Foreign nurses supporting medical care Miyazaki Prefecture
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Nurses hire Filipinos under the official framework of an EPA / Economic Partnership Agreement.
This is a special feature.The opportunities for foreigners to play an active role are expanding in the medical and long-term care settings.Hiroshi, who runs Nozaki Hospital in Miyazaki City ... → Continue reading
"TV Miyazaki" (Fuji TV affiliate) news account. We will send you the latest news about Miyazaki Prefecture.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Economic partnership agreement
Economic partnership agreement(Keisei Reinkei,British: Economic Partnership Agreement,EPA-registered household disinfectants) IsTariffAbolitionNon-tariff barriersIn addition to removing trade barriers such as lowering the number of countries, facilitating economic transactions between Parties, harmonizing economic systems, and strengthening and cooperating in various economic areas such as services, investment, and electronic commerce. Including promotion ofTreaty.
PreviouslyFree trade agreement(FTA), But now it is almost synonymous, as will be described later.
Relationship between Free Trade Agreement and WTO Agreement
Under the Free Trade Agreement, reducing/eliminating tariffs only between countries at the time of the agreement does not violate the WTO general MFN treatment if the following conditions are met.
- GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) Article 24
- GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) Article 5
- WTOAuthorization clause(Enabling clause, determined by GATT in 1979)" Yes, the strict requirements of GATT Article 24 do not apply)
As of August 2021, 9, 19 agreements haveWorld Trade Organization) As valid (in force)Has been.. Those reported to the WTO include those called Customs Unions and Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The breakdown of the 350 agreement by ground is as follows:.. Many agreements provide for both goods and services trade, so there is duplication in numbers. See the WTO website for details on typesSee.The latest report is the agreement between the United Kingdom and Mexico (effective June 2021, 6) that it was reported on June 28, 2021. On December 6, 1, the number of agreements signed by the United Kingdom with the withdrawal from the EU was 2020 (effective January 12, 31), resulting in a significant increase.In thisJapan-UK Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementWas also included, and the agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU was also reported.However, it came into effect on January 2020, 1.US-Japan trade agreement, The First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which came into effect on August 2020, 8, has not been reported as of January 1, 2021..
- GATT Article 24:318
- GATS Article 5:188
- WTO authorization clause: 62
In addition, at the House of Councilors plenary session on November 2020, 11, during a question and answer session when the purpose of the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement was explained, Mr. Shinkun Haku, a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party and the corporate citizens, responded to a question by Toshimitsu Mogi. The minister said, "The WTO website has announced that the 27 free trade agreements have not yet been reported, including the Hong Kong ASEAN trade agreement and the Australia-Indonesia trade agreement. We are here. "I am answering.This WTO website is a document of the WTO Regional Trade Commission on September 2020, 9.However, this list does not include the US-Japan trade agreement.
Difference between FTA and EPA
Free trade agreements and economic partnership agreements were previously described as different:
A "Free Trade Agreement" (FTA) is a deal with a particular country or regionTariffAgreement to remove restrictions on goods and services and to freely distribute goods and services.. It is also said to be the basis of trade policy.
"Economic partnership agreement(Economic Partnership Agreement, EPA) is not only about the distribution of goods and services, but also the movement of people,Intellectual property rightAgreement aimed at strengthening intimate relations between the two countries or regions through various cooperation such as protection of people, investment, competition policy, and cooperation in a wide range of fields..
Regarding the rules of trade between regions,World Trade Organization Although it took the form of multilateral negotiations through the (WTO), it takes a lot of time and effort to handle each multilateral negotiation, so as a new international rule between regions that supplements the WTO, FTA and EPA are attracting attention.
However, we are not aware that there is an internationally established definition of "free trade agreement" in the official view of the Japanese government.Therefore, the difference between EPA and FTA is not defined by the Japanese government as an internationally established definition.
Japan isSoutheast Asia,IndiaAs we have been promoting an economic cooperation agreement withGeneral agreement on tariffs and trade) And GATS (General Agreement on Trade in ServicesIn addition to areas such as trade in goods and services liberalized by FTAs based on... The reason is that not only the elimination of tariffs, but also the expectation that a wide range of effects will be produced in terms of investment and services..
