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🏥 | Vaccine, 4% of the people inoculate once 1% of the elderly are completed, infection is not suppressed


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Vaccine, 4% of the people are inoculated once 1% of the elderly are completed, infection is not suppressed

 
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Although the target was almost reached, the infection was spreading rapidly due to the influence of the Delta strain, and the infection could not be suppressed.
 

A little less than 4% of the people have hit at least the first new corona vaccine, according to a government report on the 1st.In advance ... → Continue reading

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Infection control

SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain

SARS Coronavirus 2-Delta Strain(Thirds Coronavirus Two Delta Turnip,English: SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant,alias: Lineage B.1.617.2,VOC-21APR-02) IsNew coronavirus infection Cause of (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スIsSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)Mutant strainAndLineage B.1.617Is one of the sub-strains of[1].2020 In the second halfIndiaFirst detected in[2][3].whoOn the (WHO) label,Delta stock(Delta variant)[4].

Delta strain is SARS coronavirus 2Spike proteinCodegeneTo T478K,P681R,L452RCauses replacement ofMutationThere is.These amino acid mutations not only affect the infectivity of the virus, but also against previously circulating mutant strains of the virus.antibodyByneutralizeIt has been clarified that it affects whether or not it can be done[5].2021 In 5 month(English edition(PHE) has a secondary incidence of Delta strainsLineage B.1.1.7Showed 51-67% higher than (Alpha strain)[6] .

This stock is as of September 2021Europe,America,Australia,JapanIncludingAsiaIt has become a mainstream stock in a wide area of ​​the world, and WHO is at the same time.Variant of concern(VOC)[4].

History

May 2021, 5, PHEThe United KingdomBased on the assessment of infectivity corresponding to strain B.1.1.7 (alpha strain) first identified in, the classification of strain B.1.617.2 is from the variant strain (VUI) under investigation.Variant of concernChanged to (VOC). On May 5, WHO also stated that it had classified the strain as VOCs, showing evidence of higher infectivity and reduced neutralization.This mutant strain started in February of the same yearSecond wave of Indian pandemicIs believed to be part of the cause of.afterwards,Third wave in the UKIt has also spread to.

On May 5, WHO named this mutant Delta variant.[7](For Variant of Concern and Notable Mutant StrainsGreek scriptAccording to the policy of using).

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(English edition(NCID) researchers found that patients with delta strains were more likely than those with conventional or alpha strains.pneumoniaMore likely to developoxygenI submitted a treatise suggesting that I am likely to need.

On July 7st, WHO announced not only the United Kingdom mentioned above, but alsoEuropeWarned that it could have similar effects elsewhere[8].

Sort

The Delta strain has a mutation in the gene that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.D614GAnd cause substitution of T478K, P681R, L452R.this is(English editionIdentified as a 21A clade under a phylogenetic system.

name

In October 2020, this strain was first recorded in India and laterLineage B.1.617.2(lineage B.1.617.2)[4][9].. At the end of May 2021, WHOVariant of concern(VOC) and notable mutant strains (VOI)Greek lettersFor grid B.1.617.2 after introducing a new policy to usedeltaAssigned a label of (Δ: Delta)[4][7][9].

Other sub-strains of B.1.617

The B.1.617 strain has been classified into three sub-strains B.1.617.1 to 3 so far, of whichB.1.617.1And B.1.617.2 are WHO labels, respectivelyKappa stock(Kappa variant),Delta stock(Delta variant).

The B.1.617 strain has the L452R, D614G, and P681R mutations in common in peplomers.Also, B.1.617.3 was discovered in B.1.617.1E484QIt shares a mutation, but in B1.617.2No E484Q mutation..On the other hand, B.1.617.2 has a T478K mutation, but B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.3 do not.[10][11].

2021年4月、B.1.617.1(VUI-21APR-01)がPHEによって調査中の変異株(VUI)に指定された。4月後半には、他の2つの変異株であるB.1.617.2(VUI-21APR-02)とB.1.617.3(VUI-21APR-03)が調査中の変異株(VUI)として指定された。European Center for Disease Control and Prevention(ECDC) has released an overview of maintaining all three sub-strains of B.1.617 as notable mutant strains (VOIs), saying, "Before considering changes to current measures, these B.3 strains We need a deeper understanding of the risks involved. "[12].

