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🏥 | Does your personality change?Those that do not change?


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Does your personality change?Those that do not change?

 
If you write the contents roughly
Personality, on the other hand, includes the Latin word "persona."
 

"I can't help it because I have this kind of personality" "I don't know myself" "People don't change" In various psychological situations like this ... → Continue reading

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Latin

Latinword(Latin,Latin: lingua latina Ring a Latina)Indo-European OfItalicLatin Faliscan languages Of言语one of.originallyItalian peninsulaAncientLatinIt was widely used in ancient European continents (western and southern) and northern African continents, and was used as a major language in academia until modern times.

Kanji notation is Latin / Luodian,Latvian-LatinIs abbreviated.

Overview

originallyLatinThe word isItalian peninsulaCentralLatiumRegion (RomeArea centered on, nowイタリア-Lazio) AtLatinWas the language used byAncient rome-Republic Rome-Roman EmpireUsed inOfficial terminologyAs a result, it spread to the vast prints of the Roman Empire (western and southern parts of the European continent, northern Africa, and parts of Asia).

Western Roman EmpireEven after its fall, Latin played an important role in handing down classical literature in the Roman culture.Through a growing Christian churchCatholic churchSpread throughout Europe as the official language ofRitual religious termsWhen it comes to be used as中 世Growing up as Medieval Latin.RenaissanceWhen you meetnatural Science-Humanities-哲学Became a language of the intellectual class for.In addition, reading and writing-oriented literature languagesAcademic termAsThe early modern periodDeveloped and survived to Europe.Latin is stillEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlthough it is the official language of, it can be said that it is rarely used in everyday life.However, in each specialized knowledge field such as various academic societies, medicine, natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, and industrial technology, it is common throughout the world.scientific nameThere is a tradition of publishing with a Latin name, and it continues to be used persistently, such as publishing new discoveries as Latin academic papers.[Annotation 1]..Also, as abbreviations, am (ante meridiem), pm (post meridiem) in the morning and afternoon,ウ イ ル ス(Virus)データSome of the words used in daily life, such as (data), have their etymology derived from Latin.

Latin usage, era, region, and closely related languages

In the process of spreading LatinGreekIncorporating a lot of vocabulary fromLearning-thoughtIt came to be used for activities such as.

However, the Latin-dominated region was limited to the western half of the Roman Empire, and the eastern half was predominantly Greek.Eventually the Roman Empire split into east and west,Germanic peopleBy a big move ofWestern Roman EmpireAs the society of Western Europe changed drastically, the Latin language changed in various places, and eventually the everyday languages ​​of each place could no longer be called Latin, and the flow of Latin was followed.Romance languagesWas established in various places.Eastern Roman EmpireIn the 7th century, the official language wasGreekWas converted to.

Under these circumstances, even after the fall of the Roman Empire in the area corresponding to today's Western Europe.Roman Catholic ChurchBecame the official language ofLanguageMaintained the position of.Even nowVatican CityThe official language of is Latin.For exampleceremony TheSecond Vatican CouncilUntil then, it was done in Latin.To this day, many composers have added songs to the liturgical texts.Classical musicIt is one of the main singing languages.However, the actual use is official documents andMassIt is not limited to such things and is not spoken on a daily basis.Also, the Latin language used in the Vatican is an anomalous Latin language that is different from the classical formula.It is a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nation.スイスThen the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica(HelvetiaFederal)AcronymIs an abbreviation for the name of the home country (CH).AlsoEuropean company(Societas Europaea, SE), Latin is sometimes used as a term common to Europe.

中 世In, many official and scholarly books are in Latin (Medieval latinWritten in (Ecclesiastical Latin), this practice still exists today.For exampleBiology Ofscientific nameIs a rule that uses Latin, as well aselementMost of the names are in Latin.AlsoJurisprudenceEven in manyRoman lawMaximLegal termIs left.19st centuryUp to European countriesUniversityWas stipulated to write a dissertation in Latin.

