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🏥 | Chili pepper stimulates adrenaline secretion and raises body temperature In the morning if you want to increase your appetite [Time nutrition and seasonal ingredients]

Photo chili

Chili peppers stimulate adrenaline secretion and increase body temperature In the morning if you want to increase your appetite [Time nutrition and seasonal ingredients]

If you write the contents roughly
Chili peppers, which have been cultivated along the Koshu Highway in Tokyo since the Edo period and are said to have been used as a condiment for buckwheat noodles, have the effect of warming the body's coldness and promoting digestion and appetite. It is also used as a crude drug called (Rasho) and Bansho.

[Time nutrition and seasonal ingredients] Chili pepper Chili pepper is one of the most eaten spices in the world.Hawk ... → Continue reading

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Koshu Highway

Koshu Highway(Koushukaidou) isKai country(Yamanashi).Edo ShogunateMaintained byGokaidoOne of the.


Koshu Kaido isKoshu RoadThis is the fifth completed highway as one of the five highways developed by the Edo Shogunate.EdoNihonbashiorEdo CastleHanzomonからNaito Shinjuku,Hachioji,KofuThroughShinano country OfShimosuwa-shukuNakasendo44 next until it joinsPostIs placed[1], 37 inns from Edo to Kofu were called Omotesando, and 7 inns from Kofu to Shimo-Suwa were called Ura Kaido.The early modern periodAt the beginning, it was called "Koshu Kaido"Masanori6 years(1716) It will be changed to "Koshu Dochu" by the improvement of the road name in April.ChumaWas carried out by land.In the town of EdoWay of yin and yang OfSuitable for the four godsWhere to sayWhite tigerIt is a highway where there is.A place that passed near the Tama River (Yaho - Fuchu - ChofuEtc.), the route was changed to a road parallel to the south side several times due to repeated floods of the Tama River.After that, an old and narrow road was newly created.Bypass roadThe route has been changed to.


Eiroku12 years(1569),Kofu - HachiojiThe road between them was not maintained, but it was worth it.Mr. Takeda OfNobushige OyamadaGoes through the roadSmall BuddhaBeyondMusashi countryHachiojiInvadeHirosato BattlefieldBattle takes place.Mr. Gohojo TheSmall BuddhaStrong against invasion from the directionHachioji CastleWas built.

The opening of Koshu Kaido "Edo-Kofu"Keicho7 years(1602), And the time of establishment of all post stations was not clear, and it was gradually improved.

The early modern periodThere will be various roads in the area, but Koshu KaidoTokugawa IeyasuWhen entering EdoEdo CastlefallIt is said that it was created on the assumption that it will be used as an evacuation route for the shogun to Kofu at the time of the event (for that reason, along the highwayfortFor manyTemplePlace and on the backConcentricThe mansions are lined up).

Also, despite being a short roadSmall Buddha・ There is a checkpoint in Tsuruse.this is,Kofu CastleHaveKofu Domain RelativeA gun consisting of four groups, Iga group, Negoro group, Koga group, and Aoki group (4 horses group) in Yotsuya along the road.HundredsIs placed,gun-AshigaruThe Tokugawa family with the shogunRelative OfKofu CastleAfter evacuating onceEdo CastleIt is said that this is to recapture it.

Change of attendanceI used it at the timeClan TheShinanoTakatohan,Takashima Domain,飯 田 藩Is.Other hansNakasendoWas used.Shimosuwa-shukuThe distance from Koshu Kaido to Edo is shorter,物 価Is high and along the highwayInfrastructureThe maintenance status is said to be the main reason.As a result, development is delayed and declines.PostThere was also a town.

The early modern periodToPopularization of travelAlong with Koshu DochuSightseeing spotHistoric siteIntroducedTopographyKind and visualized drawings are produced, and in the drawings, "" and ""Koshu Dochu Folding Screen] Is known.also,Uji tea ceremonyUsed the Koshu Kaido.


There were many post stations and people were bustling with visiting the national government as a pleasure of their journey, but due to changes in taste, the national government was near the western outskirts, and the popularity of the Tokaido caused the post towns far from Edo to decline.The post station is based on the "Koshu Dochujuku Village Overview Book".


Post里程Regulatory countrycountyCurrent municipalityNotices
Nihonbashistarting pointMusashi countryToshimaTokyoChuo-kuNakasendo,Tokaido,Nikko Kaido,Oshu Kaido,Yakurazawa going back and forth (Aoyama-dori Mt. Ooyama road)Tie with
Depart 1in OfHongo Oiwake(Bunkyo kuYayoi1-chome)Nikko Onari KaidoTie with
1. Naito Shinjuku2 riShinjuku ward
2. Shimotakaido Inn2 riTama-gunSuginamiTraining camp between Shimotakaido and Kamitakaido
3. Kamitakaido Inn12
4. National territory1 ri 19 chomeChofu CityFrom Kokuryo to Kamiishiwara, Fuda Gojuku
5. Shimofudajuku3
6. Uefudajuku2
7. Shimoishi Harajuku8
8. Ueishi Harajuku7
9. Fuchu-shuku1 ri 10 chomeFuchu-shi
10. Hinojuku2 riHino city
11. Hachioji inn1 ri 27 chomeHachioji CityNikko Waki ​​TrafficTie with
12. 1 ri 27 chomeBetween OharaKobotoke no SekishoIn the vicinityAi no shuku-Small Buddha innYes
13. Oharajuku27Sagami countryTsukui DistrictKanagawaSagamihara CityGreen District
14. 19
15. 34
16. 26
17. 34Kai countryTsuru-gunYamanashiUenohara
18. 18
19. Notajiri Inn1 ri 3 chome
20. Inumejuku18
21. 1 ri 11 chomeOtsuki CityTraining camp between Shimotorizawa and Kamitorisawa
22. 5
23. 26
24. 22
25. 16
26. 13Training camp for Shimohanasaki and Kamikasaki
27. 5
28. 13Training camp for Shimohatsukari and Nakahatsukari
29. 24
30. 1 ri 2 chome
31. 18
32. 12
33. 2 ri 5 chomeYamanashiKoshu
34. 18
35. 1 ri 3 chome
36. Kuriharajuku31Yamanashi
37. 1 ri 23 chomeYatsushiro-gunFuefuki city
38. 1 ri 19 chomeYamanashiKofu City

Back road

Post里程Regulatory countrycountyCurrent municipalityNotices
38. Kofu Yanagimachi Innstarting pointKai countryYamanashiYamanashiKofu City
39. 3 ri 20 chomeKoma-gunNirasaki
40. Taigaharajuku4 riHokuto
41. 1 ri 14 chome
42. Tsutaki-juku1 ri 6 chomeShinano countrySuwa-gunNaganoSuwa-gunFujimi
43. Kanazawa inn3 ri 4 chomeHadano
44. Kami-Suwa Inn3 ri 14 chomeSuwa
Shimosuwa-shuku1 ri 11 chomeSuwa-gunShimosuwa TownNakasendoXNUMXth 


National Route 20

National Route 20Has inherited this highway.In particular,Shinjuku ward OfYotsuyaXNUMX-chome intersection- KanagawaThe boundary section is1962(37)May 4As the name of the road commonly known as Tokyo (setting public notice reference number 15)[2][3](this houseNational city OfNational InterEntrance intersection- Hachioji City OfTakakura TownWest intersection2007May 4ToHino bypassBy all ofTokyo Metropolitan Route 256 Hachioji National LineAll sections except the bypass in Yamanashi prefecture are designated as Yamanashi prefecture road nickname (number 1).[4].