Although the Japanese government divides FTAs and EPAs in this way, it says, "It is not a general name and is not used in the WTO. The FTA was originally specialized in trade, but its contents are changing year by year. It's widespread and is almost synonymous with it anymore] In fact, some FTAs that have been concluded in the world in recent years include various new fields that are not limited to tariff elimination/reduction and liberalization of trade in services, similar to Japanese EPA.It is often the case that some countries comprehensively classify FTAs and EPAs into FTAs without distinguishing them.[Annotation 1].. Especially in the United States, most of the signed and signed agreements are free trade agreements.[Annotation 2]Although there is no agreement on economic partnership, the contents include not only tariff elimination/reduction and liberalization of trade in services but also fields such as environment and labor.[Annotation 3].. FurtherUS-Japan trade agreementIn the question of the approval of the Diet, in response to a question from Mr. (Yu) Goto, Foreign Minister Mogi: “Comprehensive FTA, in which, in addition to trade in goods, the basics include liberalization of all services, Incorporate a wide range of rules, such as intellectual property, investment, and competition, into the agreementAs stated in the guide, there is no internationally-established definition of FTA, but in Japan, up to now, general trade in goods and services with particular countries and regions has been general. We have used the term FTA in that sense, an agreement aimed at the liberalization of the." In addition, the Cabinet Secretariat, Shibuya TPP and other policy coordinating officers of the Government's Countermeasures Headquarters, responded, "Since it is an agreement consistent with Article XNUMX of GATT, we recognize that it is an economic partnership agreement." Although it is a law related to tariffs and a domestic law, the Order for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law[Annotation 4] The term "economic partnership agreement" is mentioned in the above, and the agreement is directly applied when applying the tariff rate agreed in the economic partnership agreement.[Annotation 5], This is the rule. We recognize that this is an economic partnership agreement, which we call the Customs Law, including the TPP, Japan-EU-EPA, and this Japan-US trade agreement."That's what it means.
更に日本の外務省は、公的報告書である外交青書において、2020年版In, it is described as "Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) or Free Trade Agreement (FTA)", and in the footnote, "EPA: Economic Partnership Agreement (In addition to trade liberalization, investment, movement of people, protection of intellectual property and competition) An agreement aimed at strengthening a wide range of economic relations, including rule-making in policy and elements of cooperation in various fields): FTA: Free Trade Agreement (tariffs on goods and trade in services between specific countries and regions) (Agreement aimed at reducing or eliminating barriers, etc.) ”, but the latest version, 2021 versionIn, it is described as "Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA / FTA)", and in the footnote, only "EPA: Economic Partnership Agreement FTA: Free Trade Agreement" is described, and the explanations and translations of each are not described.Therefore, it is the official view of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that FTAs and EPAs are not separated even in Japan.
As of January 2021, the Japanese government's agreements with foreign countries or specified regions (which have entered into force) came into effect in December 9.Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership(CPTPP) and became effective in January 2020US-Japan trade agreementAll except EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement). Signed with CPTPP in February 2018Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement(TPP) is EPA in terms of content, but the agreement name is "Partnership Agreement".Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementAlthough its name is EPA, it was only related to tariffs until the first revised protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which regulates trade in services and investment, came into effect on August 2020, 8.US-Japan trade agreementOnly stipulates tariff elimination / reduction.
EU FTA classification
EU has its official websiteEU Free Trade Agreement offers new opportunitiesThe EU has concluded that there are four types of free trade agreements that the EU has concluded with countries and regions around the world.
1. First generation agreements
Mainly signed before 2006, the focus is on tariff elimination. It includes agreements with Switzerland, Norway, the Mediterranean and Middle East countries, Mexico and Chile, customs unions with Turkey, and "Stabilisation and Association agreements" with the Western Balkans.
2. Second generation agreements
Targets South Korea, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Central America. It also includes intellectual property rights, services and commitment to sustainable development. The Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) falls under this category, although it has a different name.
3. Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA)
Create stronger economic relations between the EU and neighboring countries such as Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
4. Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
Focused on development demand in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific region. This does not apply to the Japan-EU EPA.
As mentioned above, EU generally means EPA "focused on development demand", and Japan-EU EPA refers to tariffs, intellectual property rights and services, and commitment to sustainable development. Understand that it is a second generation agreement that also includes.
List of EPAs/FTAs in Japan
According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan is seeking not only FTAs but also EPAs... The reason is that not only the elimination of tariffs, but also the expectation that a wide range of effects will be produced in terms of investment and services..