Today'sRomance languages(Eastern Romance:Italian-Romanian, Western Romance:French-Spanish-PortugueseEtc.)Profane latinIt is a language derived from.Also,English-German-DutchSuch asGermanic languagesAlsogrammarIt had a great influence on the vocabulary and vocabulary.

modernMedical scienceEven inAnatomyThe term is basically Latin.This is related to the historical process of unifying the anatomical vocabulary that everyone used to coin freely with BNA (Basel anatomical term), PNA (Paris anatomical term), etc.In other words, Latin was used to unify the terms.Therefore, the "Anatomical Term" published by the Japanese Association of Anatomists is also basically Latin (Latin monolingualism).However,ClinicalIn this situation, it is natural for doctors to explain the condition to patients in their own language, so there are anatomical jargon in their own language in addition to Latin in each country (Latin / native language bilingualism).In recent years, the highest peaks of medical academic societies and academic journals have been concentrated in the English-speaking world.EnglishThe importance of anatomical terms has increased.In Japan, Latin, English,JapaneseThe anatomical books written in three languages ​​have become mainstream (Latin, English, and native language trilingualism).

"ウ イ ル ス (virus)"Such,JapaneseBut it is used in some vocabulary.Mori Ogai OfNovel"Eta Sex Alice』Is Latin vita sexualis(Sexual life).However, in Japanese, in most cases, the distinction between the length of the original vowel is not conscious.[Annotation 2].

History

Old Latin

Latin belongsItalicIt is,Indo-EuropeanWithinCentumClassified intoProto-Indo-European Of *k and *g Is also in Latin K, G Was kept as.Italic speakersItalian peninsulaAppeared in2th millennium BCSeen to be in the second half, with Latin speakersLatium region(Currentイタリア, Lazio)8th century BCwas.The oldest Latin currently discoveredInscription The7th century BCIt was made in.From this time2th century BCLatin up to that time was distinguished from Latin in later timesOld LatinIs called.The Latin of this era isvocabularyWas adjacent in terms ofEtruscanWas influenced by.

The following 21 letters in Old LatinThe alphabetWas used.The current glyph is shown at the bottom.this is,Archaic Greek letters・ EarlyEtruscan letters-Old italic scriptsAlmost followed the alphabet of

𐌀𐌁𐌂𐌃𐌄𐌅𐌆𐌇𐌉𐌊𐌋𐌌𐌍𐌏𐌐𐌒𐌓𐌔𐌕𐌖𐌗
ABCDEFZ[Annotation 3]HIKLMNOPQRSTVX

this house,C TheΓ In a variant of [ɡ] Represents the sound ofI The [I][j],V The [at][w] It had the note value of.The five vowel letters (A, E, I, O, V) represented both long and short, but there was no distinction between long and short on the letters.3th century BCTo become and C The [k] The sound ofK Is almost obsolete.afterwards [ɡ] To represent the sound of G Was newly created and was not used Z[Annotation 3] Was replaced with the position of the character.

Old Latin isClassical LatinRemain inNominative,呼格,Genitive(Ownership),Dative(Indirect object),Accusative(Direct object),AblativeIn addition toPlaceRepresentsLocativeThere was (also called locative, geological, hypostasis, locative, locative, etc.).For noun decals, the singular and plural nominatives of the second change noun -oī was.Second change noun singular ending in classical Latin -us, -um Each in this era -os, -om was.Also, the ending of multiple genitives is -ōsum(For the second song), which will be later -ōrum It became.Thus, at the end of the Old Latin era, the s between vowels becomes r "RhotacismThe change happened.

Classical Latin

1th century BCSince then, the Latin language used for centuriesClassical Latin(Classical Latin).Later中 世,AlsomodernThe "Latin" that people learn in is usually the classical Latin.This classical Latin iswritten languageThere is a lot of literature left, but the words people used to speak on a daily basisProfane latin(Colloquial Latin).This vulgar Latin is modernRomance languagesIt changed to.

Like Old Latin,scriptio continua(Scriptio Continua, continued writing)SegmentationToCustomThere was no (InscriptionEtc., smallMedium blackWith something like単 語There is also an example of separating).The alphabetAlsoキ ケ ロ(pre-106 - 43) Until the era X Was 21 characters.Also,uppercase letterOnly used.