Tokyo common name road name

National highway No. 20 sign
Japanese Route Sign Number 2.svgJapanese Route Sign Number 5.svgJapanese Route Sign Number 6.svg
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 256 sign
  • Starting point: Yotsuya 4-chome, Shinjuku-ku Yotsuya XNUMX-chome intersection
  • End point: Kanagawa prefectural border
  • Municipalities passing through:

Main roads to connect

* The top is the Nipponbashi side, and the bottom is the Kanagawa prefecture side.The right is the down line side, and the left is the up line side.

Crossing roadIntersection nameAddress
National highway No. 20 (Shinjuku street) To Nihonbashi
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 418 Kitashinagawa Yotsuya Line-Tokyo Metropolitan Route 430 Shinjuku Stop Front Line(Gaien Nishi Dori)
Shinjuku Ward Special Wards Road 41-900 (Shinjuku Dori)
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 418 Kita Shinagawa Yotsuya Line (Gaien Nishi-dori)Yotsuya XNUMX-chomeShinjuku ward
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 305 Shiba Shinjuku Oji Line(Meiji streetShinjuku4 chome
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 420 Samezu Mt. Ooyama Line(Nakano-dori)Tokyo Metropolitan Route 420 Samezu Mt. Ooyama LineSasazukaShibuya Ward
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 318 Loop Line XNUMX(Seven Rings)OharaSetagaya
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 413 Akasaka Suginami Line(Inokashira street(I.e.
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 427 Seta Nukii LineSuginami
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 427 Seta Nukii Line-Shimotakaido StationEntrance
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 428 Koenji Water Purification Plant Line
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 14 Shinjuku National Line-Kamikitazawa StationEntrance
Tokyo Metropolitan Route 311 Circular Route XNUMX(Round eight streets)KamitakaidoXNUMX chome
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 117 Setagaya Mitaka Line(Kichijoji-dori)KyudenSetagaya
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 114 Musashino Komae LineBypass (Matsubara-dori)Chofu City
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 114 Musashino Komae Line-Senkawa StationEntrance
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 114 Musashino Komae LineTokyo Metropolitan Road No. 118 Chofukyodo Stop LineSengawa XNUMX-chome
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 11 Daejeon Chofu Line-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 119 Kitaurakami Ishihara Line(Kyu Koshu KaidoFormer Koshu Kaido entrance
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 121 Musashino Chofu Line(Mitaka Street)Shimofuda
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 12 Chofuda RadioTokyo Metropolitan Road No. 12 Chofuda RadioTokyo Metropolitan Road No. 19 Machida Chofu LineKojima Town
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 12 Chofuda Radio Bypass (Musashino Sakai Dori)In front of Shimoishiwara police box
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 229 Fuchu Chofu Line(Old Koshu Kaido)
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 123 Sakai Chofu Line(Tenmondai-dori)Kamiishiwara
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 110 Fuchu Mitaka Line-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 248 Fuchu Kodaira Line(Shinkoganei Highway)Wakamatsu TownXNUMX-chomeFuchu-shi
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 229 Fuchu Chofu Line (former Koshu Kaido)Higashi-Fuchu three-way junction
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 15 Fuchu Kiyose Line(Koganei Kaido)Koganei Kaido entrance
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 17 Tokorozawa Fuchu Line(Fuchu Highway)Kotobukicho XNUMX-chome
-Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 229 Fuchu Chofu Line (former Koshu Kaido)Honjuku Town
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 17 Tokorozawa Fuchu Line Bypass (Shinfuchu Kaido)Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 18 Fuchu Machida LineBypass (Shinfuchu Kaido)In front of Honshuku police box
National Inter Entrance Crossing- Takakura TownFor the west intersection, refer to "Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 256 Hachioji National Line".
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 59 Hachioji Musashimurayama Line(Tama Ohashi Dori)Tokyo Metropolitan Route 155 Machida Hirayama Hachioji Line(Hirayama-dori)Ishikawa entranceHachioji City
National Route 16Hachioji BypassOwadamachiXNUMX-chome
(Wild monkey highway
National Highway No. 16 (Tokyo Kanjo Avenue)Yokamachi
National Highway No. 16 (Tokyo Kanjo Avenue)
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 32 Hachioji Itsukaichi Line(Akikawa Kaido)Hongo Yokocho
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 521 Uenohara Hachioji Line(Jimba KaidoOiwake Town
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 46 Hachioji Akiruno LineBranch line (Bypass of Takao Kaido)Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 47 Hachioji Machida Line(Machida HighwayMachida Kaido entrance
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 46 Hachioji Akiruno Line (Takao Kaido)Takao Station
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 516 Asakawa Sagamiko LineNishiasakawa
Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 189 Mt. Takaosan Line
National Route 20Hachioji Southern BypassMt. Takaosan IC
National Highway No. 20 Sagamihara / Kofu / Shiojiri

Intersecting highways, railroads, rivers

(During this time, refer to "Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 256 Hachioji National Line")

Main facilities along the line

(During this time, refer to "Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 256 Hachioji National Line")

Bridges / tunnels


From the vicinity of Shinjuku XNUMX-chome intersection to the vicinity of Hatagaya stationToei Subway Shinjuku Line-Keio New LinePasses below,Nishi-ShinjukuFrom near the 3-chome intersectionKamikitazawa StationNear the entrance intersectionShuto Expressway No. 4 Shinjuku LineIs passing above, and from Shinjuku stationFuchu StationOverKeio LineAre parallel nearby.

Route explanation

The original Koshu Kaido is the current Koshu Kaido (National Route 20), But there are other parallel roads due to the completion of the bypass.In this case, the old way is "Kyu Koshu Kaido, The new road is also called "New Koshu Kaido" or "New Road".

From Nihonbashi to Shinjuku

The starting point was and is stillNihonbashiThere is no change.Yotsuya Okido, The current route to Yotsuya 4-chome has not changed.The route is slightly different from Yotsuya Okido.The current Koshu Kaido runs southwardShinjuku GyoenUndertunnelPass by.The former Koshu Kaido is nowShinjuku streetTheShinjuku OiwakeProceed to (currently Shinjuku 3-chome).And the current "Oiwake Dango Honpo" (OiwakeMeans a turning point) Around the storeSide roadIs one ofOme HighwayWas separated.

Shinjuku GyoenIs the Naito clan of the Takato domainLower houseBecause a post station was set up in that corner at the siteNaito ShinjukuI was told.Even now, the area around Gyoen is called Naitomachi, and it remains in the name of the town.In addition, Naito Shinjuku was built a little later, then abolished, and revived.

