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🏥 | Survive with food!The University of Tokyo exam meal! [Part XNUMX] Essential nutrients for the brain, asked by Professor of the University of Tokyo


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Survive with food!The University of Tokyo exam meal! [Part XNUMX] Essential nutrients for the brain, asked by Professor of the University of Tokyo

 
If you write the contents roughly
Glucose is indispensable as an energy source because lack of this will lead to deterioration of concentration and memory.
 

It is no exaggeration to say that memory and concentration are essential for taking the exam.Are there any nutrients that enhance these brain functions ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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glucose

glucose(British: glucose) Is the molecular formula C6H12O6Simple withsugar.Glucose(Grape,(Also called glucose).Glucoseblood sugarIt circulates in the blood of animals.Sugar is contained in plants, etc.chloroplastFrom water and carbon dioxide using energy from sunlightphotosynthesisMade byGlucoseCellular respiration(English editionIs the most important source of energy for.In plantsStarch, In animalsglycogenlikepolymerStored as.

Glucose contains 6 carbon atomsMonosaccharideIs a subdivision ofHexoseare categorized.D-16 types of glucoseAldo hexoseStereoisomerone of.DIsomerIsD-GlucoseDextroseAlso called (dextrose), it is widespread in nature,L-Type isomerL-glucoseIs not.Glucoselactose,Sucrose,maltose,cellulose, Glycogen, etc. can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates.Glucose is usuallyCornstarchCommercially manufactured from[2].

GlucoseWorld Health Organization Essential Medicine Model ListIn[3].. The name Glucose means sweetGreekγλυκός (glukós) comes from French[4][5]..The suffix "-ose" iscarbohydrateIt is a chemical classification that indicates.

History of discovery

GlucoseGerman EmpireChemist,(English editionBy 1747 dried grapes (Raisins) For the first time[6][7]..Since glucose is a basic necessity of many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical composition and structure isorganic chemistryContributed significantly to the general progress of.Most of this understanding is the chemist of the German EmpireEmil FischerIt is the result of the research of.Fisher researches sugar1902 OfNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded[8].

The synthesis of glucose establishes the structure of organic matter, and as a resultJacobus Henrics Fant HoffThe theory of chemical kinetics and the theory of the arrangement of chemical bonds in carbon-containing molecules provided the first definitive verification.[9].. From 1891 to 1894, Fisher was able to prove the stereochemical arrangement of all known sugars and apply Van't Hoff's theory of asymmetric carbon atoms.IsomerWas accurately predicted.

Location / manufacturing method

Glucosefruit-honey-body fluidinsideLiberationExists.IndustriallyStarchTheHydrolysisGenerate by doing.

Physical property

White powder at normal temperature and pressurecrystal..Easy to dissolve in water.It has a sweet taste.

chemical property

A type of monosaccharide,Hexose(Hexose) andAldoseAldohexose is classified as.Optical activityIt is the D form that is a substance and exists in large quantities in nature.

GlcIn addition,GermanTraubenzucker (Trauben Tucker: Trauben Grape, Zucker sugar)TzAlso abbreviated.There are theories that the name of glucose is derived from "because it was contained in a large amount in the juice of ripe grapes" and "because the shape of the chemical formula resembled a bunch of grapes".

Glucose is as followsoligosaccharide,PolysaccharideIt is a constituent unit of.A general term for polysaccharides whose constituent unit is glucoseGlucanCalled.

Main derivatives

  • Quinovose(6-Deoxyglucose) Glycoside of kina bark
  • (3,6-deoxyglucose) Salmonella lipopolysaccharide

Alcohol fermentation

GlucoseZymaseと 呼 ば れ る酵素Depending on the groupethanolcarbon dioxideIt is decomposed into.This reactionAlcohol fermentationThat.

Reducibility

A small part of glucose has a chain structure in an aqueous solution.At the end of this structureAldehyde groupBecause of the presence of glucose aqueous solutionreductionShow sex.Monosaccharides with aldehyde groups in aqueous solution are called aldoses.

Chemical structure

Aqueous solutionAmong them, the following three types of structures exist in a certain ratiobalanceIt is in a state.

Glucose equilibrium

When equilibrium is reached in water, glucose is almost α-glucose (α-Pyranose, 38%, left in the above figure) and β-glucose (β-pyranose, 62%, right in the above figure).Anomer effectSee), otherIsomer(Furanose, Chain-like body <center in the above figure>) is less than 1% in total[10].

α-Pyranose and β-PyranoseRecrystallizationBy properly selecting the solvent and conditions of, each pure crystal can be made separately.In the process of transitioning to an equilibrium state when the pure crystal is dissolved in waterOptical rotationChanges can be seen.This phenomenonMutarotationCalled.

Role in the body

Ingested from the dietcarbohydrate TheSmall intestineIs decomposed into glucose, and a large amount of glucose is absorbed into the body by the sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins SGLT-1 and SGLT-2.

Glucose is absorbed from the small intestine and then used as a major energy source in the body, especiallybrainIt is used as a normal energy source in Japan.

