitally (philosophy)Preliminary test(But not classical Latin) (Apriori）
- aqua Aqua:water
- crown コ ロ ナ:crown
- How () Kum: Both in English With
- de facto De facto: De facto (the antonym is de jure(Legal)), defect is wrong (de facto）
- exempli gratia (eg): For example
- et alii (et al.) Eto Arii: Others (paperOften used to omit the author's name)
- et cetera (etc.) Eto Kettera: Other (etc）
- ego Ego: I,self
- facsimile Faximire: Make it look like (facsimile）
- glory グ ロ リ ア:glory
- id est (ie): That is
- on-site: In the original place
- vitro: In a glassware (test tube)
- in vivo: In vivo
- Pacta healthy servanda Pacta Sund Selwanda: The agreement should be kept (Pacta healthy servanda)
- persona non grata Persona non grata: Diplomatically unfavorable person
- Quod Erat Demonstrandum (QED) Quad Erat Demonstrandum:ProofEnd (literally "what was going to be proved")
- sine () Sine: Without, without, in English without
- virus virus:poison
- missile Missile: What is thrown (missile）
- Requiescat in Pace: "Sleep peacefully".Characters engraved on the tombstone.
- Memento died: Remember death (Memento Mori）
- Carpe Diem : seize the day.Live in the present(Horatius）
- Amor Vincit Omnia: Love conquers everything.Victory of love(Virgil）
- Veritas Vincit: Truth prevails (Jan Hus）
- Justitia Omnibus: Justice to all (United StatesWashington DCSlogan)
- Plus Ultra : Plus Ultra (Motto), Further progress (スペインSlogan)
- Sic transit gloria mundi: "In this way, the glory of the world will not go away(It was customary for the seated Pope to blow out the candlelight and say this word).
- Fiat justitia ruat caelum :
- Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum videtur : "Everything in Latin sounds good" (Latin maxim)
- primus inter pares: "Chief among peers. "Imperial Japanese ConstitutionUnderPrime MinisterPositioningスイス OfFederal presidentA word that expresses the position of.Originally in medieval Germany王And the lords on an equal footing (Heinrich Vreference).
Trade name / proper noun
Examples of Latin-derived trade names and proper nouns are as follows.
- Moon sea: Names are spelled in Latin.
- 星座The name is also spelled in Latin.Especially the 12 constellations of the Zodiac are not translated in European languages when used in astrology.
- Audi(German car maker):audi Means "listen".Named after the founder Horch
- Volvo(スウェーデンAutomaker):volvoMeans "I turn". SKF OfbearingIt is named after the brand "Volvo Bearing".
- Volvo Group(Swedish corporate group with the same Volvo name as Volvo Cars)
- ASICS(Japanese sports equipment manufacturer): The origin of the company nameMens Sana in Corpore Sano("A healthy mind should live in a healthy body ")ofMensTheAnimaReplaced with (life).
- Aquarius : aquarius(Aquarius) says "AquariusMeaning. "Aquarius" is an English reading of it.
- See the article for trademark names.
- "AERA』(Asahi ShimbunMagazine):æra Means "era".English era
- Erga(IsuzuLarge route bus vehicle):erga Means "towards".
- Ergamio(Isuzu's medium-sized route bus vehicle)
- Regius(Toyota OfMinivan):regiusMeans "brilliant and wonderful".
- "SAPIO』(ShogakukanMagazine):sapio Means "I think" (current participle is sapiens）
- "Thermae Romae』(Yamazaki MariTitle of the original manga):thermae romaeMeans "Roman baths".
- Nivea : nivea Means "snow" or "white like snow"
- Prius(Toyota PriusandHitachi, Ltd. OfPersonal computer,Prius):prius Means "ahead of ..."
- Plenus(Relieve moreOperating company):plenus Means "filled and abundant".
- Prope : propMeans near
- Benesse Corporation : good + that A coined word meaning "to exist well"
- Resona Bank(Yamato BankとAsahi BankWas mergedFinancial institution):resona[Annotation 7] Means "resonate, reverberate (imperative, singular)"
- Juventus : イタリアFamous soccer club.juventus Means "youth, youth"
- Ventas:Hancock tireNames of sports tires and premium tires.ventusMeans "wind".
- Shonan Bellmare : ShonanHometownJ Leagueclub.bellum(Beautiful) + sea(in the sea Bellmare
- &(Ampersand) --Latin et OfLigatureIs a symbol.
- !(Exclamation mark, exclamation mark) --Latin io , Two characters are stacked verticallyLigatureIs a symbol.
- ?(Question mark, question mark) --Latin quaestio The first q and the last o ofLigatureThere is a theory.