From Shinjuku to Fuchu

The current Koshu KaidoShinjuku StationAfter crossing the Yamanote Line at the overpass in front of the south exit, take Kanpachi-dori as National Highway No. 20 (Tokyo Metropolitan Route 311 Circular Route XNUMX) Continues to the Kamitakaido 1-chome intersection.Immediately after crossing this intersection, the Kyu Koshu Kaido branches off from National Highway No. 20 and the Keio LineSenkawa StationIt runs separately from National Highway No. 20 to the Sengawa three-way intersection to the east of.For a while from the Sengawa three-way junction, the Koshu Highway almost overlaps with National Highway No. 20, but with Sengawa Station.Azalea Hill StationBetweenKokubunji cliff lineOn the slope that runs down the road, although it is a short section, the old highway remains apart from National Highway No. 20.This slopeTakizakaIt has been famous as a steep slope for a long time.

National highway No. 20NogawaImmediately after crossingKokuryo StationShortly before, the old highway separates from National Highway No. 20 again.Beyond that is the Shimoishiwara 1-chome intersectionTsurukawa HighwayCrossing with, in Kamiishiwara, Chofu CityNishichofu StationIn front of the entrance intersectionTokyo Metropolitan Road No. 229 Fuchu Chofu LineIt is connected to.The old highway in this section is nowTokyo Metropolitan Road No. 119 Kitaurakami Ishihara LineAnd on the wayFudajukuThere is a trace of.

The old road, which became the prefectural road No. 229, continued to run in parallel on the south side of the national highway No. 20.Fuchu-shiAt the Honshukucho intersection in Honshukucho, join National Highway No. 20 again.Once in the middle of the old road in this sectionFuchu-shukuThere is and existsHigh billboardThe vicinity was the center.CurrentKeio LineFuchu Station-Ookutama ShrineIt is a neighborhood.

From Fuchu to Hinobashi

The Koshu Kaido that left Honshuku-cho, Fuchu CityNational cityAs soon as you enter, there is a national interchange entrance intersection.From here to the southHino bypassIs branched, and the current national highway No. 20 is a route that goes through it.On the other hand, Koshu Kaido goes straight on at this intersection.Tokyo Metropolitan Route 256 Hachioji National LineBecome[5].

Kunitachi YahoYaho Tenmangu ShrineThe route leading to the Hinobashi intersection through the north side of (Yabo Tenmangu) is almost the same as in the past.[6].

The current Koshu Kaido turns left at a right angle at the Hinobashikosaten intersection.Shin-Okutama HighwayBut once it was on the far rightOkutama HighwayAfter a short walk, I turned left and went south to cross the Tama River.Today'sTokyo Metropolitan Route 149 Tachikawa Hino LineA little downstream of Tappi Bridge, this is called "Hino no Watari". "Hino no Watari" was initially Hino-juku, then Hino-cho (currently Hino-cho)Hino city) Is run by1926(Taisho15 years)HinohashiIt survived until it was hung.

Hino city

From the current Shin-Okutama Kaido entrance intersection to the vicinity of Yasaka Shrine, the route is the same as before, and this area isHinojukuIn the trace ofKawasaki HighwayAfterHonjinTrace (old)Hikogoro SatoHome) remains.This building is the only existing building in Tokyo as the main camp.After that, it was used as a soba shop,NHKTaiga drama"Shinsengumi!] Hino City has been purchased and opened to the public at the time of the broadcast.The opposite site is the former wholesale store and Kosatsu area.Turn left slightly north of the Hino station square east intersection and you will see the old road.Before the opening of Hinosaka, the old road did not turn left and went west on the Tokoji Highway to detour to Sumura in Awa.

Hachioji city

Hachioji CityAs soon as you enter, you will find the Takakuramachi Nishi intersection.Here, Koshu Kaido merges with Hino Bypass and becomes National Highway No. 20 again.In Hachioji city from the Takakuramachi west intersection, the current national highway No. 20 and the former Koshu highway almost match.The current Koshu Kaido AsakawaIs crossed at Owada Bridge, but it is said that the former Owada crossing was on the upstream side.[Source required]..Crossing the Asa River, you will find Hachioji Yokoyama-juku.From the Owadabashi Minamizume intersection, follow "Kita Odori", and from the Municipal Gochu intersection, follow the one-way road on your left.Then turn left at the junction of the junction and exit at the Hachioji Station entrance east intersection.This route corresponds to the entrance to Hachioji Yokoyamajuku, which turns into the hand of a key.In the middle of this route, there is Takenohana Park, where "Takenohana Ichirizuka", which indicates 11 ri from Nihonbashi, remains.

Even today, shops are lined up along National Highway No. 20, and in Yokamachi, "Yokaichi inn ruinsThe monument is erected.Hachioji Yokoyama-juku has 15 inns, mainly Yokoyama-juku and Yokaichi-juku.Hachioji Yokoyama XNUMX InnWas called.Of these, Yokoyama-juku and Yokaichi-juku had Honjin and Waki-honjin.This innNagaan OkuboIs the largest inn on the highway that was devoted to construction.Place names such as Yokaichi, Yokoyama, and YawataHojo Hosho OfHachioji CastleIt is derived from Motohachioji, a castle town in Japan.Also, HachiojiTokugawa IeyasuOrganized with Takeda's retainerThousand Hachioji concentricIt was the home of the city, but it remains as a place named Sennincho near the Oiwake intersection.The old and new roads intersect, and the Jimba Kaido on the side road also divides.Hachioji Sennin Concentric prepared for Nikko dutyNikko Waki ​​TrafficAlso branches from here.

From the Oiwakecho intersection along National Highway No. 20Takao StationTo the entrance intersectionGinkgoA row of trees continues, but this isEmperor Taisho OfTama RyoIt was planted at the time of construction.There is that Tama MausoleumMusashi Tomb CemeteryAt the traffic light just ahead of the "Tama Goryo Entrance" intersection in Higashiasakawamachi, there is an alley that divides from National Highway No. 1 to the right, and continues to Ryonan Ohashi.There is the Kyu Koshu Kaido, and the houses that used to be the concentric mansions of the Hachioji Sennin remain, so you can remember the past.

Otarimizu Pass and Kobotoke Pass

The route to Lake Sagami is nowOtarimizu PassIt's via, but it used to be northSmall BuddhaWas via (Chuo Expressway,Chuo Main LineIs just below the Kobotoke PassSmall buddha tunnelPassing by).Currently up to the front of Kobotoke PassTokyo Metropolitan Road / Kanagawa Prefectural Road 516 Asakawa Sagamiko LineIt continues to be.In Komagino along the road, "Kobotokeseki RuinsThere is a monument.This is the Kobotokeseki (which was originally called the Fujimi Sekisho, but later became the Kobotokeseki), which was originally located at Kobotoke Pass, in 1616 (Genwa2 years), moved to Komagino.The Sekisho after the relocation of Komagino was also commonly known as the Kobotokeseki.The park at the site of Sekisho is "Ruins of Komagino-jukuIt is also.