At the beginning of the eraGreekOf originForeign wordsTo write YZ Is newly used,The alphabetIs the following 23 characters.

ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTVXYZ

However,K Other than KALENDAE etc.Proper nounIt is no longer used regularly because it is limited to[k] The sound of C Was used regularly (however [kw] The QU It was written as).

In classical Latin C and G Always each [k] and [ɡ] Was pronounced[Annotation 4].Y The six vowels, including, represented both long and short, but no notational distinction was made except for a very short period of time.

Classical LatinaccentAs found in modern Romance languagesStress accentnot,Modern japaneselikePitch accentIt is said that it was (high and low accent) (there is also a theory that it is a stress accent).In terms of grammarOld Latin OfLocative(Also called locative, place, rank, case, case, etc.) disappeared except for some place names, and sixCase(Nominative,呼格,Genitive,Dative,Accusative,Ablative) Was used.Also in the previous eraEnding -os, -om In the classical period -us, -um It became.

Of this eraSpoken language(Profane latin) Then, at the end of the sentence -s BehindvowelIn some cases, it was not pronounced unless was followed.Also au Is in everyday life [ɔː] Was read.In this way, in the classical period, there was a gap between spoken language and written language that retained old-fashioned characteristics.What is now called Classical Latin is from this periodwritten language.

The golden age of Latin literature

1th century BCAround.

The silver era of Latin literature

1st centuryAround.

Profane latin

Classic periodAt the end of the day, the Latin language that people spoke became increasingly prominent in its changes from the classical language.The Latin language used by the masses during this periodProfane latin(Colloquial Latin) Called.2st centuryOr3st centuryFrom around that time, vulgar Latin characteristics began to be seen, but as the times went by, the changes became greater, and the differentiation of each region became clear.

In classical Latin Y Except for, there were 5 vowels, and there were 10 vowels when distinguishing between long and short, but in vulgar Latin, these became the following 7 vowels.

[A] [ɛ] [e] [I] [ɔ] [or] [at]

Classic periodLong vowel [eː] The [e] To[oː] The [or] Changed to.AlsoShort vowels [e][or] Are in vulgar Latin respectively [ɛ][ɔ] Became.Classic period V It is,consonantas [w] Was pronounced, but in the vulgar Latin era [v] It had changed to.furtheraccent ThePitch accentからContemporary Romance languagesSimilar toStress accentWas replaced by.Classic period [k][ɡ] Has also changed.these areFront vowel([I] , [e]) Is softened and palatalized (hard palatalized), respectively. [tʃ],[dʒ] It became the sound of.

In vulgar LatinverbThere was also a change in refraction such as.In the future tense of verbs, the conjugation of habere (has) has begun to be used at the end of the stem instead of the classical -bo.Demonstrative ille changes shape and graduallyarticleIt came to be used as.nounFor songsCase inflectionIs simplified,NominativeAccusativeAre the same (especiallyFeminine noun)become,GenitiveDativeWas also integrated.Simplified nounsCaseon behalfprepositionHas developed.For exampleGenitiveInstead of de,DativeInstead of a, a began to be used.

イタリア,Iberian PeninsulaThen soonnoun OfCase inflectionDisappears,FranceBut12st centuryBy that time it was no longer usedDaciaAfter being used inRomanianExcept for, there is no case inflection.Not only these grammatical features, but also the phonological aspect and vocabulary of the vulgar Latin, which made a big difference in each region, soon became.Romance languagesFormed a language called.

Medieval latin

The Latin language used in the former Roman Empire prints was no longer used by the general public and changed from Latin in each region.Profane latinWas replaced by it.On the other handClassical LatinIs a modern language not only in the territory of the former Roman Empire but throughout Western EuropeLanguageUntil it was established as, it was used as a common academic language.Similarly, in the Catholic Church, Latin, which is under the classical Latin tradition, was used as Ecclesiastical Latin, but it continued to be used thereafter.