Signed and effective EPA/FTA
- Japan-Singapore New Era Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective November 2002, 11 (Revised Protocol effective September 30, 2007)
- Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective November 2005, 4 (Revised Protocol effective September 1, 2012)
- Japan-Malaysia Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2006, 7
- Japan-Chile Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2007, 9
- Japan-Thailand Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2007, 11
- Japan-Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2008, 7
- Japan-Brunei Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2008, 7
- Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective from December 2008, 12, and lastly on July 1, 2010フィリピンBecame effective for all signatories. However,IndonesiaRegarding, regarding the delay in the procedures for domestic implementation, the Indonesian Minister of Finance was promulgated on February 2018, 2 and came into effect on March 15, 2018. The agreement has been put into operation, and the preferential tariff rate based on the AJCEP agreement will be applied between Japan and Indonesia..
- The 2020st Amendment Protocol to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which will add service trade and investment to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, was issued on August 8, 1 in Japan, Thailand, Singapore, Laos, Munmar, Effective for Vietnam..Brunei notified the completion of domestic procedures on August 8, and the revised protocol came into effect on Brunei from October 21, 2020...Since Cambodia notified the completion of domestic procedures on December 2020, 12, the revised protocol came into effect on February 14, 2021 for Cambodia...Since the Philippines notified the completion of domestic procedures on March 2021, 3, the revised protocol came into effect on May 12, 2021 for the Philippines...Since Malaysia notified the completion of domestic procedures on April 2021, 4, the revised protocol came into effect on June 13, 2021 for Malaysia...For ASEAN member countries (Indonesia) that will be notified to bring the revised Protocol into effect, the first day of the second month after the month to which the country has notified the completion of domestic procedures (for example, 2). If the notification is given on the 6th of May, it will take effect on the 25st of July).[Annotation 6].
- Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2008, 12
- Japan-Switzerland Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2009, 9
- Japan-Vietnam Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2009, 10
- Japan-India Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2011, 8
- Japan-Peru Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2012, 3
- Japan-Australia Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2015, 1
- Japan-Mongolia Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2016, 6
- Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership(CPTPP, TPP11): Effective December 2018, 12 between Mexico, Japan, Singapore, New Zealand, Canada and Australia.. Effective January 2019, 1 for Vietnam、2021年9月19日にペルーについて発効した。残り未締結の3か国（ブルネイ、マレーシア、及びチリ）はそれぞれの国が批准を通知してから、60日後に個別に、当該国について協定は発効する[Annotation 7].
- Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective July 2019, 2.
- US-Japan trade agreement: Effective January 2020, 1.
- Japan-UK Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement: Effective January 2021, 1
Japan has completed the signing procedure but has not yet taken effect EPA/FTA
- Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement(TPP): Signed February 2016, 2, Japan signed January 2017, 1.The United States of AmericaHas not yet taken effect due to the departure.
- Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP): Signed November 2020, 11, Japan signed January 2021, 6.. As of June 2021, 6, three countries have been ratified (Japan, China and Singapore). Effective 28 days after ratification by 3 of the ASEAN member states and 6 of the non-ASEAN signatories.
EPA/FTA under negotiation
- CJK Free Trade Agreement
- Japan-Turkey Economic Partnership Agreement
- Japan-Colombia Economic Partnership Agreement
EPA/FTA pending or suspended
- Japan-Canada Economic Partnership Agreement
- Japan-Korea Free Trade Agreement
- Japan-GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) Free Trade Agreement
Japanese EPA/FTA signer, signature date, effective date, WTO notification date
EPA/FTA economic scale
The EPA/FTA economic scale (trade ratios to countries (including regions) to which Japan's trade with the world is included (exports, imports, total trade, 2020) is as follows:.