Go west on the Asakawa Sagamiko Line on Tokyo Metropolitan Road / Kanagawa Prefectural Road 516.Chuo ExpresswayMetropolitan area central connecting expresswayTieHachioji JCTCan be seen.From around here, "Small Buddha inn ruins".The road isKeishinzanIt becomes a forest road from the vicinity of the mountain trail, and gradually becomes a gravel road and a mountain trail.There are many hikers on the mountain trail to Kobotoke Pass, reminiscent of the old Koshu Kaido in the unpaved era.

Kanagawa prefecture

Kobotoke PassTokyoKanagawaIt is the prefectural border ofSagamihara CityGreen DistrictIs.The old Koshu Kaido beyond Kobotoke PassChuo ExpresswayBecause it was buried during the construction of the mountain trail, the mountain trail goes along the bottom of the river and continues to the bottom of the national highway No. 20.From the bottom of the bridge, take National Highway No. 20 a little and you will see "Oharajuku ruinsArrive.The main team is left here as well as Hino-juku.Only in Kanagawa prefectureHonjinIn the buildingTsukui DistrictSagamiko Town(At that time) bought it and opened it to the public.The "Obarajuku Honjin Festival" is held on November 11rd every year, and Daimyō Gyo is also held.

Divided to the left from National Highway No. 20 at Yoshino, Midori-ku, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa Prefecture,Sagami RiverCross the Nakura district on the right bank of the Sagami RiverKanagawa Prefectural Road / Yamanashi Prefectural Road 520 Yoshino Uenohara Stop LineIs the old Koshu Kaido.The road crosses the Sagami River again, and the Sakaigawa Bridge over it is Kanagawa Prefecture.YamanashiIt is the prefectural border of.Yamanashi sideUenoharaToSagami countryKai countryFor the defense of the borderMr. TakedaBuilt by "Suwa no SekiThere is a monument.

From Uenohara to Saruhashi

The Koshu Kaido, which passed through the city of Uenohara, is nowKatsura RiverGo down the river terrace on a steep slope and turn left.TsurukawaIt is proceeding along the Katsura River.The former Koshu Kaido is National Highway No. 20 at the end of the Honmachi intersection.Yamanashi Prefectural Road / Tokyo Metropolitan Road No. 33 Uenohara Akiruno LineEnter the side road on the left side of the fork, then turn right and cross the Tsurukawa to Torizawa through the steep mountainous area.Yamanashi Prefectural Road No. 30 Otsuki Uenohara LineCorresponds to the route of.Some of them were buried during the construction of the Chuo Expressway, but many of them escaped maintenance due to the steep terrain, and many of them still retain the remnants of the past.To the east of Notajiri is the border between Kai, Musashi, and Sagami.Nagamine Fort RuinsThere is.

The Kyu Koshu Kaido, which passed through the mountains and went down to Torisawa, rejoins National Highway No. 20 via Shiotsu and Yanagawa.From here to the area around Saruhashi, the Koshu Highway follows almost the same route as National Highway No. 20.Torisawa innThe area is said to have been constructed with a wide road width from the beginning of the establishment of the post station, and even now the national road has been developed, the remnants of the post station are still strongly preserved.At the site of the main camp of Torisawa inn, which is a little past Torisawa station,Emperor Meiji camp monumentThere is.

Saruhashi InnThe Koshu Kaido crosses the Katsura River in front of.Today's Koshu Kaido goes straight and crosses the Shinsaruhashi Bridge, but the old road enters the side road on the right before this Shinsaruhashi Bridge, then turns left and crosses the Katsura River to join the current road.The bridge over the Katsura River is one of Japan's three great strange bridges.Saruhashi.EbashiIt is a rare type of bridge called (Hanebashi) (it is also the only existing bridge of the same type), and it is said to be the best scenic spot on the Koshu Kaido due to the beauty of the surrounding valley.Hiroshige Utagawa,Tomioka Tetsusai,Ogyu RidingMany other writers have visited and produced numerous works.country'sScenic spotThe current bridge is 1984 (ShowaIt was restored in 59) while considering safety such as concrete protection of the foundation and use of steel materials.

Similar to Torisawa-juku, the area around Saruhashi-juku still has National Highway No. 20 passing through the old highway, but the appearance of the post station has faded significantly.It is only Saruhashi and "Saruhashi Ichirizuka" that is a little further ahead after the entrance of Saruhashi Station that conveys the image of the post station.After passing Ichirizuka, National Highway No. 20 crosses the Chuo Main Line with an overpass.The Kyu Koshu Kaido enters the side road that divides to the right from the side of Yamanashi Chuo Motor, which is a little before.

From the old road, on the opposite bank of the Katsura RiverMount IwanoOverlooking.Built on a steep mountainIwadono Castle TheSengoku periodKnown for being one of the most robust in the eastern country, he was a vassal of Mr. Takeda and later drove Mr. Takeda to extinction.Mr. OyamadaIt was the residence of.Koshu conquestAfterNobushige OyamadaThe castle was abandoned in the early Edo period after the execution, but it maintained its position as a fortress in the direction of Kofu.

Beyond the old roadTEPCOThe related facilities are lined up, and on the way, it was the first time in Japan to use long-distance power transmission technology.Komabashi Power StationThere is.After passing the Komabashi power plant, enter the side road that divides to the left from the bridge that straddles the water pipe of the power plant, cross the Chuo Main Line, and join National Highway No. 20.However, just after the confluence, the Kyu Koshu Kaido enters a side road that divides to the right.The area around this old road that lasts about 300mKomabashi-jukuIt corresponds to the trace of.

A little before joining National Highway No. 20 againDaily YamazakiThere is.The former Koshu Kaido was divided to the right from this area, but now that this old road has disappeared, proceed on the current road and enter the side road that divides to the right from the front of the "Takatsukibashi entrance" intersection.Beyond thatNational Route 139If you go under the overpass, it will become the old road again.

Sasako Pass and Sasako Tunnel

Today's Koshu KaidoShin-Sasako TunnelBut the old roadSasago PassWas via.Currently, the route to the pass isYamanashi Prefectural Road 212 Hikage Sasako LineRemains as.In addition, there is a "Sasako Pass Nature Trail" almost parallel to this prefectural road.It is thought that this promenade is almost equivalent to the old Koshu Highway.[Source required].."Yatate no Sugi", where the samurai who pass through the highway prayed for luck, is also along this promenade.At the top of the prefectural roadSasago TunnelThe area directly above is said to be the most difficult part of the Koshu Kaido.Sasago Pass(Elevation: 1,096m).When you cross the passKoshu.