Modern and modern

Latin has long been the standard language in church and in the academic world in Europe,RenaissanceWithClassical antiquityCulture was reviewed, and there was a movement to use Latin, which was modeled after classical grammar and vocabulary.HumanistStrengthened between.This will teach and describe the "correct" Latin language rather than the Middle Ages.Latin, which has become more common, is widely used by European intellectuals even in modern times.Official terminologyWas used as.

As the main thinker who wrote in this modern LatinThomas More("ユ ー ト ピ ア]),ErasmusNot only humanists likeCartesian,SpinozaGiants of modern philosophy such as.The famous Descartes "I think, therefore I amThe first appearance of the word ""Discourse on Method』French version, but later translated into Latin Cogito, ergo sum.(Kogitou, Ergo Sum) is more widely known.In natural scienceNewton OfPurinkipiaThere is.However, the French Enlightenment thinker, GermanyCantAfter that, writing in the mother tongue became the mainstream.

In the academic world, Latin is still an authoritative language and a high-ranking language in the world.Latin is still used as an academic term for academic purposesvocabularyThere is no change in grammar etc. because it is a dead language (although there were some changes throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period), or it is not biased to the position of one modern language. The aspect of being neutral can not be overlooked.Of course, this is the same for other classical languages, but the choice of Latin reflects that modern scholarship, good or bad, was European-centric.As a scene that is still being used, for exampleBiology Ofscientific nameIs Latin orGreekIt is customary to spell words in Latin style.

Also, even today, knowledge of Latin represents a certain culture and formality, and the country (eg,)The United States of America,スペイン,スイス,カナダAnd Canadian states, etc.) and organizations (US Marine Corps,British MarinesEtc.) using Latin as a motto, or in 1985University of SalamancaInscription commemorating the visit of the Japanese Crown Prince and his wifeSpanishNot carved in Latin,The United Kingdom OfElizabeth II 1992To comment Annus Horribilis(Annus horribilis, Terrible year) and Latin (but pronounced in English) are also manifestations.Even in Japan, the first championship flag of high school baseball VICTORIBUS PALMAE(Wicktolibus Palmae, "Crown to the Victor") was embroidered.However, it cannot be said that Latin is emphasized in Europe today.In European countriesSecond World WarUntil beforeSecondary educationIn many cases, Latin was compulsory in the course, but now it exists as a subject equivalent to "classical", "old writing" or "Chinese writing" in Japan.

From the point of view of daily conversation, there is almost no conversation in Latin in modern times, soDead languageLatin is still a perennial favorite among some Western intellectuals, although it can be said to be one of the languages ​​close to.In recent yearsインターネットWith the expansion of the use of Latin, individuals who are interested in Latin are strengthening their cooperation.Latin WikipediaAlso exists (Latin: Vicipaedia) In addition, there are newspapers, SNS, mailing lists, and blogs in Latin.further,フィンランドState broadcasts regularly broadcast news programs in Latin.

Which countries currently use Latin as their official languageVatican CityOnly.This is still LatinCatholic churchThis is because it is adopted as the official official language of the Vatican City, but Latin is also used in official documents such as the Encyclical.ConclaveOath, "Urbi et OrbiLimited to liturgical texts such as, 2013 PopeAbdication of Benedict XVIAt that time, the intention and reason for abdication were made by reading aloud the Latin text prepared by the Pope himself.In everyday lifeItalianIs used (VaticanRomeIn the city).

pronunciation

Since it has been used for a long time in various parts of Europe, its pronunciation differs depending on the country, region, and era, but it is roughly divided into modern times.Classic,Italian style,German styleThere are three.The Italian style is pronounced according to the principles of modern Italian and based on it.Church ceremonyThere are two (Roman style).The latter is a pronunciation method advocated at the Solesmes monastery in France.Pius VIISpread as recommended by.