|Export ratio||Import ratio||Total trade ratio|
|Japan-Singapore New Era Economic Partnership Agreement||2.76%||1.35%||2.06%|
|Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement||1.31%||0.86%||1.08%|
|Japan-Malaysia Economic Partnership Agreement||1.96%||2.51%||2.24%|
|Japan-Chile Economic Partnership Agreement||0.16%||1.04%||0.59%|
|Japan-Thailand Economic Partnership Agreement||3.96%||3.74%||3.86%|
|Japan-Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement||1.44%||2.43%||1.93%|
|Japan-Brunei Economic Partnership Agreement||0.02%||0.27%||0.14%|
|Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement||14.39%||15.72%||15.06%|
|Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement||1.37%||1.47%||1.42%|
|Japan-Switzerland Economic Partnership Agreement||0.75%||1.17%||0.96%|
|Japan-Vietnam Economic Partnership Agreement||2.67%||3.47%||3.07%|
|Japan-India Economic Partnership Agreement||1.42%||0.74%||1.08%|
|Japan-Peru Economic Partnership Agreement||0.07%||0.34%||0.22%|
|Japan-Australia Economic Partnership Agreement||1.89%||5.62%||3.75%|
|Japan-Mongolia Economic Partnership Agreement||0.05%||0.00%||0.03%|
|Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)||12.26%||17.55%||14.89%|
|Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)(Current Contracting Party)||10.12%||13.72%||11.93%|
|Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement||9.23%||11.40%||10.31%|
|US-Japan trade agreement||18.44%||10.97%||14.72%|
|Japan-UK Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement||1.67%||1.01%||1.34%|
|EPA/FTA that has been signed during negotiations, has been interrupted, and has not been signed yet (not yet confirmed)|
|Export ratio||Import ratio||Total trade ratio|
|Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)||30.70%||28.51%||19.61%|
|Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) (15 signatories)||45.59%||51.73%||48.64%|
|Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) (For returning to India)||47.01%||52.47%||49.73%|
|CJK Free Trade Agreement||29.02%||29.99%||29.50|
|Japan-Turkey Economic Partnership Agreement||0.42%||0.11%||0.26%|
|Japan-Colombia Economic Partnership Agreement||0.13%||0.07%||0.10%|
|Japan-Canada Economic Partnership Agreement||1.13%||1.70%||1.41%|
|Japan-Korea Economic Partnership Agreement||6.97%||4.19%||5.59%|
|Japan-GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) Free Trade Agreement||2.20%||7.97%||5.07%|
|Percentage of Japan's total trade|
|Export ratio||Import ratio||Total trade ratio|
|The current EPA / FTA signed by Japan (total excluding duplication. The same shall apply hereinafter)||49.39%||50.21%||49.80%|
|EPA / FTA + RCEP currently being signed by Japan [Annotation 8]||78.41%||80.21%||79.30%|
|Japan's current EPA/FTA + Turkey||49.81%||50.32%||50.07%|
|Current EPA/FTA + Turkey + RCEP under Japan [Annotation 8]||78.83%||80.31%||79.57%|
|Countries that have not concluded or negotiated EPA/FTA with Japan (including regions) (top trade value)|
|Export ratio||Import ratio||Total trade ratio|
|Republic of South Africa||0.26%||0.91%||0.58%|
- ^ Significance and Challenges of Economic Partnership Agreements-Is Japan's Trade Policy Changed or Is the Formation of an "East Asian Community" Coming Soon?-RIETI Law Bulletin June 2005
- ^ Based on the 2006 WTO decision (WTO document WT/REG/16).
- ^ a b "List of all RTAs, including accessions to RTAs". WTO (September 2021, 6). 2021/6/14Browse.
- ^ a b "Figures on Regional Trade Agreements notified to the GATT / WTO and in force". WTO (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/6Browse.
- ^ "203rd House of Councilors plenary session No. 5 Reiwa November 2, 11". National Diet Library (September 2020, 11). 2020/1/7Browse.
- ^ WT / REG / W / 151
- ^ "LIST OF RTAS WHICH HAVE APPEARED IN FACTUAL PRESENTATIONS (ISSUED UP TO 14 SEPTEMBER 2020) AND HAVE NOT YET BEEN NOTIFIED TO THE WTO". WTO (September 2020, 9). 2020/1/7Browse.
- ^ a b c d e What is EPA/FTA Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
- ^ a b c “Trade policy (2) Covers intellectual property and movement of people”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2010, 5)
- ^ "What is EPA/FTA?" MOFA FTA PR Video
- ^ "Answer No. XNUMX Cabinet Participation Quality XNUMX No. XNUMX Taro Yamamoto, member of the House of Councilors, is the answer to the question concerning Japan-US trade negotiations.”. House of Councilors (November 2018, 11). 2018/11/16Browse.
- ^ a b c d "What are the merits of EPA/FTA?" MOFA FTA PR Video
- ^ Yoshika Uematsu (Interview with Professor Shujiro Urata, Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies, Waseda University) (November 2019, 11).How to read what is RCEP that both Japan and China participate". Asahi Shimbun. 2019/11/21Browse.
- ^ a b "The 200th Diet Foreign Affairs Committee No. 4 (Wednesday, November 11, 6)”. House of Representatives. 2019/11/25Browse.