Kami-Suwa InnThe route from is the currentSuwaMajorKamisuwa StationIt passes through the northeast side of the previous national highway No. 20 and remains as a road along the mountain from the front of Yoshida's pine trees.Shimosuwa TownAfter crossing the border and entering Takagi, Shimosuwa Town, you can see Lake Suwa on the south side.Takagi has the remains of a teahouse known as "Masaya" and "Hashimotoya", and there is a stone throwing place where the Emperor Meiji is said to have thrown stones during his pilgrimage.The remains of Ichirizuka remain in the five official cadastrals of the Tonbe district.Suwa TaishaPassing in front of Akimiya,Shimosuwa Juku HonjinJoin the Nakasendo in front of the ruins of the wholesale store (currently in front of Kameya Hotel).

Other Koshu Highway

In addition to the old and new Koshu Kaido that connects Edo and Kofu, the next road to Koshu is sometimes called the Koshu Kaido.

Image list


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Makio Yagi "Walking Koshu Kaido Koshu Dochu XNUMXth" (Mountains and valleys, 2015)
  2. ^ "Background and outline of the so-called road name setting business (PDF)". Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Construction.As of August 2015, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2017/5/23Browse.
  3. ^ Tokyo common name road name map (enlarged version of the wards)Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Construction
  4. ^ "Yamanashi whole area road nickname Target route and nickname (PDF)”. Road Management Division, Land Development Department, Yamanashi Prefecture. 2017/5/23Browse.
  5. ^ Koshu Kaido and National Highway No. 20 are separate roads up to the Takakuramachi Nishi intersection in Hachioji City, where they meet again.
  6. ^ However, this route isTamagawaIt is thought that this is the route after the ferry port was fixed to "Hino no Watari", which will be described later. Before that, the route changed every time the flow path of the Tama River changed, and the early Koshu Kaido passed through the south side of Tenmangu. Is believed to have been[Source required]..Today, when you visit Tenmangu from the Koshu Kaido side, you will go down a long, rugged slope and go down the stairs to reach the main shrine.From the south side, the main shrine is just after entering.

Related item

Red peppers

Red peppers(Togarashi, Peppers, Peppers)Latin AmericaIs native toSolanaceaeCapsicum (Capsicum) offruitOr made from itSpicinessHaveSpicesIs.Not only cultivated species but also wild species may be used as spices.

It is a typical species of the genus Peppers.Red pepperVariousVarietyThere,green pepper,Red pepper(Shishito),paprikaThere are also sweet varieties (sweet peppers, sweet peppers) that have little or no pungent taste, but here we will describe spices made from pungent varieties.


The genus Peppers originates in Central and South America andメキシコIts history is so old that it dates back to 6000 BC.However, it was not until the 15th century that it spread to countries around the world.[1]..The genus Peppers grows naturallySouth AmericaThen,UrpikaWild species such as are also used as spices.

The pungent ingredient of pepper isCapsaicinKind[2]..This spiciness is very stimulating and people prefer it.MucosaIf you ingest more than the proper amount to hurtStomachIt may cause problems such as.It often causes pain when attached to weak areas of the skin.If you touch the mucous membrane with your hands for harvesting, processing, or cooking chili peppers, you will be strongly irritated.

Taxonomic position

There are dozens of species belonging to the genus Peppers, of which the following five are cultivated.

JapanPeppers are mainly cultivated inOkinawa,Izu IslandsThen, of the varieties of Tabasco pepperIsland pepperAre cultivated.

hot flavor

Common pepper

Commonly used peppers:

Ash, jalapeno pepper3,500-10,000 SHU (Scoville value
Cayenne pepper, Serenade30,000-50,000 SHU
habañero pepper, Scotch Bonnet, Birds Eye, Finger100,000–350,000 SHU[3]
Naga855,000-2,200,000 SHU

World peppers

The hottest pepper in the world:

AmericaCarolina Reaper2.2M SHU[4]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTrinidad moruga scorpion2.0M SHU[5]
IndiaGhost pepper1.58M SHU[6]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTrinidad Scorpion Butch Taylor1.463M SHU[7]
The United KingdomNaga Viper1.4M SHU[8]
The United KingdomInfinity chili1.2M SHU[9]

Taste physiology

CapsaicinReceptorTRPV1 is classified as a pain-related receptor[10], The pungent taste of pepper is the "pain sensation" in the mouth[11].

birdsIt is thought that there is no receptor that senses capsaicin and that it does not feel the spiciness of peppers, and it is thought that this evolution has been made as a seed spraying strategy.wildmammalianEtc. generally do not like the spiciness of capsaicin,mouseThere is also an experimental result that says that if you feed a small amount of capsaicin-containing food, you prefer the capsaicin-containing food.[12].


The kanji for "Peppers" is "Transmitted fromMustardHowever, historically, this "Tang" is vaguely "Foreign countriesIt is said to be a word that refers to.SimilarlyNanbanMustard(Nanbangarashi), abbreviatedNanbanThere is also a name.

"Hawk clawIs not a general term for chili peppers, but oneCultivarIs the name of[13].

KyusyuPart ofNaganoPeppers are sometimes called "pepper" in northern regions (""Yuzu pepper"Pepper" is also a pepper). In the sense of "outpatient"Nanban pepper,GoryeopepperAlso calledOkinawaThen "KoregusuIs called in the dialect.One theory is that in areas where trade with the continent (Tang dynasty) was abundant, the name "Togarashi", which sounds like "Tang dynasty", was avoided.Also, in other areas, "pepperIs sometimes called "Western pepper" for the sake of distinction.

In English, the product is called "red pepper" or "chili pepper", and the plant name is "Capsicum peppers".[14]..Pepper (Piperaceae)Pepper genusThe reason why it is called pepper even though it has nothing to do with) is that it is a spicy spice like pepper.[15].

One person in English, "Chile" (chili, chile, chilli, chille) is MexicanNahuatlName of chili pepper inchilliDerived from.Place name / country name on the west side of South America "チリ Etymology is different from "(Chile)"[16].


pepperthe same as,CuisineUsed to spicy.Also, stomach medicine, chilblainsfrostbiteIt is also used as a medicine for treatment and hair growth.fruitCan be eaten in green.Generally, the green onesGreen chili, Ripe red onesRed peppersIs called.There are also varieties of capsicum for viewing the fruits.



It may be eaten raw or used after it has dried.Chipotle pepperlikeSmokeIt may be used after that.

Soy sauce,vinegar,Edible oil,AwamoriWhen soaked in such as, it gives them a spicy taste, so it has a different flavor than usual.seasoningCan be.Take out the pickled peppers and chop them.saladIt can also be used for such purposes.

In the 1960s, about 7000 tons were produced and exported annually in Japan. On the contrary, in 2018, imports are the main products, and domestic production is about 1% of the import volume of 4000 tons.By municipality, "Tochigi Mitaka" is produced.TochigiOtawara CityDominates most of the year[17]..It is relatively recent that chili peppers have become popular in cooking.1980 eraAfter that, before it penetrated and "" occurred, it was used for condiments and fragrances.Chili pepperAnd Japan peculiarseven spice blendIs only used in small quantities and is commercially availablecurryHowever, there were only a few dry products.Even now, there are many elderly people who are not good at the spiciness of chili peppers.[Source required].