The pronunciation learned at Japanese universities is, in principle, classical.On the other hand, Italian and German styles are the mainstream for singing Latin songs.Here are some examples of how they differ (actually, there are variations in pronunciation depending on the region and person).

pronunciationClassicItalian styleGerman style
ae (æ)[ae][e][ɛ]
oe (œ)[oe][e][ø], [œ]
c[k]In front of a, o, u [k]In front of, ae, e, i [tʃ]In front of a, o, u [k]In front of, e, i [ts]
gn[gn][ɲ][gn]
s[s][s], Between vowels [z][Annotation 5][s][Annotation 6]
sc[sk]In front of a, o, u [sk]In front of, e, i [ʃ]In front of a, o, u [sk]In front of, e, i [sts]
z[z][dz][ts]
Created based on Tadashi Mikajiri "Misa Song / Latin / Church Music Handbook-What is Misa / History / Pronunciation / Masterpiece Selection" (Chopin, 2001).. Added c and gn later based on Wikipedia German version.

In addition to the above three methodsarticleNot even level Latin単 語andフ レ ー ズAt the levelEnglish styleIs widespread.Originally in englishetc.(Others) Is Etosetra ()Et cetera, In English, c before e, i, y is pronounced s),Et tu Brute(Brute, you too) Is pronounced as Eto Thu Bruta, etc. [2],English isInternational languageEspecially now科学There are many English pronunciations in terms.For exampleastronomyIn a relationship星座name isEnglishUse Latin in the textstar名もGreek lettersLatin constellation name in the nameGenitive(Possessive) Is added, so Latin is pronounced in English.

In Japanese, it is customary to write classical or German sounds in katakana.However, even if it seems to be based on the classical formula, in most cases, the length of the vowel is not indicated.On the other hand, when writing the titles of religious music, there are many notations that are close to the Italian style.For exampleAgnus Dei Of Agnus Is pronounced "Anyusu" in classical and German styles, but "Anyus" in Italian styles (strictly speaking, gn is [ɲ] (Nosal sound).Magnificat Is not "Magnificato" but "MagnificatThere is a strong tendency to be written.

accent

As mentioned above, accents have shifted from pitch accents to stress accents with the times, but there is a certain rule as to where the accent is placed in a word.

The law is as follows.

  1. The second syllable from the backClosed syllableAnd ifLong vowelOrDiphthongIf the syllable contains, the accent is placed in the second syllable from the back.
  2. Other than the above, it is placed in the third syllable from the back.However, a word that has only two syllables is placed in the second syllable from the back.

Example of 1.: puella girl (closed syllable). mertor merchant (long vowel).

Example of 2.īnsula island.dominus master.

grammar

Latin, Latin, all other ancientIndo-EuropeanAs strong asrefractionAnd therefore the word order is flexible.Therefore, classical Latin isProto-Indo-EuropeanIt can be said that it is an old-fashioned language that preserves the form of.There are up to 7 types of case inflections for nouns and 4 types of conjugations for verbs.Latin isprepositionAnd usually qualifynounAfter theadjective・ Put a genitive.Latin is alsopro dropout languageas well as the Verb framing languageBut also.

Since Latin is a language with strong refraction, the word order can be changed flexibly.The syntax is generally SOV-type, but other word orders are also common in poetry.In ordinary prose, there was a tendency for the word order to be subject, indirect object, direct object, modifier / phrase, and verb.Other components, including subordinate verbs, such asInfinitiveEtc. were placed before the verb[3].

There are three nounssex(Male / Female / Neutral), 2Quantity(Singular / plural), 7CaseIt has (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, categorical, and geographic), and changes the word form according to these.ThatFor songsThe types of are roughly divided into the 1st-5th changes.[4]..Adjectives match gender and case according to modified nouns[5]..Also, Latin has no articles or classifiers.

There are three verbsLaw(Direct method, subjunctive mood, imperative mood) and 6tense(Present, incomplete past, future, completed, past completed, future completed), twoState(Active voice / passive voice), twoQuantity(Singular / plural), 3PersonAccording to (first person, second person, third person)InflectionTo do.other,Nonfinite verbAsInfinitive,Participle,Gerund,GerundiveThere is.All of these are based on the four basic forms of the verb[6].