Glucose moleculepolarityTo haveCell membraneSpecial to pass throughMembrane transport proteinNeed.

Glucose細胞As soon as it is taken inPhosphorylationHappened,Glucose-6-phosphateIs generated.This phosphorylation is to prevent glucose from diffusing out of the cell.Glucose-6-phosphate cannot easily cross cell membranes because charge is introduced by phosphorylation.Phosphorylated glucose enters metabolic pathways such as glycolysis.

Glucose in the body is important as an energy source, but high concentration glucose is harmful to the body.InsulinDue to its concentration (blood sugar) Is always kept within a certain range.

A large amount of glucose is absorbed into the body after eating, but if insulin in the body does not function sufficiently, blood sugar cannot be controlled and pathological symptoms appear.

Glucose is thatAldehyde groupFrom the high reactivity ofproteinAction to modify (Saccharification reaction,Maillard reaction(See), and glucose modification occurs primarily for extracellular proteins.Glucose that enters the cell is immediately metabolized by glycolysis.When the body is exposed to high concentrations of glucose due to the inability to control blood glucose by insulin, glucose toxicity occurs due to protein modification, and if this continues for a long timeDiabetic complicationsCaused by microangiopathyDiabetic neuropathy,Diabetic retinopathy,Diabetic nephropathyTo develop[11][12].

Medical use

Glucose injections of various concentrations (5%, 20%, 50%, etc.) are manufactured and sold by multiple pharmaceutical companies as pharmaceuticals.Japanese PharmacopoeiaIt is also described in, and is often dispensed as a "public product" rather than as a brand.In the medical field, it is often called "5-pro sugar" or "Zucker" (derived from the German word "Zucker sugar").

Diabetes mellitusOral ingestion of carried glucose granules is often performed when hypoglycemia occurs due to overdose of a therapeutic drug.SucroseHowever, since the glucose concentration in the blood does not rise rapidly, it is preferable to take glucose.

The glucose concentration (blood glucose level) in the blood shows a fasting blood glucose level of about 80-100 mg / dL in the case of a healthy human, and a slightly higher value after a meal.About abnormal blood sugar levelDiabetes mellitus,Impaired glucose toleranceSee.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Tadashi Okuyama "Organic Compound Nomenclature"
  2. ^ "glucose." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed .. 2015. Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2015 http://www.encyclopedia.com.
  3. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines". World Health Organization (June 2013). NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ Thénard, Gay-Lussac, Biot, and Dumas (1838) "Rapport sur un mémoire de M. Péligiot, intitulé: Recherches sur la nature et les pro priétés chimiques des sucres" (Report on a memoir of Mr. Péligiot, titled: Investigations on the nature and chemical properties of sugars), Comptes rendus, 7 : 106-113. From page 109: "Il résulte des comparaisons faites par M. Péligot, que le sucre de raisin, celui d'amidon, celui de diabètes et celui de miel ont parfaitement la même composition et les mêmes pro priétés, et constituent un seul corps que nous proposs glucose (1).… (1) γλευχος, moût, vin doux. " It follows from the comparisons made by Mr. Péligot, that the sugar from grapes, that from starch, that from diabetes and that from honey have exactly the same composition and the same properties, and deflecting a single substance that we propose to call glucose (1)… (1) γλευχος, must, sweet wine.
  6. ^ (English) Encyclopedia of Food and Health. Academic Press. (2015). P. 239. ISBN 9780123849533. https://books.google.com/books?id=O-t9BAAAQBAJ&pg=RA2-PA239 
  7. ^ Marggraf (1747) "Experiences chimiques faites dans le dessein de tirer un veritable sucre de diverses plantes, qui croissent dans nos contrées" [Chemical experiments made with the intention of extracting real sugar from diverse plants that grow in our lands], Histoire de l'aca démie royale des sciences et belles-lettres de Berlin, pages 79–90. From page 90: "Les raisins secs, etant humectés d'une petite quantité d'eau, de maniere qu'ils mollissent, peuvent alors etre pilés, & le suc qu'on en exprime, etant de puré & épaissi, fournira une espece de Sucre." (Raisins, being moistened with a small quantity of water, in a way that they soften, can be then pressed, and the juice that is squeezed out, [after] being purified and thickened, will provide a sort of sugar.)
  8. ^ Emil fischer, Nobel Foundation, http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1902/fischer-bio.html NovemberBrowse. 
  9. ^ Fraser-Reid, Bert, “van't Hoff's Glucose”, Chem. Eng. News 77 (39): 8 
  10. ^ Pyranose is a six-membered ring, furanose is a five-membered ringHemiacetalIs
  11. ^ High Blood Glucose and Diabetes Complications: The buildup of molecules known as AGEs may be the key link, American Diabetes Association, (2010), ISSN 0095-8301 , http://forecast.diabetes.org/magazine/features/high-blood-glucose-and-diabetes-complications 
  12. ^ http://www.mnc.toho-u.ac.jp/v-lab/aging/doc3/doc3-03-5.html Age-related changes in biomolecules 05-Why do abnormal proteins increase?

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