India,Thailand, South KoreaIn countries and regions where chili peppers are used on a daily basis, the tongue and gastrointestinal tract are made stronger against irritation by gradually acclimatizing to the spicy taste from a young age.On the other hand, if you do not have a habit of using it on a daily basis, it will be recognized as "pain" rather than pungent taste and will be avoided.From this, it can be said that the preference for pain as a taste is probably due to sociocultural conditioning.The reason why these countries actively consume chili peppers isメキシコ,West Africa,ChineseSichuan Province-Hunan ProvinceThere are many hot areas in summer, which promotes appetite and sweating.Losing the heatIs said to be to prevent.However,Taiwan,OkinawaWhile there are some areas that do not like peppers even though the hot season is long, South Korea,ブ ー タ タThere is also a food culture that especially likes peppers in areas that are not so hot (Korea is also strongly influenced by the continental climate and it gets hot in summer, but the hot season is not long).It can be seen that the taste of pepper is not just a climatic factor but a cultural factor.[Source required].


フィリピンIn Asian countries such as China and China, leaves (leaf peppers) are sometimes fried and eaten in the same way as green vegetables, or used as soup stock.Even in Japan, you can stir-fry leaf peppers and eat them.BoiledIt may be.

Nutritional value

Capsaicin has an appetite-promoting effect[18].

Vitamin AVitamin CBecause there are abundantSummer bateHighly effective in preventing[Source required], Especially used in hot areas.It also has an insecticidal effect and is sometimes used for food preservation,Salmonella,E. coliThere is no action to sterilize the causative bacteria of food poisoning such as[19],Food poisoningCannot be prevented.

It is an umami ingredientGlutamic acidIs also included a lot.[Source required]

Longer life

Harvard UniversityFaculty of Public HealthThe study found that people who ate pepper almost every day had a 14% lower risk of death.According to study author Lu Qi, some evidence from other studies is:CapsaicinBiologically active ingredients of peppers such as "bad"cholesterolTriglycerideDecreaseInflammationSuggests that it may improve[20].

Adverse effects

Countries that eat a lot of pepperGastric cancer,Esophageal cancerIs said to have a high carcinogenic rate.A link between overdose of peppers and carcinogenesis has been pointed out[21][22][23][24][25]But,International Cancer Research Institute Capsaicin alone is not recognized as a potentially carcinogenic substance by (IARC)CarcinogenicDoes not have.

High carcinogenic rates occur during the storage of peppersMoldProduceMold poisonIs believed to be the cause[26].

Use other than food

  • Basho-The crude drug name for pepper is called Bansho.Has a healthy stomach and sweating effect.Also warm as an external medicineCompressUsed for, etc.Topical capsaicin has no effect on dilating peripheral blood vessels[Needs verification]..The feeling of warmth is a pseudo-occurrence that occurs when capsaicin stimulates sensors such as pain sensation and high temperature.Put it in your shoes in cold climatesChilblainsAnd frostbite preventionFolk remediesThere is.
  • Togarashi tinki(Medicine)
  • Used as a means of self-defense against beasts and mobsCapsicum spray
  • It may be planted around the perimeter of the farmland to protect the crop from animal damage.boar,monkeyIn the feeding test, it is not that they do not eat red pepper, but their palatability is low.In particularGamblea innovansDislike[27].
  • GardeningThen other作物Plant withInsect damageIt is cultivated for the purpose of reducing.[Source required]
  • Rice bowlDried pepper is used to avoid insects inside.
  • Dried peppers are also used for indoor and outdoor decoration.

Traditional history

Currently widely used in countries around the world,AmericaOther than that, it is historically new, and details about its exact year of arrival and its transmission within Europe are unknown.Christopher Columbus 1493ToスペインI brought back my first pepper but forgot[Source required],BrazilRediscovered inPortugueseIt was propagated by and had a great influence on the food culture of each region.


現代 のChinese cuisineMakes heavy use of peppers, especiallyYangtze RiverIn the middle basinSichuan cuisine,Hunan cuisine,Hubei cuisine,Guizhou cuisine, Shaanxi Cuisine (Southern Shaanxi Province) is known for its spiciness[28]..However, there are many unclear points about the transmission of peppers. Three routes are speculated[29].

  1. From Central Asia by landSilk roadIn western China新疆ThroughXi'anI arrived at.
  2. By sea, it crossed the Pacific Ocean from its origin, Mexico, and reached the continent via the Philippines.
  3. Portuguese colonies by seaGoreBased in Southeast Asia, newly colonizedMacauAfter that, in southern ChinaGuangdong,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionI landed around.

Li Shizhen"Herbs(Completed in 1578), the peppers have not yet been seen, and in the literature, Takamaki (died in 1620)'s "Kusahanafu" and "Hachimoku" (published in 1591).[30], And the Qing dynastyHaozi Chen"Flower mirror(Published in 1688)[31]The one that can be seen under the name of "Bansho" is old.It seems that it was mainly for ornamental use in the early days[28]..It is even later that it was used in Sichuan cuisine.QianlongThe year (18th century) Lee Ka Kusunoki and Lee T'iao-yün's "Kakuenroku" is the oldest book on Sichuan cuisine, but peppers have not been used yet.KakeiThere is a record of cultivating peppers in Sichuan for the first time in a year.[28]..Therefore, it is thought that the food in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River became spicy in the early 19th century.


There are various theories about the introduction to Japan[32]..In the early days when it was introduced to Japan, it was not used for food, but was used as an ornamental, poisonous drug, or as a chilblain by putting it in the toes of tabi.[Source required].

Koseunotane Satoshibo Yori came.Eggplant Tanefuel hour and minute two planting Toaru, planted today.Eggplant species Nosama Nisho Kuhira Kiya, Eggplant skin Akaki bag ya.Among them, there are many nicknames.Red-skinned nokarasa liver disappeared.Koseuno taste Nitemo Muyuki, unrivaled spicy.
Hidetoshi Nagamibo, "Tamonin Diary"[33]
  • Agricultural scholar in the late Edo periodNobufuchi Sato(Nobuhiro)In "Kusagi Rokubu Cultivation Method" (1829), "The 蕃 褒 was originally generated from the East Seaside of Hakua (Brushria) in South America.astronomicalIn the 1542th year (XNUMX), the people of the wave cocoon (Portuguese) will bring it. ”With the seeds of pumpkin,“ The first mid-Western people to visit Bungo Province in the astronomical year ...[34]It is written.However, "Tenbun XNUMXth year" is"Tenbun 1552st Year" (XNUMX)[35] Of[Original research?]It is a clerical error.
  • Kaihara Ekiken"Recipe"[36]And "Yamato herb"[37]It is written that it came from Korea, saying, "It wasn't in Japan in the past, and when Hideyoshi cut down Korea, it was commonly called Koryo pepper because he fetched seeds from his country."This seems to contradict other theories that "it came to Korea from Japan", but when the peppers were first introduced to Japan, they spread only mainly in western Japan, and then.Hideyoshi ToyotomiThere is an interpretation that there was a Japanese who thought that he came to Japan from Korea because the peppers were reimported to Japan by the soldiers who were engaged in the Korean troop dispatch.[38][39].