Performance

挨 拶
Latinmeaning
Hello(Singular) /salvete(Multiple)Hello
vale (singular) / valete (plural)さ よ う な ら
bonum diemToday
bonum vesperumGood evening
bonam noctemGood night
quomodo vales ?, ut vales?How are you?
bene valeoYes, I'm fine.
optime valeo, gratias tibi / agovery good.Thank you.
male valeoNo, I'm fine.
gratias tibi / ago, gratias tibi agoThank you
accipe sis, en tibiWelcome
excusatum (male) / excusatam (female) me habeExcuse me
ignosce mihiI'm sorry
quod nomen tibi est?What is your name?
mihi nomen est ...my name is. .. ..
itaYes
DON'TNo
quaesohere you go
食べ物
Latinmeaning
aqua, aquae (f.)Wed
botulus, botuli (m.)sausage
butyrum, butyri (n.)バ タ ー
caseus, casei (m.)cheese
cervisia, cervisiae (f.)beer
citreum, citrei (n.)Lemon
lactuca, lactucae (f.)lettuce
oryza, oryzae (f.)Rice
panis, panis (m.)Bread
perna, pernae (f.)Ham
Pisces, piscis (m.)Fish
placenta, placentae (f.)cake
grape, uvae (f.)grape
vinum, vini (n.)Wine

Expressions used today, their influence on Japanese

Formulaics / maxims

Classical Latin idioms are often used in modern Western languages, some of which are also in Japanese.Of course, there are many examples where words such as English of Latin origin are also used in Japanese.

Trade name / proper noun

Examples of Latin-derived trade names and proper nouns are as follows.

Latin-derived symbols

Related item

References

Introductory book
Introduction
Grammar book
dictionary
Latin history
  • Kichinosuke Kunihara "Introduction to Medieval Latin" (New Edition)Daigaku Syorin,ISBN-4 475-01878-1
  • Jacqueline Danger "History of Latin" (translated by Ichiro Toyama and Daisuke Takada, Hakusuisha <Que Sais-jeu>,ISBN-4 560-05843-1
  • Joseph Hermann "Vulgar Latin" (translated by Takeshi Shimmura and Kichinosuke Kunihara, Hakusuisha <Que Sais-jeu>,ISBN-4 560-05498-3
Others
  • Tadashi Mikajiri "Misa Song, Latin, Church Music Handbook-What is Misa, History, Pronunciation, Masterpiece Selection" (Chopin,2001,ISBN 978-4-88364-147-5

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In particular植物学In the paper, it was a requirement for official publication to be written in Latin until December 2011.[1]International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants.
  2. ^ For example, "cogito ergo sumThe katakana notation that is more faithful to the pronunciation of "" is "Kogito Ergosum", but it is listed in the item "Kogitorgosum" in Daijirin published by Sanseido.
  3. ^ a b "Z" is unnecessary for Latin but Greek [z] It was necessary to express the sound of.
  4. ^ 現代 のRomance languagesIs different from[s] , [tʃ],[ʒ],[dʒ] It was never pronounced like this.
  5. ^ At the church ceremonyKyrie eleison(Lord, mercy, originally Greek) is s [s].
  6. ^ Between vowels, or just s + vowels [z] May be pronounced as.
  7. ^ OnceNissan Diesel (currently UD Trucks)Of heavy trucks manufactured and sold byResonaThe spelling of is also RESONA, but this isEnglish OfresonanceIs the origin of the name (however, resonance itself is derived from the Latin word resono (prototype of resona)).

Source

  1. ^ ,Hiroyoshi Ohashi"Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne: What does e-publication mean for you. Knapp, S., McNeill, J. & Turland, NJ Taxon 4: 18-60, 1498) ”introduction and Japanese translation (PDF) "Journal of the Japan Society for Microbial Resources," Vol. 27, No. 2, Japan Society for Microbial Resources, December 2011,2021/3/7Browse.
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition (1999) "Foreign Words and Phrases"
  3. ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 31.
  4. ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 21-22.
  5. ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 33.
  6. ^ Matsudaira & Kunihara 1992, pp. 16-17.

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