On May 2021, 5, PHE evaluated that it was at least as infectious and transmissible as B.6, and from a mutant strain (VUI) investigating the B.1.1.7 strain.Variant of concernRaised to (VOC) and positioned as "VOC-21APR-02"[13]..On May 5, the same year, WHO lifted the entire B.11 strain from the notable mutant (VOI) and classified it as a Variant of Concern (VOC), but in Junepublic healthOnly the B.1.617.2 strains with the higher risk above are classified as VOCs (the other two sub-strains are downgraded).[14]..This mutant strain started in February 2021Second wave of infection spread in IndiaIs considered to be one of the factors of[15][16][17].

Mutation

Delta strain / B.1.617.2 genome, it encodesprotein OfAmino acid sequenceThere are 13 mutations (15 or 17 depending on whether more common mutations are included, according to some sources) that cause changes in.Of these, four of them, which are contained in the peplomer code of all viruses, are of particular concern.

  • D614G-Amino acid 614residue OfAspartic acidからglycineSubstitution toalpha,beta,gammaShared with other highly infectious mutants such as[18].
  • T478K-of the 478th amino acid residueThreonineからlysineIs a replacement for[19].
  • L452R-of the 452nd amino acid residueLeucineからArginineIs a replacement forACE2It results in a stronger affinity for peplomers for receptors and a decrease in the cognitive ability of the immune system.
  • P681R-The 681th amino acid residueProlineIs a substitution from arginine and, according to William A. Hazeltin, may increase cell-level infectivity of the mutant strain "by promoting cleavage of the S precursor protein into the active S1 / S2 composition".[20].

The E1.617Q mutation found in other substrains of strain B.484 is not present in the B.1.617.2 genome.[20].

AY system

(English editionAs a more detailed classification of system B.1.617.2 byAY systemAs of August 2021, they are classified from AY.8 to AY.1, but these areBiologyAll included in Delta strains, not related to changes in characteristics[21].

System AY.1AY.2Is "Delta Plus(Delta plus) or "ネ パ ー ルAlso called "stock",Beta stockK417N mutation also present in (The change at sequence 417 is from lysineAsparagineReplacement with[22])have[23][24]. Also,System AY.3 TheAmericaFound inORFHas an I1V mutation at site 3731a[25].

On June 2021, 6, the K22N mutation was added to B1.617.2, and the infectivity is said to be even stronger.System AY.1(B.1.617.2.1[26][Note 1]Has been designated as a Variant of Concern (VOC) by Indian health officials[27]..Infected peoplevaccineOf the inoculatorImmunology(antibody),Monoclonal antibodyMay also show resistance to treatment[28][29][30]On the other hand, there are experts' opinions that the data that it is more dangerous than the mutant strains so far, such as high infectivity and risk of aggravation, is not sufficient at this time, and it should be judged carefully.[30].

symptom

It has been suggested that the most common symptoms may have changed from the most common symptoms associated with previous standard COVID-19.Infected people may mistake their symptoms for a severe cold and may not realize that they need to be quarantined.Common reported symptoms are headache, sore throat, runny nose, or fever.[31][32]..In the United Kingdom, where Delta strains account for 91% of new cases, one study found that the most reported symptoms were headache, sore throat, and runny nose.[33].

It is as if the infected person emits a large amount of virus.AirborneIt is characterized by being observed as if it were (strictly speaking, it corresponds to an aerosol infection).[34].

治療

Treatment for people infected with the Delta strain is the same as for other COVID-19-infected individuals.

Vaccine effect

Indian Medical Research Council (ICMR) convalescent period for COVID-19 casesserumWhen,(English edition OfCovaxin(BBV152) recipient, although less effective, B.1.617neutralizeI found out what I can do[35].

Anurag Agrawal, director of the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), an Indian scientific research institute, said in a study on the efficacy of vaccines available in strain B.1.617.Infection after vaccinationSaid suggesting that is milder[36].