In the 1614 "Shibamine Theory", "Nanbansho is very poisonous and started from Wakoku, so it is popular.PoppyIt's called (Korean mustard), but I've seen it planted these days. " Since showing the theory, it has become a popular theory in both Japan and South Korea.As a reason for transmissionKorean troop dispatchAt that time, soldiers from Japan (blinding and poisoning) or as a frostbite preventive drug due to blood flow enhancing action (Kiyomasa Kato) Brought in.

1460Suppose that there is a word "Jajangmyeon" in "Food Therapy Summary" published inGochujangThere are also Korean researchers who claim that there was already a Korean-specific chili pepper that is different from the Japanese chili pepper (Solanaceae is generally not a chili pepper (Solanaceae)).Zanthoxylum bungeanum(Indicates Rutaceae Sansho)[38]..However, in response to this theory, many of them appear in the 1670 cooking book "Food and Drink".KimchiNone of them used peppers, and there are some doubts about the use of peppers in Korean foods in the 19th century.[40].

Examples of seasoned foods using pepper

Use of peppers around the world


In the country of origin of peppers, there are many types that are cultivated, and they are used in various ways, such as raw, dried, and smoked.The famous one is "jalapeno pepper"Or"habañero pepperA variety called ".
On the Bolivian tableLokoto,Ahi AmarilloUsedYahweh (Lyahua)It is normal that the salsa (source) is placed.Urupika is also edible.
Ahi Amarillo is often used to season and color dishes such as salsa and papa a la huancaina.To locotoPhallusThere is also a dish packed with.
A condiment called Ahi is used to season dishes.With pepperLeek,TomatoFinely choppedsalt,LemonMake by mixing the juice.
The United States of America
It was former Mexican territorySouthwestern United StatesThen,Tex-Mex cuisinePeppers are often used in Mexican dishes.Inspired by West African cuisineLouisiana OfCreole food,Cajun cuisineThe same is true, redTabasco pepperMade from (a type of red pepper) and jalapenoTabascoThe sauce is a specialty of the state.Also,Chili con carneUsed for seasoningChili powderThe main ingredient of is medium spicy pepper.
Haitian foodIsCapsicum chinenseOne variety of peppers and bouks pickled with other vegetables is often used as a seasoning.


Italian foodOften used in (mainly Southern Italy).It is common to use crushed red pepper.Basicspaghetti(OrpastaGeneral) cooking method "Ario Orio PeperoncinoPeperoncino means pepper.Scented olive oil with peppers and various herbsPeperonciniThere is a herbal oil called[Source required].
Crushed red pepper家庭Often used in vegetable dishes.
RipepaprikaDried and powderedGoulashSuch asStewsUsed for.
Iberian Peninsula
Peppers-like powdered peppersausage(ChorizoEtc.) used for seasoning and stewed dishes.In Portugal, it is a kind of tabasco pepper and has a strong pungent taste.Piri PiriIs also used.
Basque Country
EspeletteThe variety is famous.


There are many kinds of Japanese peppers[41]Is.In the past, Japan was a major exporter of mustard, producing more than 50 types of pepper.[42]However, imports have increased since then.CookingpicklesIt is widely used as a condiment forJapanese buckwheat noodlesAt the shop front, Shichimi and Ichimi are placed on the table, and you can add them to your dishes according to your taste.Okinawa sobaToKoregusuIs indispensable.Consumption per capita is not very high.
Korean Peninsula
Kimchi,ChigeThere are many dishes that use peppers.Before the pepper was transmitted,Japanese pepperThe fruit was often used.The pepper used for kimchi is a large pepper with less spiciness peculiar to Korea, and has a slight sweetness.GochujangIs also used for seasoning.Also, when a boy is born, it is customary to put a pepper in a rope and put it up in the doorway.
Southwest ChinaIt is often used in.Sichuan cuisineIs a pepper and "Zanthoxylum bungeanumI often use a kind of Japanese pepper called ".Hunan cuisineIs a pepper and vinegar, characterized by a sour spiciness.It is the one that makes the taste of pepper particularly strong.GuizhouWith cooking雲南In cooking, especially in YunnanThaiEthnic minority dishes such as are characterized by the most spicy dishes.OtherMiao,YaoEtc. also use a lot of peppers.Cantonese cuisineAlthough they don't use much pepper, some people prefer pickled green pepper called "Noyama pepper".HangzhouThen.ShishitoUse "stakes" similar to the above for stir-fry like peppers.
タ イ 料理ToTom yam kung(Soup)Green curryThere are many spicy dishes that use a lot of peppers.Pepper (before the pepper is transmittedタイ 語(Called Prittai) was used. "Pricky Nou" is a small, very spicy variety that is usually used in blue.
ブ ー タ タ
The pepper itself is regarded as a major vegetable and is cooked and eaten.Therefore, it is the hottest dish in the world.Before the introduction of peppers, Japanese pepper fruits were used.
I used spicesCuisineHas a long history.Depending on the region, there are areas where a lot of peppers are used to produce spices and other areas where a lot of spices are used.Also, in general, there is a tendency to use more peppers in dishes that use meat rather than vegetables.Of pepperpickles() Is also made.Guinness BookWas certified as the hottest pepper in the worldGhost pepperIsAssamIt is native.
Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan foodIs often spicy with peppers, as is the case with Indian food.
トルコ ,アルメニア
Peppers-like powdered peppers are used in stewed dishes.


With peppercoriander(Actual),cuminCrushed with spices such asHarissaTheCouscousYou can add it as a seasoning to dishes such asOlive oilMix with and add to sliced ​​bread as an appetizer.
エチオピア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
A mixed seasoning made mainly from pepperWattUsed for seasoning such as.