- ^ "Diplomatic Bluebook (2020) p219 Chapter 3 Diplomacy to Promote National Interests and Global Interests Section 3 Economic Diplomacy> XNUMX Making Rules to Strengthen the Free and Open International Economic System”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (February 2020). 2021/6/22Browse.
- ^ "Diplomatic Bluebook (2021) p148 Chapter 3 Economic Diplomacy to Promote National Interests and Global Interests Section 1 Promotion of Rulemaking to Strengthen Free and Open International Economic System 2 Promotion of Economic Cooperation”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (21-06). 2021/6/22Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry HP Notice regarding start of operation of "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership (AJCEP) Agreement" between Japan and Indonesia
- ^ Customs HP (National Diet Library archive as of April 2018, 4) Implementation of "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP)" between Japan and the Republic of Indonesia
- ^ "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement Notice for the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 6). 2020/6/17Browse.
- ^ "Vietnam's Notice Regarding the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 7). 2020/7/29Browse.
- ^ "Brunei's Notice Regarding the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/11Browse.
- ^ "Cambodia's notification regarding the entry into force of the First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/29Browse.
- ^ "Philippine Notice Regarding the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/23Browse.
- ^ "Malaysia's notification regarding the entry into force of the First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2021, 4). 2021/4/21Browse.
- ^ CPTPP underway – tariff cuts for our exporters on December 30
- ^ "Viet Nam seventh nation to ratify CPTPP”. New Zealand Goverment. 2018/11/15Browse.
- ^ "About the effective date of the TPP11 Agreement (CPTPP) in the Republic of Peru”. Ministry of Finance Customs Bureau (July 2021, 7). 2021/8/18Browse.
- ^ "Exchange of diplomatic official texts for the effectiveness of the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement"Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2018, 12) 2018/12/21Browse.
- ^ "Notice for the Effectiveness of the Japan-US Trade Agreement and the Japan-US Digital Trade Agreement"Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2019, 12) 2019/12/16Browse.
- ^ “Exchange of diplomatic official texts for the entry into force of the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement”Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2020, 12) 2020/12/18Browse.
- ^ Signing of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
- ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Top Page> Interview / Announcement / Public Relations> Press Release> Report on Completion of Domestic Procedures for Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement January 29, 1
- ^ "Holding of the 4th RCEP Summit and RCEP Agreement Signing Ceremony”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (April 2020, 11). 2020/11/16Browse.
- ^ "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Agreement Signed”. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2020/11/15Browse.
- ^ "Press Release Deposit of Japan's Acceptance Form on Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2021/6/26Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Finance Trade Statistics of Japan The notation of the country / region is based on the notation used in trade statistics (as specified in Appendix 59 of the Basic Statistics Notification on Foreign Trade (October 10, 17, Kuraseki No. 1048)).
- ^ For example, the website of the Australian government (Australia's free trade agreements (FTAs)）
- ^ Those that are not called free trade agreements have already entered into force.US-Japan trade agreementas well as the US-Mexico-Canada AgreementAnd signed but declared departureTrans-Pacific Partnership AgreementOnly.
- ^ US-Japan trade agreementOnly tariff elimination/reduction is stipulated.
- ^ There are provisions in Article 10-7 of the Enforcement Order of the Tariff Provisional Measures Act. This is based on Article 3-7 and Article 8-XNUMX of the Tariff Provisional Measures Act.
- ^ This is a provision of the proviso of Article 3 of the Customs Law, which refers to the direct application of the treaty, but is not limited to economic partnership agreements. The provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreement referred to in the Enforcement Order of the Provisional Tariff Measures Act are for the implementation of safeguards based on the agreement.
- ^ Article 8 of the First Amendment Protocol to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement
- ^ CPTPP Agreement Article 3 Paragraph 2
- ^ a b Of the countries participating in the negotiations, China and South Korea are not yet EPA-related, so the same number will be applied when the CJK FTA comes into effect.In addition, India is the same number even if India returns to RCEP because the Japan-India EPA has already come into effect.
- Free trade agreement (FTA)
- East Asia EPA Concept
- Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)
- Japan's international relations
- North American Free Trade Agreement
- List of bilateral free trade agreements
- Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA)/Free Trade Agreement (FTA) ｜ Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA): Ministry of Finance
- Economic Partnership Agreement (FTA / EPA) (Customs / Customs): Customs Japan Customs
- EPA/FTA/Investment Agreement (METI/METI)
- World FTA Database (JETRO / Japan External Trade Organization)