President of the United StatesChief Medical AdvisorAnthony FauciAlso shows confidence in the preliminary results. In an interview on April 2021, 4, he said:

This is where we are still getting data every day.However, the latest data examined convalescent sera from COVID-19 cases and people who received the vaccine Covaxin used in India.It was found to neutralize the B.1.617 mutant strain[37].

In another study by the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad,Oxford-AstraZeneca(Covishield) vaccinated serum was found to protect against strain B.1.617[38].

WHO states that the current vaccine remains effective against mutant strains.According to a study conducted by the British Public Health Agency (PHE)Pfizer-BioNTechBoth the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine were found to protect 33% of the symptomatological disease caused by the mutant strain after the first vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine was 2% effective in protecting against symptomatic disease from the Delta strain, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was 2% effective.[39][40].

LancetHumans who have completed Pfizer-Biontech vaccination may have more than five-fold lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to delta strains than conventional strains, according to a study by a group of researchers at the Francis Crick Institute published in Was there[41].

In June 2021, PHE released findings that after two doses of the Pfizer-Biontech vaccine and the AstraZeneca vaccine, it was 6% and 2% effective in preventing hospitalization with Delta strains, respectively.[42][43].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It was first detected in Europe in March of the same year, and was subsequently detected in Asia and the United States.[26].. A further mutant of B.1.617.2 (Delta strain).

Source

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  2. ^ "Tracking of Variants". gisaid.org. GISAID (September 2021, 4). October 2021th, 7Browse.
  3. ^ "Expert reaction to cases of variant B.1.617 (the'Indian variant') being investigated in the UK”. Science Media Center. October 2021th, 4Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants" (English). who.int. World Health Organization. October 2021th, 9Browse.
  5. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions". CDC.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 2021th, 6Browse.
  6. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants under investigation in England”(May 2021, 5). October 2021th, 6Browse.
  7. ^ a b “Covid: WHO renames UK and other variants with Greek letters”. BBC News. (April 2021, 5). https://www.bbc.com/news/world-57308592 October 2021th, 6Browse. 
  8. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (July 2021, 7). “New Covid wave could be imminent as delta variant sweeps Europe, WHO says" (English). CNBC. October 2021th, 7Browse.
  9. ^ a b “World status report on new coronavirus infections”Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (February 2021, 6). https://www.forth.go.jp/topics/20210611.html October 2021th, 10Browse. 
  10. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 5Browse.
  11. ^ Di Giacomo, Simone; Mercatelli, Daniele; Rakhimov, Amir; Giorgi, Federico M. (2021). “Preliminary report on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike mutation T478K”. Journal of Medical Virology. two:10.1002 / jmv.27062. PMC 8242375. PMID 33951211. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242375/. 
  12. ^ "Threat Assessment Brief: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 variants in India and situation in the EU / EEA". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (September 2021, 5). October 2021th, 5Browse.
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  14. ^ WHO Aims at "Delta Strain" Mutant Confirmed in India --AFPBB News (June 2021, 6)
  15. ^ WHO labels a Covid strain in India as a'variant of concern' — here's what we know, CNBC, 11 May 2021.
  16. ^ WHO says India Covid variant of'global concern', BBC News, 11 May 2021.
  17. ^ India's second COVID-19 wave, The Wire Science, 22 April 2021.
  18. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as of 24 May 2021". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. October 2021th, 5Browse.
  19. ^ Greenwood, Michael (March 2021, 3). “SARS-CoV-2 mutation T478K spreading at alarming speed in Mexico”. Medical News. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210330/SARS-CoV-2-mutation-T478K-spreading-at-alarming-speed-in-Mexico.aspx October 2021th, 6Browse. 
  20. ^ a b Haseltine, William. “An Indian SARS-CoV-2 Variant Lands In California. More Danger Ahead?” (English). Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2021/04/12/an-indian-sars-cov-2-variant-lands-in-california-more-danger-ahead/?sh=1ff3056b3b29 October 2021th, 4Browse. 
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  22. ^ Tang, Julian W .; Oliver, TR (2021). “Introduction of the South African SARS-CoV-2 variant 501Y.V2 into the UK”. The Journal of Infection 82 (4): e8–e10. two:10.1016 / j.jinf.2021.01.007. PMC 7813514. PMID 33472093. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813514/. 
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