  1. ^ a b c d Takahashi, Tamotsu "Historical consideration of the production and transmission of peppers mainly in Asia"Asia Development Studies (Bulletin of the International University of Japan)", International University, November 1994, 11.
  2. ^ Kobe, Tamotsu "Red pepper"Life Hygiene," Vol. 31, No. 2, 1987, p. 115, two:10.11468 / seikatsueisei1957.31.115, ISSN 1883 6631.
  3. ^ "Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale”. Homecooking.about.com. 2013/4/14Browse.
  4. ^ "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper sets new record for hottest chilli”. Guinness World Records (April 2013, 11). 2014/11/8Browse.
  5. ^ "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title" Retrieved 11 May 2013
  6. ^ Joshi, Monika (March 2012, 3). “Chile Pepper Institute studies what's hot”. Your life (USA Today). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 3.. https://www.webcitation.org/667FrVkGP?url=http://yourlife.usatoday.com/fitness-food/story/2012-03-11/Chile-Pepper-Institute-studies-whats-hot/53490214/1 
  7. ^ "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli" Retrieved 12 April 2011
  8. ^ “Title of world's hottest chili pepper stolen --again”. The Independent (London). (April 2011, 2). http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/title-of-worlds-hottest-chili-pepper-stolen--again-2225925.html 2011/2/27Browse. 
  9. ^ Henderson, Neil (February 2011, 2). “” Record-breaking ”chilli is hot news”. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12505344 2011/2/20Browse. 
  10. ^ Makoto Tominaga "Capsaicin receptor"BRAIN and NERVE-Advances in Neurological Research," Vol. 60, No. 5 (May 2008) pp. 5-493
  11. ^ Yusuke Ishida, Shingo Murakami "Pungency receptor VR1 is localized to the papilla of the tongue"Oral and Pharyngeal Department," 2002, Vol. 15, No. 1, p.127, two:10.14821 / stomatopharyngology1989.15.1_127
  12. ^ Eyes are ten 950th September 2008, 9[Broken link]Nippon TV
  13. ^ example: Pepper "Hawk's claw"Sakata Seeds(Retrieved September 2019, 11)
  14. ^ "CAPSICUM PEPPER" (English). NewCROP --the New Crop Resource Online ProgramPurdue University (December 1997, 12). As of April 6, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/7/19Browse.
  15. ^ "Pepper". Oxford English Dictionary (English). 7 N–Poy (1 Corrected re-issue ed.). Oxford, UK. 1913. P. 663.Retrieved January 2021, 7. (2b: Sometimes refers to plant names other than pepper .; 3: In combination with modifiers, refers to various pungent plants and pungent seasonings.)
  16. ^ "Chilli, chilly". Oxford English Dictionary (English). 2 C (1 Corrected re-issue ed.). Oxford, UK. 1933. P. 346.Retrieved January 2021, 7.
  17. ^ [Food Frontier] Japan's No. XNUMX Tochigi / Otawara / Leader Training Hot TownNikkei MJ] December 2019, 11 (food side)
  18. ^ "Increase appetite with spices and flavored vegetables (PDF)". Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Corporation Ebara Hospital. 2019/10/10Browse.
  19. ^ Toyomi Miyakawa, Kazuo Kawamura "Stunting effect of flavored vegetables against food poisoning bacteria"Wayo Women's UniversityBulletin of Home Economics ”(29), p13-19, 1989-03 / The journal of Wayo Women's University 29, 13-19, 1989-03-31,ISSN 0916 0035
  20. ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. “Spicy foods associated with longer life, Harvard researchers find". Harvard Health. 2020/11/13Browse.
  21. ^ Shinjuku Health School News October Issue "Dysgeusia" [Health Index] FINE-club ~ Healthy and healthy living information
  22. ^ Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK (2000). “Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India”. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 9 (2): 89–97. two:10.1097 / 00008469-200004000-00004. PMID 10830575. 
  23. ^ López-Carrillo L, López-Cervantes M, Robles-Díaz G, et al (2003). “Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori positivity and gastric cancer in Mexico”. Int. J. Cancer 106 (2): 277–82. two:10.1002 / ijc.11195. PMID 12800206. 
  24. ^ Archer VE, Jones DW (2002). “Capsaicin pepper, cancer and ethnicity”. Med. Hypotheses 59 (4): 450–7. two:10.1016 / S0306-9877 (02) 00152-4. PMID 12208187. 
  25. ^ López-Carrillo L, Hernández Avila M, Dubrow R (1994). “Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study”. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139 (3): 263–71. PMID 8116601. 
  26. ^ Yoshikazu Horie et al.About mold that contaminates spices"Food Hygiene Magazine," 1971, Vol. 12, No. 6, p.516-519, two:10.3358 / shokueishi.12.516
  27. ^ "Contents of damage prevention measures (PDF)". Ministry of Agriculture. 2019/10/10Browse.
  28. ^ a b c Xuande Era, Xuande Era Revelation: Ming Dynasty Pioneer Misu, Lianzhu Publishing, 2013, pp. 160-161.ISBN 9789570842838.
  29. ^ "Road of Ra: A Trip of 2500 Kilometers of Peppers"(平凡 社), ISBN 9784582836431
  30. ^ "Shinsei Hachimoku" Volume 16・ Bansho "Crowding white flowers, first child baldness, pungent color red, sardine. Child species."
  31. ^ Haozi Chen "Secret flower mirror』Volume 5, Bansho, Hiraga Gennai proofreading, 1829.
  32. ^ Hitomi Enokido "Edo period chili peppers: Acceptance of food service ingredients in Japanese food culture (PDF) "International Japanese Studies", Volume 7, Hosei University Graduate School of International Japanese Studies Institute, March 2010, 3, pp. 18-6.
  33. ^ Shinichi Suzuki "Tabemono no Akira" (Heibonsha, 1986) p.70
  34. ^ Kusaki Rokubu Cultivation Manuscript
    • Sato, Nobuhiro (nd) [1829]. "Chilli". Plant six-part cultivation method. 17 (Manuscript (time unknown) ed.). Pp. 9th volume 28 images left page / 62 sheets in total.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
      • "Pumpkin"(9th volume, 19 images, right page / 62 images in total)
    • Sato, Nobuhiro (nd) [1829]. "Chilli". Plant six-part cultivation method. 17 (Manuscript (time unknown) ed.). Pp. 5th volume 90 images left page / 123 sheets in total.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
      • "Pumpkin"(5th volume, 81 images, right page / 123 images in total)
  35. ^ There is no record of visiting Tanegashima or Bungo Province in 11.Otomo Yoshinori is his father's book(Yoshiaki)It was in Tenbun 19 (1550) that he succeeded the landlord after his death, and he was a missionary.(Norwegian versionA group of priests on behalf of Xavier in ChinaShangchuan IslandThere is a record that it was the 21st year of Astronomy (1552) that went to Bungo via Tanegashima from (Shangchuan, an island near Cantonese) (XNUMX).Missionary Retsuden to JapanTherefore, the 11th year of Astronomy is an error of 21 years.
  36. ^ Inside Nakamura Gakuen "Kaibara Ekken Archive""Kaibara Ekken KAF, Nafu" Than"Recipe first volume (PDF)”. Nakamura Gakuen University. 2021/6/17Browse."Pepper" PDF38 / 38
  37. ^ Inside Nakamura Gakuen "Kaibara Ekken Archive""Yamato Honso Table of Contents" Than"Oyamoto Kusamaki No. XNUMX Kusanoichi (PDF)”. Nakamura Gakuen University. 2021/6/17Browse.PDF15 / 40
  38. ^ a b June 2009, 2JoongAng Daily News"Peppers, also in the early Joseon Dynasty'[Broken link]
  39. ^ Toshio Asakura"World Food Culture 1 Korea"ISBN 4540050095
  40. ^ February 2009, 2 "JoongAng Ilbo"[Fountain] Kimchi Mystery[Broken link]
  41. ^ Botanical picture book Pepper[Broken link]
  42. ^ Pepper production area and import volumeGlico(Retrieved September 2019, 11)

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