- Romance languages
- Latin literature
- Latin place names
- Cambridge Latin Course
- Wikipedia: Rules for Transliteration of Foreign Languages / Latin
- Introductory book
- Hiroyuki Ogura "Mechanism of Latin" (Baishuishe）
- Hidefumi Onishi "First Latin" (Kodansha<Kodansha's New Book>,ISBN-4 06-149353-1）
- Tsutomu Iwasaki "CD Express Latin" (Hakusuisha)
- Jun Arita "Introduction to Beginner Latin" (Hakusuisha)
- Kiichiro Itsumi"Latin Story Readable Latin Grammar" (Daishukan Bookstore,ISBN-4 46-921262-8）
- M. Amoros "How to Learn Latin" (Minami Window Co., Ltd.,ISBN-4 81-650097-9）
- Toshimitsu Tanaka"Revised Latin Basics" (Iwanami Shoten）
- Higuchi and Fujii "Detailed Latin Grammar" (Research society）
- Shigeichi Kure"Introduction to Latin" (Iwanami Shoten)
- Masatoshi Muramatsu "Latin Four Weeks" (Daigaku Syorin）
- Shogo Kawasoko "Introduction to the Revised New Edition of Latin" (Tairyusha)
- "Latin for self-study to learn happily" (Daigaku Syorin)
- Kiyozo Kazama"Latin its form and heart" (Sanseido）
- Toki and Isaka "Fun Latin" (Kyobunkan）
- Grammar book
- Jean Corral (translated by Arita) "Latin Grammar" (Que Sais-je)
- Tsuneo Nakayama"Classical Latin Scriptures" (Kenkyusha, ISBN-4560067848)
- Hisanosuke Izui"Latin Hirobunten" (Hakusuisha,2005(New reissue edition),ISBN-4 560-00792-6）
- Chiaki Matsudaira,Kichinosuke Kunihara"New Latin Grammar" Toyo Publishing, September 1992, 9, 1th edition.ISBN 4-8096-4301-8.
- Hidenaka Tanaka"Rawa Dictionary』(Research society,ISBN-4 7674-9024-3）
- Tomohiro Mizutani "Rawa Dictionary Revised Edition" (Kenkyusha, ISBN-4767490251)
- Kichinosuke Kunihara "Classical Latin Dictionary" (Daigaku Syorin, ISBN-4475001560)
- Latin Dictionary Founded on Andrew's Edition of Freud's Latin Dictionary, Oxford Univ Press, ISBN-0 19-864201-6
- Latin history
- Kichinosuke Kunihara "Introduction to Medieval Latin" (New Edition)Daigaku Syorin,ISBN-4 475-01878-1）
- Jacqueline Danger "History of Latin" (translated by Ichiro Toyama and Daisuke Takada, Hakusuisha <Que Sais-jeu>,ISBN-4 560-05843-1）
- Joseph Hermann "Vulgar Latin" (translated by Takeshi Shimmura and Kichinosuke Kunihara, Hakusuisha <Que Sais-jeu>,ISBN-4 560-05498-3）
- Tadashi Mikajiri "Misa Song, Latin, Church Music Handbook-What is Misa, History, Pronunciation, Masterpiece Selection" (Chopin,2001,ISBN 978-4-88364-147-5）
- ^ In particular植物学In the paper, it was a requirement for official publication to be written in Latin until December 2011. → International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants.
- ^ For example, "cogito ergo sumThe katakana notation that is more faithful to the pronunciation of "" is "Kogito Ergosum", but it is listed in the item "Kogitorgosum" in Daijirin published by Sanseido.
- ^ a b "Z" is unnecessary for Latin but Greek [z] It was necessary to express the sound of.
- ^ 現代 のRomance languagesIs different from[s] , [tʃ],[ʒ],[dʒ] It was never pronounced like this.
- ^ At the church ceremonyKyrie eleison(Lord, mercy, originally Greek) is s [s].
- ^ Between vowels, or just s + vowels [z] May be pronounced as.
- ^ OnceNissan Diesel (currently UD Trucks)Of heavy trucks manufactured and sold byResonaThe spelling of is also RESONA, but this isEnglish OfresonanceIs the origin of the name (however, resonance itself is derived from the Latin word resono (prototype of resona)).
- ^ ,Hiroyoshi Ohashi" (PDF) "Journal of the Japan Society for Microbial Resources," Vol. 27, No. 2, Japan Society for Microbial Resources, December 2011,2021/3/7Browse.
- ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition (1999) "Foreign Words and Phrases"
- ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 31.
- ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 21-22.
- ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 33.
- ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 16-17.
- Introduction to Latin
- Latin (lingua Latina)
- The latin library(Posted Latin works from ancient times to modern times)
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- "Latin』- Koto bank